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In the first place, Western medicine gies are meaningful. Egypt and Algeria The Arab refugee problem is infinitely and hygiene eliminated the plague and are engaged in revolutions to implement complex and that complexity has been many endemic diseases prevalent in the their version of Arab socialism. Iraq compounded by the bitterness it generregion. The result was a sharp reduc- seems to have chosen the Arab Socialist ates. Dr. Chaim Weizmann, a scientific tion in the death rate while the birth way.
and political genius, won from Britain rate remained at its previous high level Our present thinking is that Egypt is a crucial promise which eventually creatwhich lead to a rapid increase in the the fulcrum on which Arab behavior can ed Israel: the 1917 Balfour Declaration population.
be bent. In varying degrees, the Arab pledging Britain to support a “national This vast growth took place unaccom- countries, from Morocco on the Mediter- home for the Jewish people” in Palestine. panied by either massive industrializa- ranean to Iraq on the Persian Gulf, look Britain did this to secure their strategic tion or a commensurate extension of the to Cairo for their cue, if not their diplo- toehold in the Middle East and in graticultivated areas. This subsequently led matic orientation. The Egyptian omni- tude to Dr. Weizmann's scientific conto great pressure on the land and, in presence is fortified by the image of tribution to its munitions industry, his recent years, to an exodus to the cities. Nasser, which radiates a charismatic discovery of synthetic acetone. Until The social consequences were two: the quality among the faceless Arab masses. that time, Palestine had been part of the landless peasant and a large underem- An active and effective propaganda ap- Ottoman Empire. ployed urban working class.
paratus in Cairo has parlayed this image In order to win Arab support against Insurgence of a landless peasantry into a potent force which must be reck- the Turks, Britain promised the Arabs brought economic consequences which oned with by the regimes in the Arab independence. The effect of these conwere beneficial in that it promoted a world.
flicting pledges was to antagonize Jews changeover from subsistence to a Like him or not—and Nasser has not and Arabs alike. From 1920 to 1948 the market-oriented cash-crop agriculture. been a popular figure among serious Palestine Arabs rose in bloody revolts However, the accompanying social con- practitoners of Middle East diplomacy
practitoners of Middle East diplomacy against Zionist settlers and the British sequence—dissolution of the village com- he is a key factor in the achievement of mandate. Finally, Britain in 1947 tossed munity, without which no progress could U.S. objectives in the region—peace, sta- the problem to the United Nations which have taken place-eliminated the secu- bility, economic development, and the voted
voted to partition Palestine between rity formerly enjoyed by all peasants. absence of Communist penetration. And Arabs and Jews. The Arabs rejected
The discovery of the West and the con- by working with the Egyptian leader we partition. During the fighting which sequent cultural transformation of Arab have been able to obtain a modicum of followed, Arabs who had lived in this tersociety had a revitalizing effect. Its positive results for the United States in
Its positive results for the United States in ritory or in other parts of what is now overall consequence was to bring into the Middle East.
Israel fled into Arab countries. The being a new class. Whereas old intellec- The arguments for continuation of the Israelis beat off the Arabs and even extuals were loyal to basic values and in- emphasis on Egypt have become less per
tended their borders thereby gaining constitutions of their society, the new ones suasive. With respect to U.S. objectives trol of 80 percent of Palestine. Most of did not owe it allegiance. Political strife in the region, there are few signs of real the refugees still live in camps outside was added to social discontent and a stir- progress. Peace is precarious; instabil- Israel's borders. ring up of the masses. Increased par- ity remains a condition of political life; Nasser says, "Innocent Palestinians ticipation of the masses meant new lead- economic development has not kept pace have been made to pay for Britain's ers took command-representing neither with economic need; and the danger of devious policies and Hitler's crimes.” the upper- nor middle-class values but Communist penetration is no less acute. The Arab League demands repatriaradical ideologies.
The major obstacle to progress has been, tion. Until the 1920's or 1930's the dominant and remains a fixed focus on the United
Israel decries their return because of ideas were moderate nationalism, con- Arab Republic, rather than on the entire the security problem, steadfastly refusstitutionalism, and political and eco- region.
ing their return because they do not nomic liberalism; mainly because these
In earlier statements I have discussed want to become another Cyprus with two were the dominant ideologies of the lead- several major problems which compli- hostile people under one roof. ing powers-Britain, France, and the cate the Near East picture. These in
In addition, to accept back large numUnited States. Also, Arab cultural con- clude the arms race, water use and diver- bers of Palestinian Arabs—who would tacts were restricted to these three sion, and refugees.
return believing that their old way of countries.
