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About 5 a.m. Garcia returned to head- Indeed, the question was: Would the "out- outboard motor that had been left behind quarters with his two suspects. “Keep side world” believe it? Could they prove on the beach that first morning by the two searching,” he told two agents left behind. conclusively where the plan had originated, strangers. Odd, he thought a Johnson “Mattresses, pillows, everything. When where the arms had come from?
motor with the manufacturer's marking: you're finished, start all over again. There's The first point hinged on Sánchez Madero. The Outboard Marine Corp. of Canada, Ltd., bound to be more than we've found.”
An exhaustive check of all airline listings serial number C367809. The Canadian AmDigepol's files indicated that the woman, was undertaken. It was a long shot but bassador in Caracas was asked to have the who claimed to be a nurse, was a contact it paid off. Sánchez Madero had fied from motor investigated. A report came back for a fugitive FALN leader. The man who Venezuela to Jamaica on March 5, 1962, through Canadian Government channels: called himself López was fingerprinted, and listed as "Luis E. Sánchez M.,” after an four Johnson outboard motors, including a search through the files disclosed his real armored-car robbery in which his finger- C367809, had been purchased by an exportidentity: Luis Eduardo Sánchez Madero, age prints were found. In Jamaica he had ing company in Montreal and flown to Cuba 24. On the margins of the FALN sabotage boarded a KLM special flight, No. 977 from on October 1, 1963, consigned to the Namanual were notes jotted down in his hand- Kingston to Havana, Cuba. He had cockily tional Institute of Agrarian Reform, Poultry writing, among them a precise schedule of given the airline his destination address: Division. his last day of instruction on October 21: House of Americas (headquarters in Havana
A DAMNING VERDICT 6 a.m.rise; 8 to 12—courses in artillery and for the infamous Institute of People's On February 24, 1964, the OAS commismortar; 2 to 6 p.m.—training in recoilless Friendship, the processing agency for Cuba's sion presented its verdict: "The shipment rifle, bazooka and machinegun and cryptog- Latin American terrorist trainees).
was made up of arms originating in Cuba raphy; 8 to 10-study; 11-bedtime.
Tracing of the arms was turned over to that were surreptitiously landed at a solitary
the Venezuelan Army. An elaborate effort PUZZLE BECOMES PICTURE
spot on the coast for the purpose of being had been made to disguise the weapons. All used in subversive operations to overthrow Meanwhile, at apartment 49, an agent had
the constitutional government of Venezuela. found, taped to the bottom of a desk drawer, Near the trigger of each rifle, a hole had a 2-inch-thick stack of papers. Included been cut, obviously to remove the insignia.
The objective of the 'Caracas plan' was to
capture the city of Caracas, to prevent the in the material were lengthy descriptions But whose insignia?
holding of elections on December 1, 1963, and of arms, and explosives plus an intricate Several of the weapons were rushed to to seize control of the country." checklist for pulling off a successful sabotage Fabrique Nationale d'Armes de Guerre at This plan, plus Cuba's "propaganda methor kidnapping operation: escape routes, floor Herstal-lez-Liège, Belgium, whose trademark
ods, provision of funds, training in sabotage plans, guards, alarm systems, cover stories, had been left on. Fabrique Nationale, the and guerrilla operations,” concluded the inhiding places. There was also a large map largest private arms manufacturer in the
vestigators, added up to "a policy of aggresof Caracas showing every street and major Western World, had filled an order by the sion." A 112-page report was submitted building in the city, and four pieces of
Cuban Army for 22,500 automatic rifles on with a mountain of facts and proof, much transparent paper-overlays for the map- March 23, 1959. Now company experts ex- of which is the basis for the preceding dotted by rectangles, circles, arrows, aster
amined the rifles dug up at Macama and re- account. isks, crosses, parallel bars and triangles. ported that “the coat of arms of Cuba was Columbia's OAS representative found it
What did it all mean? Garcia and his stamped in the place where a cut had been hard to contain his fury. “This is not an men studied these and other items, zeroing made.” Moreover, the Cuban weapons had incident of unwary sailors,” he declared. in on several papers crisscrossed with neatly their serial numbers uniquely located on the "It is a serious international incident which ruled lines. At the top of each perpendicular left side of the trigger guard, as these had is part of a carefully thought-out plan of column were large letters: "F," the symbol been before they were ground off. Rifles Cuba for carrying the Communist revolution for fusil, Spanish for rifle; “PERS” for per- with these characteristics had never been to the hemisphere." sons; “M” for mortar; “Csr” for cañone sin delivered to any country but Cuba.