While Arab nationalism antedates
life was given back to them—would During the 1930's and 1940's, however, communism in the Middle East, Russia cause insoluble problems because they Arab society passed through their acute has been having considerable success
would find themselves in a modern state crises caused by a drastic fall in agri- undermining Arab moderates, inflaming with a highly competitive economy. culture prices during the depression, Arab grievances, egging on Arab extrem
Mr. Speaker, I propose that the refu. growth of unemployment, and changing ists, and arming Arab revolutionary
arming Arab revolutionary gee issue be negotiated as a humaniworld climates marked by the emergence regimes.
tarian matter, separated from other outof the Soviet Union and China as major
While Nasser dismisses American aid standing Arab-Israeli differences. A powers, and with the rapid growth of to his country—about a billion dollars in real effort to help the refugees would
imthe “developing” nations with beliefs in technical and economic assistance since prove Israel's image. Both sides must Socialist planning and a one-party dic- the end of World War II-as "wheat, cease being totally negative. Israel hertatorship. The result was the collapse meat, and leftovers," U.S. contributions self has collected substantial reparation of the fragile Arab parliamentary syshave, in fact, released Egyptian funds
for German injuries to Jewish people tems and replacement of landowner and for direct military expenditures.
and should take a stronger initiative to middle-class elite by one of army officers, bureaucrats, and technicians. And now, Egypt with about $65 million a year in
Since 1956 Russia has been providing receive and settle just claims of Arab
refugees. as in other underdeveloped countries, an attempt is being made to reconstruct has provided hard training for Egyptian modern arms.
In order to provide the refugees with
The Yemen campaign food and welfare assistance and with their society on the twin bases of intense troops if and when Nasser decides to work projects designed to promote their nationalism and socialism,
of deploy them elsewhere. This ideological shift has not been uni
Near East, the United Nations Relief and
We have, repeatedly, since the Tripar- Works Agency was created in 1949. The versal. Lebanon is still committed to a
tite Declaration of 1950, pledged to see Arab governments have rejected the parliamentary democracy and an eco
to it that the borders of all states in the projects for “political reasons.” nomic liberalism. Morocco, Syria, and Tunisia are struggling to find their way. Near East are preserved intact. The
We must now aim at “phasing out this In all four of these countries, a native cost and danger of such an operation program” by resettlement of the refumiddle class had time to develop and by the United States is directly propor- gees and by providing work opportunities they are not inclined to give up their tional to the size and sophistication of for them through the establishment of an power without a struggle. Several Arab Egypt's arsenal. Cost and danger to us international committee, with the United countries have not yet reached the stage will rise as Egypt grows militarily Nations supervising the gradual transwhere either liberal or Socialist ideolo- stronger, and more adventurous.
fer of the United Nations Relief and
Works Agency's activities to the Arab International Symposium on Water De- their part toward a peaceful solution of governments.
salinization will be held in Washington such outstanding problems as the PalesThen there is the water controversy. from October 3 to 9, 1965.
tine refugees and the allocation of the Water sparks the latest venomous Mr. Speaker, I propose that we pro
waters of the Jordan River, I am certain dispute between Arabs and Israelis. ceed in our investigation and implemen- that there would be a very serious reFor the first time since the Suez crisis 9 tation of the use of large nuclear reactors appraisal of their policies. years ago, Israel and Arab States are on for producing energy for sea water dis- As a result of such a policy, we would a direct collision course. This time the tillation, using Israel as a model project. be making it clear--absolutely and unimmediate issue is not land but water: The United Nations has an oppor
mistakably clear that the Arab policy the lifeblood of the Middle East.
tunity here to work for a regional water of intransigence toward Israel is and Israel is already tapping its supply to planning system for this area for which will continue to be immensely costly to the limit and new sources of water are the United Nations should assume defi- them in political, economic, and even essential for its prosperity and future nite responsibility.
military terms. I would hope, of course, growth. The Arab plan is to shut off the Indeed, this pilot project may have a
that we would at the same time offer a taps on Israel, cutting off much Jordan twofold purpose. Aside from exploring
Aside from exploring rational and far-sighted alternative. For River water by diverting three tributar- the possibilities of a technical break
example, a commitment to use our vast ies which now flow into Jordan from through with respect to the nuclear po
technological resources and skills in proneighboring Arab countries. This tential for desalinization of water, might grams of economic development which scheme will cost Israel an estimated 61 it not also provide the basis for explor
would help to bring about the kind of million gallons of water yearly. The ing the potential for a regional approach material progress the Middle Eastern Arabs know that Israel is willing to fight to the other basic issues dividing Israel peoples want. rather than lose the source of its life- and the Arab countries?