La Tribuna, a major newspaper in Lima, retroceso—recoilless rifle; and “B” for ba- As for the 31 "UZI” 9-mm. machine guns, Peru, commented: “What is important is zooka. The same type of arms found at the Belgian company also confirmed that the next step: that is, what kind of action Macama!
they had been bought by Cuba. But the will be taken against a government conMore notes were studied, such as a list of Venezuelans went a step further. Where a victed of armed intervention?" apartment buildings, offices and streets with seal had obviously been ground away, an Incredibly, the answer to that question specific designations of weapons. These etching solution was applied. Slowly the was in grave doubt. Several Latin countries numbers were compared. The map was chemical made decipherable the outlines of balked at imposing firm measures against pulled out, and the overlays with their sym- a legend. Under a magnifying glass an or- Cuba, clinging to the ancient concept of bols were arranged and rearranged. At last nate crest could be distinguished—the crest nonintervention which had originated years the puzzle became a picture. The rectangu- of the Cuban Army.
before Soviet communism moved into the lar figure meant "artillery," the triangle The case was airtight. It was time to hemisphere. Principal backsliders were Mex"fixed group,” the open circle “troop posi- bring charges.
ico, Uruguay, Bolivia, Chile and Brazil, all tions," the slanted parallel lines "barricade,"
of whom at the time maintained diplomatic
IRREFUTABLE PROOF the cross "emergency station,” the five-sided
relations with Cuba. figure surrounded by arrows "object of at
The wood-paneled main council room of tack."
SANCTIONS OR NOT
the Pan American Union Building, four detailed plan for attack upon Caracas using
blocks from the White House in Washington, Venezuela would not be put off, and the weapons delivered at Macama.
D.C., was packed on December 3, 1963. Ven- pressed for a foreign ministers' conference The Urdaneta barracks was the prime ob
ezuela had called the Organization of Amer- of the 20 American Republics to punish jective. A walled fort perched on the city's
ican States into emergency session to charge Castro. It called for mandatory steps such highest ground, it held a concentration of
Cuba with aggression. Ambassador Enrique as cutting off all trade, air travel and diplo. troops. Here also were tanks, near a jail Tejera-Paris of Venezuela was speaking: "The matic relations with Cuba. “If the OAS does holding top FALN terrorists. The scheme:
people of Venezuela have been the constant not apply sanctions to Castro's Cuba, it isolate the troops and free the prisoners to
victims of the insults and attacks of Cuba's means the bankruptcy of democracy and the join in the attack. This one phase of the
Castro regime. Now in the face of the new inter-American system,” warned Venezuela's operation called for 3 artillery units, 6 fixed
act of aggression by Cuba, for which there Foreign Minister Marcos Falcón Briceño. groups of 3 to 4 men, 3 mobile groups plus
is definite and irrefutable proof, Venezuela Then in April 1964 a revolution in Brazil positioning of 12 FALN troop units in careis forced to take this action.”
led by Gen. Humberto Castelo Branco, a firm fully chosen locations. Assigned to do the
An investigating commission was immedi- anti-Castroite, ousted left-leaning President job were 374 men, 195 rifles, 8 mortars, 12
ately set up, composed of representatives of João Goulart. (See “The Country That Saved bazookas, 4 recoilless rifles, 75 machineguns. Argentina, Colombia, Costa Rica, Uruguay, Itself,” the Reader's Digest, November 1964.) Apartment houses near the barracks were
and the United States. On December 8, the Soon after, Brazil expelled Cuba's diplomatic selected from which snipers and machine
commission flew to Caracas, along with a delegation. Now those seeking stern measgunners could pick off soldiers trying to reach
team of military advisers. There they heard ures against Castro felt that the continent's jeeps and armored cars. Mortars would
detailed accounts from a score of witnesses largest nation could be counted on when the knock out key exits, sabotage units would ranging from Minister of National Defense chips were down. cut telephone lines, seize power stations, and
Gen. Antonio Briceño to Juan DeDios Marín, Still, weeks, then months, dragged by blow up vital streets; bazookas and recoil
a young Venezuelan who had been in Cuba while diplomats dickered over sanctions that less rifles would be waiting for tanks—if they ing in the handling of arms and guerrilla Finally, on July 21, more than 8 months after
for several months receiving military train- would assure the necessary two-thirds vote. made it through the carnage.