It is not hard to imagine the improveblood. At the moment both Syria and It is clear that an easy prognosis for
ments such a program could accomplish. Lebanon have suspended work on the di- the ills of the Near East is among the
One need only look at the example of version project, but that could resume most illusive of diplomatic goals.
most illusive of diplomatic goals. But Israel in order to witness what a wholeat any time. If they do, it is estimated that region, as much as any in the world, within 2 years, most of the Jordan's demands therapy
demands therapy of an imaginative achieve. It is, consequently, not difficult water could be shut off from Israel. brand. A U.S. diplomacy directed more
to understand the immense benefits Both sides affect the use of the River at a regional solution to these problems,
at a regional solution to these problems, which could accrue to a Middle East at Jordan which alternately flows through conceived with imagination, and prose
peace. The industries and businesses of both Israel and Jordan. The Jordan cuted without rigidity, may be equal to
cuted without rigidity, may be equal to the whole region would be able to take River begins in northern Israel and runs the challenge.
advantage of the economies of scale, south through the Sea of Galilee where
Mr. FARBSTEIN. Mr. Speaker, in
Mr. Speaker, in there would be a more intelligent and Christ performed the miracle of the
this, fourth of these weekly meetings, it rational allocation of resources, and the loaves and fishes, and continues south in
is most appropriate that we discuss the natural complementaries which exist Jordan to the salt-killed Dead Sea. Is
future of economic cooperation and de- would be allowed to develop. rael is pumping fresh water from the Sea velopment in the Middle East. If this
Of course, this bright picture is predof Galilee and sending it miles south in a region is to ever have the kind of pros- icated upon the creation of a permahuge ditch to irrigate the Neger Desert. perity and standard of living that I am nent and
just peace. It is my firm conJordan claiming this deprives its fields
sure all of its residents would like to viction that the United States, by the to the south retaliates with a canal see, some effort must be made to plan judicious use of its influence among the which this year will divert the Yarmuk for the future.
Arab States, could do much more to help River which rises in Jordan. As of now
I think that we can all agree that be- bring it about. Clearly our past policies the Yarmuk feeds the Jordan below fore any extensive regional development have accomplished little, if anything. Galilee and is an important irrigation program can be discussed or even pro- Now that the Middle East appears to be source for Israel. Moreover, Syria and posed, however, there must be peace. I
embarked upon a new escalation of arms, Lebanon threaten to divert streams ris
also firmly believe that the United States now that the problem of the diversion ing there which feed the head of the Jordan. This would slash the flow to Is- condition than any other country.
can do more to help bring about this pre- by the Arabs of the Jordan River waters
But, approaches the crisis point, and now that rael's fields. Both Israel and the Arabs
in order to do so, we must be more will- Colonel Nasser of Egypt has learned are ready to fight over the issue.
ing to use the influence which we have something of the tremendous cost to his Whichever side attacks first, war than has been the case in the past.
domestic program of development that means a major world crisis endangering
For some years now, we have been a foreign misadventure brings, the presthe Suez Canal and the West's vital supplying surplus food to many of the ent appears to be not only a propitious supply of Arab oil.
Arab States, as well as Israel. For some but also a necessary time for the United Massive nuclear-powered plants could possibly desalinate sea water_cheaply nomic and technical aid to some of the in the Middle East.
years now, we have been supplying eco- States to undertake a new effort at peace enough to meet Israel's needs. President Arab States, as well as Israel. And, for
If we once again hesitate, and permit Johnson has proposed a United States- some years now, we have provided mil- events in this volatile region to proceed Israel partnership “in using nuclear en- itary aid to some of the Arab States, as without any attempt to persuade the ergy to turn salt water into fresh water,” well as Israel. What has the result Arab leaders to follow both a policy because Israel is presently utilizing more been? We have not helped to bring which is both economically and politthan 80 percent of her total water supply, about any new attempt at establishing ically more constructive and farsighted, and in 5 years no additional sources will a more permanent peace between the we may find ourselves forced to interbe available.
Arabs and Israelis. Rather, we have vene more conclusively and expensively The President has invited other na- helped to perpetuate the division be- at a later date. This would be both tions to join the partnership. Most of tween them, for by feeding, aiding, and tragic and unnecessary; if we devote our these countries have a common prob- arming both sides, we have never forced energies to the problem now, I feel cerlema lack of sufficient funds to carry either one to undertake a serious re- tain that such an unpopular and even out these projects. Saudi Arabia be- assessment of its policies and position. potentially dangerous path will never because of her vast oil reserves is a notable This is extremely unfortunate, for this come necessary. exception. is precisely what is needed.