tactics. (See "Inside Castro "Terror Lino stumbled on the arms at Macama, the FANTASTIC?
School,” the Reader's Digest, December hemisphere's foreign ministers gathered in At Miraflores Palace the attack plan was 1964.)
Washington for the crucial voting. laid before President Betancourt. "To those Venezuelan Army officials picked out weap- The hemisphere states should not mainof us who have witnessed FALN's murder and ons at random, and before the eyes of the tain diplomatic or consular relations with arson for 3 years, it doesn't seem so shock- investigators demonstrated how the Cuban Cuba: 14 yes, 4 no, 1 abstain. They should ing,” he confided to a colleague. “But this insignia could be raised chemically. Ward suspend their trade, either direct or indirect, is going to look fantastic to the outside P. Allen, chief U.S. representative, was espe- with Cuba, except for humanitarian reasons: world."
cially curious about the aluminum skiff and same vote. They should suspend all sea
transportation, again with the humanitarian Cuba” and, “seeing a chance to increase dis- earlier today that Malaysia and Singaexception: 14 yes, 3 no, 2 abstain. Any new order, to gain a foothold, joined the revolu- pore have pledged to work together in attempts to subvert an American Republic tion."
intimate association on matters of mucould bring quick armed retaliation without
tual benefit or concern." This is good consultation: 15 yes, 4 no.
Where will the graduates of the Soviet- to hear, and it is appropriate that the By the time the final resolution had passed, Cuban Communist combine strike next? it was 12:15 a.m., July 26, the day Castro an- Where within our hemisphere will U.S. sol- Tunku was able to announce it on an nually celebrates the birth of his revolution- diers have to be sent next to avert a Com- occasion in which everyone's thoughts ary July 26 movement. At long last the munist coup while Havana and Moscow have
are with Malaysia. We all wish this American Republics had branded an outlaw
a propaganda field day? And will we and young country well on this anniversary in their midst. Within 6 months Chile, Bo- our friends be able to discover and act against day. livia, and Uruguay broke relations with Cuba.
the next blueprint for subversion before it More significant was that key resolution give is too late? ing the green light to OAS nations, alone or collectively, to strike back without delay center for "wars of liberation” functions No one can say—so long as an operations CRIME, DELINQUENCY, UNEMPLOY
MENT PROBLEMS COMPOUNDED should Castro be caught in further subver- with impunity in Cuba. Time and time BY THE POPULATION EXPLOsion. again our officials have said this subversion
SION- SENATOR SIMPSON'S TESTHE THREAT REMAINS
“must stop," yet it continues. Our words Whether this provision will be used for di- and warnings are scorned, and we go on
TIMONY ON S. 1676 rect retaliation against the Cuban sanctuary merely reacting to one Cuban-fomented foray Mr. GRUENING. Mr. President, this is quite another matter. Just last November after another.
morning our able colleague, the junior representatives of Latin American Commu- One long-overdue solution is for the OAS Senator from Wyoming, MILWARD SIMPnist parties slipped into Havana to map out a to modernize its rules and machinery so that bold new strategy with the Soviets to accel- it can act swiftly against Communist “in- son, testified before the Subcommittee on erate Red revolutions A secret declaration terventions." Otherwise, Latin countries
Foreign Aid Expenditures, which is hold(released in Moscow 2 months later) was must accept U.S. fast action when lives and ing hearings on s. 1676, a bill to estabsigned promising "active aid" to "freedom liberties of nations are in the balance, as in lish offices in the Department of Health, fighters” in Colombia, Guatemala, Honduras, the Dominican Republic.
Education, and Welfare and in the DeParaguay, Panama, Haiti, and Venezuela.