Mr. RYAN. Mr. Speaker, I wish to The Office of Saline Water of the U.S. For example, if we were to make it congratulate my honored and distinDepartment of Interior has been working clear to the Arab States that we will no guished colleague on his excellent presclosely with the Atomic Energy Com- longer provide any economic, technical, entation today and commend him for mission in developing a joint program. or military aid until such campaigns as this series of special orders which he In an effort to assist other nations in are at present going on in Yemen and has sponsored. He has provided a valuapplying nuclear energy to desalting, we Iraq cease, until they are 'villing to rec- able public service in making available have been cooperating with the Interna- ognize the existence of the State of Israel, to the members of the House helpful intional Atomic Energy Agency. The First and until they are willing to contribute formation and constructive ideas on the problems of the Near East. I have been tween 9 and 10 percent of its GNP on na- area.
area. For, without such a peace, we will honored to join with the gentleman in tional defense. In a recent year Egypt continue to see millions of dollars, the each of these discussions.
spent 8.6 percent, Syria 12.7 percent, talents and energies of millions of peoIn my remarks during the past 4 Iraq 8.6 percent, Jordan 22.8 percent, and ple, and the prospect of a more prosperweeks, I have stressed the need for a Israel 8.2 percent of GNP on defense- ous future for these same millions, compeaceful solution to the pressing water wholly unreasonable rates of expendi- pletely wasted. problems of the Near East, along the ture.
We have seen, in other areas of the lines of a coordinated water policy. Just If Middle Eastern countries reduced world, and particularly in our own United as I have advocated Federal water plan- defense commitments, much of the
much of the States, that the logic of economics is ning for the United States in my bill, wealth of the area could be put to im- often sufficient to overcome more paroH.R. 10244, to establish a Federal Water proving the lives of the people. For in- chial and shortsighted political interCommission, so have I pointed out the stance, natural resources could be devel- ests. I do not think that it is unusually advantages of coordinated regional water oped so as to supply industry and fur- utopian to imagine that the same may be planning in the Near East. Such plan- nish items for export. Until now, the true of the Middle East. There is no ning would be a help to all the nations Middle East has concentrated largely on doubt in anyone's mind that peace is the of that area, and would help make water developing only one mineral resource to essential prerequisite for the future dea unifying force, rather than a divisive its fullest extent-oil. But the area con- velopment of the Middle East. Yet, at one.
tains deposits of phosphate, manganese, the same time, I think it essential to I have also commented upon methods iron, gypsum, and coal which could be stress the tremendous economic gains of solution of the Arab refugee problem, developed to a much greater extent than which the Arab countries as well as stressing that these refugees can be a they have been. Through irrigation and Israel have made in the past two decades. vital force toward economic develop- long-range planning, the agricultural A review of this progress demonstrates ment. I have deplored the Arab arms output of the area-particularly grains, more than anything else how much could race, and urged our representatives in vegetables and fruits—could be greatly be accomplished if the tremendous dithe United Nations to aid in putting a expanded. Full development of water version of funds and energies into the stop to this tragic waste of the national resources would be a boon to both indus- various aspects of the Arab-Israeli disresources of the Near Eastern nations. try and agriculture.
pute were channeled into more construcI know that the gentleman from Cali- The United States through its foreign tive undertakings. fornia [Mr. ROOSEVELT], who will soon aid program has a powerful device which It is precisely here that the United be serving at the United Nations, will could be used to persuade the countries States can be of greater assistance in exert every effort in this direction. of the Middle East to yield in the arms establishing the bases of a permanent
Mr. Speaker, the problems of the Near race and devote their considerable ef- peace. We can, for example, make it abEast are not local or regional, but affect forts to more constructive ends.
solutely clear that we will not tolerate the future peace and development of all Between 1945 and 1964 the United any attempt to change the borders of the world. We must aid in their solution, States provided Egypt with $888.9 mil- any state in the Middle East by force; not merely in the spirit of a great lion in economic assistance, Syria with we should do this strongly enough to humanitarian Nation, but also because $81.4 million, Iraq with $42.5 million, convince any doubters among the Arab an Arab-Israeli conflict will ultimately Jordan with $429.6 million, and Israel leadership that a war against Israel is affect us as well. Our goal must al- with
with $771 million, Without playing futile. If we make our position forceways be the peaceful economic develop- favorites, the United States in the future fully enough, and clearly demonstrate ment of the area—and our means of at- could make assistance contingent upon our commitment to Israel, there is an taining that goal must always be those of the countries' willingness to slacken arms excellent chance that the arms race may peace.
development and step up economic devel- cease, for no matter how much is deMr. REUSS. Mr. Speaker, I want to opment in cooperation with the other voted to military equipment, none of compliment the gentleman from Cali- countries in the area.
these countries can ever hope to match fornia [Mr. ROOSEVELT] for his excellent We should also consider joining with the United States. speeches over the past several weeks on other nations to help the Middle East in The next step is also clear. We can the problems of the Middle East. By a coordinated large-scale economic de- offer our assistance and support in inanalyzing the problems in such depth, velopment program, similar to the one telligently conceived efforts to develop he has done a great service to all of us which President Johnson has proposed the economy of the Middle East at an who are concerned about the situation for southeast Asia.
ever faster rate. There are many areas there and want to see stability brought Mr. HORTON. Mr. Speaker, I am in which the technology and skills of the to that section of the world.
pleased to join with my distinguished col- United States could be fruitfully used The race between the Arab States, on league, the gentleman from California in order to create the economic condithe one hand, and Israel, on the other, [Mr. ROOSEVELT] in this fourth and final tions which would make any peace in to equip themselves with superior mili- discussion of the problems confronting this area more permanent and effective. tary capability has had the two-pronged the Middle East.
Once the futility of any attempt to settle disadvantage of increasing instability The discussions of the past 4 weeks the problems of the Middle East by force and depriving the countries of needed in- on various aspects of the Middle East is seen, it will be possible to allocate more vestments to develop natural resources have made it abundantly clear that the time and increased funds toward finding and industry. Unless there is a reversal Arabs have really gained nothing as a a solution to the many other economic in this practice, the eventual result could result of their 18 years of enmity directed and social problems which still remain. be a full-scale war. The likely addition at the Israelis.
With the assistance of the United States, of nuclear armaments to this equation During the first weeks of our discus- and a conscientious desire to tackle their would magnify many times over the con- sions, we treated the tremendous expen- own domestic issues, the countries of the sequences of such a confrontation.
ditures for arms and military equipment. Middle East would be able to take their Therefore, in view of its responsibili- During the second week, we talked about rightful place as peaceful, prosperous, ties to itself and to the rest of the world, the problem of the Jordan River, and the and constructive members of the world the United States has no alternative but waste of water and money which the in- community. to do all it can to persuade the Arab ability of the Arabs to come to a regional Mr. HALPERN. Mr. Speaker, again I States and Israel to check the arms race agreement has caused. And, in our third wish to commend my friend, the able and and work together for a better future. week, we discussed the waste of talent distinguished gentleman from California
As an indication of the size of the mili- and energies which the Arab refusal to for presenting to this House his forthtary burden carried by the Middle East- help solve the problem of the Palestine right and thought-provoking observaern States, it is useful to compare their refugees has brought about.
tions on the problems which beset the expenditures for defense as a percent- These 3 weeks have amply demon- Middle East. I have joined the gentleage of their gross national product to strated that if we are to see any change man in his previous special orders on this that of the United States. The United for the better in the Middle East, there subject to express my own views on this States, with all of its global commit- will have to be a concerted effort to bring timely and important matter. But I canments, over the past decade has spent be- about a just and equitable peace in that not agree with some of the comments
he has expressed about Israel today, and release, and aftercare. If the addict that rapid progress was made. By the which I feel are worthy of further reflec- complies with treatment,
treatment, supervision, end of 1952, prewar production levels tion. I refer to the gentleman's remarks and aftercare, the crime for which the were regained although living standards linking German reparations to Jews with addict was arrested exclusive, of course,
addict was arrested exclusive, of course, did not reach prewar levels until 1956. his call for greater response by Israel to of crimes of violence and other major In 1952 the Government of the RepubArab refugee claims. I realize that by felonies, would be dismissed.
lic of China began the first of a series no stretch of the imagination did the Mr Speaker, I urge my colleagues to of 4-year plans, worked out in coordinagentleman infer there could possibly be a introduce and support similar legislation tion with U.S. aid officials, which set connection. But I do fear a misinter- for, although New York has the infamous forth the broad goals of the economy. pretation of his remarks in suggesting reputation of having the most reported Chinese imputs and the U.S. aid consuch analogy. Any such interpretation narcotics addicts with Illinois and Cali- tribution were coordinated to produce equating gas ovens of Auschwitz and the fornia not far behind, we know that this maximum development, but the plans brutal genocide of the Nazis against 6 menace knows no territorial bordersmit
menace knows no territorial borders-it were designed to widen the field of acmillion Jews, with Israeli response to the is East, West, Central, and continually
nd continually tivity for private enterprise and detailed Arab refugee aggression, would be a dis- spreading.