Another solution lies in tightening the eco- partment of State to make birth control Operations center for this guerrilla war- nomic noose around Cuba. Considering the information available to those desiring it fare is Cuba's subversion and espionage mess communism has made of the Cuban
and to provide for a White House Conagency, the DGI (whose biggest unit pro- economy, experts say it would collapse within
ference on Population Problems in 1967. motes Latin revolutions), advised by at least weeks if most outside assistance was cut off. five Soviet intelligence specialists. Squads Why, for example, should we permit a pro
Senator SIMPSON is a member of the of Latin Americans are trained by the DGI's cession of Soviet oil tankers to steam into the
subcommittee. Department of Special Schools. This depart- Caribbean to fuel Cuba's industries and utili- Senator SIMPSON gave an excellent ment and other Cuban organizations have ties so that this springboard for subversion analysis of the need for this legislation, turned out at least 5,000 graduates. "This can survive? And why should we allow non- implementing as it does the four statetraining today represents the most serious Communist nations to furnish vital items
ments made by President Johnson urgthreat to democracy in Latin America,” says 867 shiploads since 1963? Assistant Secretary of State for Inter-Ameri
ing action to help solve the problems
When Secretary of State Dean Rusk called can Affairs Jack H. Vaughn. “We know of for sanctions against Cuba last summer, he
created by the population explosion both cases where the individuals of a given coun- pointed out that “subversion supported by
at home and abroad. try trained in Cuba return by the hundreds. terror, sabotage and guerrilla action is as
I ask unanimous consent that Senator These people form a cadre of guerrilla units, dangerous a form of aggression as an armed
SIMPSON's press release as well as his and the larger the number, the greater the attack.” And he added these significant
And he added these significant testimony before the subcommittee be threat ultimately that they will make a words: “Today it is Venezuela which is under
words: “Today it is Venezuela which is under printed in the RECORD. move."
attack. Is there any one of us who can say There being no objection, the stateAN APPALLING SCOREBOARD with assurance, 'It cannot be my country
ment was ordered to be printed in the The scoreboard of riots, bombings, assassi- tomorrow'?"
RECORD, as follows: nations, violence, and espionage emanating from Cuba is appalling. In Guatemala a
BIRTH CONTROL band of terrorists with a hard-core strength
WASHINGTON, D.C.-U.S. Senator MILWARD of about 300 men roams the mountains with
Mr. KENNEDY of New York. Mr.
SIMPSON spoke out today on the controverheadquarters in the Lake Izabal region. Five
sial subject of birth control, warning that if of them recently burned the U.S.-aid pro- President, today is Malaysia Day, the
people do not learn to limit their numbers, gram garage in Guatemala
City, gutting 23 anniversary of the independence of millions of human beings throughout the vehicles. Last February during a festive Malaysia Malaysia became a federa- world will die of starvation, and poverty parade in the capital, 10 Guatemalan soldiers tion within the British Commonwealth will continue on the increase. were killed by a grenade lobbed into the back
on this day in 1957, and achieved its SIMPSON, in a statement presented before of their trucks. Chief of these guerrillas is present independent status in 1963. I his Foreign Aid Expenditures Subcommittee
of the Committee on Government Operahas secretly received $200,000 from the DGI. know that my brethren in the U.S. Sen
tions, told Senators that the population of A contingent of Panamanian Communists ate join me in congratulating this young
the United States will double before the end recently went back to Cuba for a second nation on its birthday and in wishing it
of this century and then double again within round of guerrilla instruction, while even
well for the coming years. I want par- the next 30 or 40 years. He pointed out that more are preparing to journey to Havana. ticularly to extend my best wishes to two-thirds of the world's people are underNext door in Colombia, banditry and kid- Malaysia's Prime Minister, Tunku Abdul fed, under present population ratios, and napings, once confined to remote rural re- Rahman, at this time of independence
that there are now 55 million more mouths gions, are closing in on the cities. Former celebration in his country.
to feed in the world each year. Cabinet Minister Harold Eder was grabbed
"The standard of living experienced by a by kidnapers and a $250,000 price put on
Malaysia has made significant prog
nation's people is determined by the quanhis head even though he had been murdered ress in many areas. I enjoyed visiting
tity of goods and services related to the numbefore the ransom demand. A newly or- there in 1951 when it was fighting for
ber of people drawing upon this availability," ganized Cuban-backed Army of National survival and I enjoyed being there again Senator SIMPSON pointed out. "America has Liberation (ELN) directs much of this vio- just last year. Over the years Malay- been blessed and has been able to produce lence. In Moscow, Pravda propagandizes sia has made great strides with its rural more goods and services than it needs, but that events in Colombia are "very little dif- development programs, with its educa
there is no assurance that this balance will ferent from the dirty war being fought in Vietnam."
continue and it certainly does not exist totional programs, and in its operation of
day in other countries of the world.” Finally, look at the grim tragedy in the à parliamentary democracy with free
SIMPSON asserted that the only solution to Dominican Republic. In classic style a band elections.
the population problem is reproduction conof skilled Communists swiftly exploited an On this occasion of independence ob- trol on a voluntary basis, and he said that explosive chaotic revolution. At least 77
servance, I want to wish Malaysia con- "no religious group opposes family planning known Communists were pinpointed and, as tinued success in its programs of eco
or planned parenthood. It is to the particuPresident Johnson has disclosed, “two of the nomic and social development. I might objection,” he said.
lar method of planning that there may be prime leaders in the rebel forces were men with a long history of Communist associa- point out to Senators in connection with
The Wyoming lawmaker praised both the tion and insurrections." He noted that recent events in Malaysia that the Tunku Government
and the press for the change many of the "conspirators” were "trained in stated in his independence day speech in attitude toward the birth control issue.
He recalled that President Kennedy had en- ing. However, two-thirds of the world's Health Association, the National Institute dorsed action which led to a $500,000 appro- people are underfed and undernourished, of Child Health and Human Development, priation by Congress for studies in human partly because there are now 55 million more and the many pharmaceutical manufacreproduction and that “the press for the mouths to feed in the world each year. turers, as well as public health officials across first time has this year been lending itself The population of the United States will the land, are trying to educate our people admirably to the subject."
double before the end of this century. And to the need of birth control or, as some Senator SIMPSON asserted that there is a then it will double again within the next 30 prefer, family planning. It should be pointed clear and graphic relationship between poy- to 40 years. The less developed areas, such out that no religious group opposes family erty and population. He said that evidence as China, southeast Asia, Africa, and Latin planning or planned parenthood. It is to a produced during Senate debate on the Ap- America, are doubling their population every particular method that there may be obpalachia bill made it abundantly clear that 20 to 30 years, according to a study made by jection. low-income families with many children the National Academy of Sciences entitled The U.S. Government has wisely adopted plunged themselves deeper into the poverty "The Growth of the World Population.” a policy concerning the population problem. cycle than those with fewer children. "The The population crisis in the world is star. President Kennedy endorsed action, and folcost of maintaining children of the poor has tling. Countries which now cannot even feed lowing his endorsement, our Government climbed to more than a billion dollars a their own will have two or three times as gave $500,000 to the World Health Organizayear,” SIMPSON said. "One child in every many people as they have now by the year tion for studies in human reproduction and 25 receives welfare aid. That number is 2000.
created a major new research division of expected to double in the next 10 years. The Department of Agriculture has pub- the National Institute of Health-the NaThese children, because of family poverty lished a book written by Les R. Brown en- tional Institute of Child Health and Human and the resulting lack of education and op titled, “Man, Land, and Food: Looking Ahead Development. portunity, have little chance of rising above at World Food Needs,” which is must read- The State Department affirmed the United the culture of despair."
ing for those who are interested in the prob- States' willingness to “help other countries, SIMPSON listed three economic aspects of lems caused by the uncontrolled population upon request, to find potential sources of increased population in the United States: explosions.
information and assistance on ways and We may expect our burgeoning population Can we feed the people of the world? Mr. means of dealing with population problems.” to burden rather than accelerate our econ
Brown handles this question very well. He Our foreign aid laws authorize the use of omy, we can expect vast increases in public points out the problem of feeding the world assistance funds for "research into problems expenditures for new schools, health facili- is two dimensional. “It is partly a produc- of population growth.” ties, housing, water supplies, transportation, tion problem, partly a distribution problem. There is an emerging pattern of public and public power-all necessitating a greater Food supplies in the developed regions are responsibility in educating the public regardtax burden and a bigger government, 15 to abundant and steadily rising on a per capita ing the need for birth control. The ques20 percent of all tax revenues this year will
basis. In the less-developed regions, supplies tion must be asked: Is the Government be spent simply to give 4 million new babies are inadequate ***.
doing enough to promote population control? the basic services of our society.