spreading. The menace of drug addic- planning of production was avoided. service to history.
tion knows no race, color, creed, or sex The plans dealt with the most urgent I am confident, of course, that Mr. or economic strata. In recent years problems of the economy in turn: moneROOSEVELT, whose distinguished record there has been a continual increase
there has been a continual increase tary stabilization, agricultural producas a humanitarian in this House is un- amongst those in the middle and upper
amongst those in the middle and upper tion, infrastructure, and industry. The equaled, never intended any such mean- socioeconomic class. We must remember current 4-year plan is part of a 10-year ing and will recognize the justice of the that every drug addict is a potential long-term development plan designed to point of my remarks. seller, seeking new markets.
complete Taiwan's transition from an Also, I cannot agree with all the gen- Present Federal facilities such as at agricultural to an industrial economy tleman's observations on the water prob- Lexington, Ky., have proven inadequate without foreign grant aid. lem. As I see it, the water problem will and inefficient because the addict has The phaseout of U.S. aid to Taiwan not be solved by introduction of new U.N. voluntary admission and discharge and began in 1956 with the gradual substitucomplications allowing the Arabs a voice there is no aftercare and supervision. tion of loans repayable in local currency in Israel's domestic water needs, and We have had previous studies, pre- for grant aid; loans on relatively soft looking for an escape from current Jor- vious hearings by previous Congresses, terms repayable in dollars were instidan River diversion threats by referring surveys and Presidential commissions, tuted in 1960. Planning for the eventual Israel to eventual hopes for nuclear all of which have pointed up the actuali- closing out of aid began in 1959, and in desalination. It would be better to urge ties of the problem, but there has been 1960 a 19-point accelerated development the U.S. delegation to the U.N. to issue no action.
no action. We must now have action- program was agreed on by the United a clear statement denouncing the Arab the need is now—the menace is growing. States and the Republic of China. The diversion tactics as aggression which I again urge my colleagues to join in this principal points of this program were the threatens the peace.
needed legislation to protect their com- encouragement of foreign private investmunities and our Nation.
ment, the development of private enter
prise in Taiwan, and the promotion of CIVIL COMMITMENT AND TREAT
Taiwan's exports. The success with MENT IN CASES OF DRUG ADDIC
TAIWAN AFTER 15 YEARS
which these objectives were achieved was TION
The SPEAKER. Under previous or- beyond the original expectations of AID, The SPEAKER. Under previous order der of the House, the gentleman from and led to the announcement in May of the House, the gentleman from New Louisiana [Mr. WAGGONNER] is recog. 1954, that aid would be terminated at York [Mr. ADDABBO] is recognized for 20 nized for 20 minutes.
the end of fiscal year 1965. minutes.
Mr. WAGGONNER. Mr. Speaker, re- The U.S. aid program, and its efficient Mr. ADDABBO. Mr. Speaker, I have cently I had the distinction and honor utilization in Taiwan can be credited today introduced legislation which, if of being invited to address the Captive with very substantial accomplishments: enacted, I believe will aid in the treat- Nations Week rally on the island of For- The inflation which plagued Taiwan for ment and reduction of drug addiction mosa. During my visit I was able to many years has been halted, and prices and its continued increase.
confirm impressions which I have had actually declined over the first half of The legislation I have introduced pro- cɔncerning that beleaguered country and 1965; real national income has more than vides for a change in theory from one of I would like to report back to the Con- doubled since 1953; per capita real insevere punishment to that of civil com- gress briefly on these now confirmed im- come has risen to over $150, which, mitment, providing for treatment, super- pressions.
though still low, is high by Asian standvision, and aftercare. I believe that the On June 30 the U.S. Agency for In- ards; industrial production has more present provisions of law as to severe ternational Development terminated its than tripled since 1953, and agricultural punishment of professional sellers should program in Taiwan after 15 years of production has increased 73 percent over remain the same and possibly made more operation. This step was taken after the same period; foreign trade increased severe, but the addict who sells to other several years of planning and after a from $320 million in 1953 to $874 million addicts or commits certain lesser crimes gradual hardening of the terms of the in 1964, and the large annual trade to provide for his own drug addiction aid. Some aid still continues; long-term deficits which existed before 1962 were should be given other consideration. projects financed in previous years have changed into a surplus by 1964. The
The bill I have introduced is similar not yet been completed, an agreement rapid growth of the economy and the to New York State law which went into for Public Law 480 aid in surplus agri- favorable prognosis for the future have effect in 1963. The results have, in sev- cultural commodities will run through given Taiwan a high credit rating in ineral respects been, encouraging and 1966, and the military assistance pro- ternational, public, and private money point up the need for adequate financing gram will continue as well. A small markets. and aftercare. Therefore, I have also residual AID staff remains in Taipei to This remarkable growth was achieved provided for, in this legislation, a pro- monitor the programs still in progress. with $1,425,000,000 of U.S. aid added to gram of Federal aid to the States and lo- When U.S. aid to Taiwan began in the efforts of the Chinese themselves. cal communities to aid them in their 1950, the island was still suffering from When the termination of aid was anprograms of treatment and rehabilita- the devastation of the Second World nounced in 1964, many officials and busition.
War; there was serious inflation, and nessmen in Taiwan doubted that ecoMr. Speaker, this legislation would per- several hundred thousand refugees from nomic growth could continue without mit a drug addict, upon arrest, the oppor- the China mainland were still not set- American aid, but in the year which has tunity to voluntarily submit to exami- tled. Although the Government of the passed since the announcement of the nation to determine whether or not he is Republic of China began the reconstruc-phasing-out of aid the economy has addicted and, if addicted, to be given tion in 1949 with the implementation of grown even faster than before, despite a civil commitment which provides for a land reform program, it was not until substantial reduction of aid deliveries in treatment in an institution, supervised large arrivals of U.S. aid began in 1951 1964. With this accelerated growth, the confidence of businessmen and govern- conclusion of the prolonged debriefing Furthermore, there has been no indiment officials in Taiwan has grown to a period when I might be privileged to con- cation that shipping interests would navcautious optimism over the economic fu- gratulate these two young men in person igate these waters during the winter ture of the island. The foreign exchange and hear firsthand about this thrilling months even if some measure of deicing formerly furnished by aid is being re- experience and historic achievement. were possible. In fact, it appears that placed by increased export earnings and
little if any additional shipping would by foreign loans from Japan and from
result, because of the ever-present danCLEVELAND the World Bank-and investments. Do
DETAILS FLAWS IN
ger of ice floes in the open waters of the mestic investment, much of which came
PROPOSALS TO DEICE ST. LAW- Great Lakes, the real possibility of vessels out of AID counterpart funds, is now be
RENCE SEAWAY CHANNELS becoming frozen in for the entire winter, ing supplanted by increasing domestic
Mr. CURTIS. Mr. Speaker, I ask and the substantially increased insurance savings. The Government of the Repub- unanimous consent that the gentleman
rates imposed on vessels at the comlic of China and the people of Taiwan from New Hampshire [Mr. CLEVELAND]
mencement of the winter season. have efficiently used American aid to may extend his remarks at this point
No evidence was presented before the reach the point where they can resolve in the RECORD and include extraneous
Committee on Public Works of need for their own economic problems and con- matter.
year-round navigation, and no witnesses tinue to develop Taiwan without further
The SPEAKER. Is there objection appeared in behalf of the shipping ineconomic assistance.
to the request of the gentleman from dustry or shippers to support this bill. This situation is, indeed, a refreshing Missouri?
NO SHOWING THAT DEICING IS PRACTICAL one in view of the miserable failures this
There was no objection.
The Great Lakes and their connecting aid program has produced in far too Mr. CLEVELAND. Mr. Speaker, the
channels have a total water surface of many instances. I am pleased to report Committee on Public Works is now con- about 95,000 square miles. The distance to the Congress on this signal success. ducting hearings on S. 2300, the omnibus from Duluth at the western end of Lake
river and harbor flood-control bill. The Superior to the mouth of the St. LawGEMINI V-A BRILLIANT SUCCESS -A bill, as passed by the Senate on July 27,
rence River is approximately 1,716 miles. contains authorization for an investigaMr. CURTIS. Mr. Speaker, I ask tion and study to be conducted by the
In the restricted channels connecting
the Great Lakes there are the St. Marys unanimous consent that the gentleman Corps of Engineers, at an estimated cost
Corps of Engineers, at an estimated cost River, about 65 miles in length; channels
of $75,000, of means for extending the between Lakes Huron and Erie, about extend his remarks at this point in the navigation season on the Great Lakes RECORD and include extraneous matter.
90 miles; Welland Canal, 28 miles; the and St. Lawrence Seaway, including a The SPEAKER. Is there objection complete investigation and study of
St. Lawrence River from Lake Ontario to the request of the gentleman from waterway deicing systems.
to Montreal, about 190 miles, and from
Montreal to the Isle of Orleans, 190 miles, Missouri?