"The distribution aspects of the food prob- Clearly, we are not. SIMPSON said the United States must em
lem give little evidence of immediate im- State, county, and city governments must bark upon programs for research on a large provement. Population in the less-developed take a more active role.
The county of scale on the biological and medical aspects regions, now totaling 2.1 billion, is expected Mecklenburg, N.C., according to an article of human reproduction so that improved
to reach 5 billion by the end of the century. which appeared in the April 7, 1964, Look methods of fertility control can be developed.
If the expected addition of about 3 billion magazine, has met the challenge and has He said the American people must be in
materializes, the less-developed regions will assisted the poor by giving them birth con
need to develop an additional food produc- trol devices and information. By this pracformed of the enormous problems inherent in unchecked population growth in the
tion capacity equal to current world ca- tice the county government spends $1 to
pacity.” United States and abroad, and he stressed
save $25. The human savings are much the need for responsibility in bringing into
What are the prospects of this needed ad- greater.
ditional production? Not very good. We There is a direct relationship between povthe world only those children whom parents want and are prepared adequately to care
must learn to control our population birth erty and high birth rates. If we are to declare for and educate. SIMPSON asserted also that
rate or millions of human beings throughout “war on poverty," we must assist people so information on birth control must be made
the world will die of starvation or malnu- they can plan for their families.
trition. available at low cost to all those who need
Much of the attention has been focused and wish such guidance.
If the world situation can be said to be on Appalachia because of its large unemSenator SIMPSON called birth control "one critical, then our national problem must be ployed population and poverty. Traditionalof the most vital issues facing the United lation problem were formerly taboo subjects phenomenally high fertility. The report of
called serious. Birth control and the popu- ly, the Appalachian region has experienced States and the world.”
but now, due to the seriousness of the prob- the National Resources Committee, published
lem, they are extensively discussed in the in 1938, noted that "the highest fertility in BIRTH CONTROL LEGISLATION
Nation's mass media. In 1963, newspaper the United States is found among the wom(Statement of U.S. Senator MILWARD L. stories concerning birth control jumped 55 en of the southern Appalachians. *
SIMPSON, of Wyoming, before the Foreign percent to a total of 11,699. Popular maga- The population would increase 242 times in Aid Expenditures Subcommittee of the
zines and specialized professional publica- about 30 years without emigration *.” Government Operations Committee)
tions, with circulation in the many millions, Conditions have improved but the problem Mr. Chairman, I want to commend you for published at least 130 articles on these and is still acute. holding these hearings which I have been related subjects.
We are all familiar with the problems regularly attending. The need for birth con- In 1964, birth control problems and the caused by the needy families who have too trol here in the United States and in the population explosion received a great deal many unwanted children. Our welfare deworld has been dramatically demonstrated of attention through the news media of this partments are plagued with the poor who by the witnesses that we have heard.
Nation. Never before had there been such continue to have children when they can't The tremendous number of children born an overt attempt by our editors and pub- even afford to feed the ones they have. unwanted, unplanned, and unneeded is one lishers to bring to the forefront the prob- The cost of maintaining children of the of the causes of the problems that we in the lems that are being experienced in this field. poor has climbed to more than a billion Senate try to solve. Crime is on the increase. This year, Mr. Chairman, because of your dollars a year in welfare funds. One child We have a great deal of poverty. Delin- pioneering spirit, and because of your will- in 25 receives welfare aid, and the number quency in our schools and universities is ingness to talk about a subject which here- may double in the next 10 years. These abundant. Unemployment continues to tofore had been considered taboo, the press youngsters, because of family poverty and plague us. School dropouts continue to in- has been full of information concerning lack of education, lack of love, have little crease. Here in the United States and abroad birth control. The Senate now has a great chance of rising above the culture of dethese problems are compounded and multi- opportunity to do something which will be spair. plied by the population explosion.