This proposal, which I oppose, is be- making a total of about 563 miles of reThere was no objection.
fore the committee for the second time. stricted channels in which heavy ice is Mr. CONTE. Mr. Speaker, I am în 1963, the Senate passed a bill—S. 530, pleased and proud to join with my col- 88th Congress—which would have auIn 1963, the Senate passed a bill—S. 530, prevalent from December through March
of each year. To this must be added the leagues in this body and with my coun- thorized such a study. Although favor- ice problem in the Great Lakes themtrymen all over the world in extending ably reported by the House Committee on selves and the many harbors involved. warmest congratulations to astronauts Public Works, it was never acted upon The magnitude of deicing becomes readGordon Cooper and Charles Conrad for by the House. the successful completion of their rec
ily apparent when we consider the mile
Now that the matter is before us again, age involved. ordbreaking 8-day space flight aboard I wish to take this opportunity of stat- Nor does the difficulty end here. Maj. Gemini V. This is a proud and historic moment formation of the House.
ing my objections in detail for the in- Gen. Jackson Graham, Director of Civil for this Nation. Astronauts Cooper and
Works, Corps of Engineers, Department
First. There has been no showing of of the Army, testified that, in his opinConrad, and every member of the Gemini need for shipping on the Great Lakes ion, the major problem is to prevent the team, have demonstrated for all the world to see not only the technical supe
and the St. Lawrence Seaway during the accumulation of ice as a result of wind entire year.
and storm, even after a channel may riority of U.S. science and industry, but the high order of our manpower as well.
Second. There has been no showing have been opened. Ice floes in the Great
Lakes pile up 20 to 30 feet above the surThis flight stands as a monument to the that deicing of the Great Lakes, the St.
Lawrence Seaway, and their connecting face of the water, and to almost an equal determination, imagination,
and bound- Lawrence Seaway, and their connecting less vision of a free society. channels is practical.
depth beneath the water. These floes Generous credit must go to a great
Third. The preliminary study, to be drift around with the wind, and constimany individuals who, in spite of auto- authorized by this bill, will accomplish authorized by this bill, will accomplish tute a serious danger to shipping. No
one has suggested a feasible method of mation and all the other technological nothing more than to whet the appetite
preventing wind and storms from formapparatus of the space program, are the for an exhorbitantly expensive and fanonly single indispensable element.
tastic deicing scheme to plague the Con- ing these obstructive ice floes, or of conThere is a particularly sweet satisfacgress in future years.
trolling the floes, even assuming that a tion in the fact that the mission fulfilled NO SHOWING OF NEED FOR YEAR-ROUND
channel can be deiced in the first all of its expectations in spite of a nag
instance. ging technical problem which threatened Navigation on the Great Lakes, the St.
According to the testimony, the only
method of deicing that has met with any to shortcut the duration and over which Lawrence Seaway, and their connecting our Soviet competitors spent much time channels is now open about 872 months
channels is now open about 812 months degree of success is the air-bubbling sysand effort in gloating. In every sense, each year, from early April to mid- tem. It has been used for some time to this mission has been a brilliant success December. The principal commodities keep a few feet of water ice free at the and has yielded untold profits. shipped over this waterway are bulk car
face of dams, to enable operation of I want to extend congratulations also goes, such as ore, coal, and grain. The
gates during winter. Some limited use
has been made of air bubbling by this to the members of the astronauts' fam- quantities of ore and coal shipped annuilies; to Mrs. Cooper who has now ally are more or less fixed, and if these
ally are more or less fixed, and if these country, Canada, and the Scandinavian watched her husband soar among the waters were open for navigation an addi
countries to keep small areas of water stars on two occasions, and to Mrs. Con- tional 342 months each year, it merely
free of ice, such as small channels, rad. Their understanding, encourage- means that these shipments could be
marina boat basins, and a working area ment, and support have undoubtedly had spread over a longer period of time, not around a dredge. However, this or any much to do with the success of the Gem- that more cargo would be moved. The
other known method of deicing appears ini V mission and are as fine an example same applies to shipments of grain,
same applies to shipments of grain, completely impractical of application to of courage and devotion as are the astro- movement of which depend largely upon
large areas of water, and certainly not to nauts themselves.
the foreign market, rather than the pe- one so vast as the Great Lakes, the St. I happily join with my fellow country- riod of navigability upon the Great Lakes Lawrence Seaway, and their connecting men now in anxious anticipation of the and the St. Lawrence Seaway.