constructive and will help meet the need Birth control does not solve all the probMr. Chairman, I am of the opinion that of this Nation and possibly the world. I lems of poverty. But it does help the poor there is a direct correlation between poverty hope we will be courageous enough to act. regulate the growth of their families. Exand uncontrolled births. I realize that there It is important that the American people penses are cut. The health of the mother are many reasons for poverty, but certainly be fully informed on the subject matter of improves because she isn't having too many one reason is the tremendous population birth control. I am pleased to know that children too quickly. The fear of bearing growth of the United States and the world. there are many organizations which are do- another child, who might mean increased
The standard of living experienced by a ing all that they can to get the known poverty, diminishes. nation's people is determined by the quan- information distributed and to acquire new The costs of unwanted and unplanned chiltity of goods and services available divided information and knowledge. Organizations, dren are immeasurable. The human sufferby the number of people. America has been such as the Planned Parenthood Federation ing caused by and to them and the financial blessed and has been able to produce more of America, the Population Council, the Na- strain on the family and community are goods than it needs. Consequently, our tional Academy of Sciences, the Population more than we realize. Among low income, standard of living has been steadily increas- Reference Bureau, the American Public low educated parents surveyed recently, 54 percent of their children were unplanned and Our public health officials should fully To blunt expected criticism of militarizaunwanted. For every 100 patients visiting utilize the devices and information that are tion of the FAA, General McKee told the a planned parenthood center in 1962: 66 now available.
now available. It is my understanding that Senate that while General Maxwell was joinhave incomes of $74 or less per week; 33 are even though our law provides that money can ing the agency another general was leaving on welfare or have incomes of less than $50 be used for family-planning services, few it-USAF Maj. Gen. M. S. White, Federal air a week; 78 are less than 30 years old; 21 are agencies use it. Our officials must face up to surgeon. Dr. Peter V. Siegel, a civilian who less than 20 years old; and 69 have three their responsibilities.
has been serving as Chief of the FAA Aerochildren or less.
We must mount an educational program medical Certification Division at the Office What are the economic aspects of in- that will inform the American public of the of Aviation Medicine in Oklahoma City, will creased population in the United States?
wisdom and advisability of planning parent- replace General White. 1. Increasingly, we may expect our rapid hood. There has been substantial informa
Senator HARTKE contends that the arrival increase in numbers to burden, rather than tion and know-how collected. It must now
of General Maxwell and departure of General accelerate, our economy. be used.
White do not balance out because of the 2. Increased expenditures—mostly public Mr. Chairman, the meetings that we have overwhelming importance of the civilian funds-needed to supply schools and colleges, held have been most informative and most
supersonic transport program. He has asked health facilities, housing, water supplies, valuable. I am hopeful that the great reser
General McKee why the title of the job to be transportation, power, etc., for the expanding voir of knowledge that has been pulled to
held by General Maxwell has been changed population will mean a substantially higher gether will be used by the Federal Govern
from deputy director for supersonic transport tax burden and bigger government.
ment and State governments in their efforts development, to "director, supersonic trans3. This year 4 million new babies will be to meet these population problems and the port program.”. born in the United States, and between 15 problems experienced by our individual citi
Other questions Senator HARTKE has asked and 20 percent of all tax revenues will have zens who must concern themselves with the
General McKee by letter to answer are: “Why to be spent simply to give them basic need for planning their families. I have
was a military man selected for this position? services. appreciated serving on this committee and am
Was any search made for a civilian to fill this 4. The U.S. Office of Education estimates grateful for the opportunity of presenting position? Is any civilian technically comthat Americans spent $32 billion last year this statement.
petent and qualified to fill this important on schooling-three-quarters of it from tax
position? Is there any civilian in the aviafunds.
tion industry technically competent and What must be done to meet this challenge? THE SUPERSONIC TRANSPORT
qualified to fill this position? Is there any 1. Research on a far larger scale must be
civilian in any of our aviation engineering
PROGRAM supported on the biological and medical as
schools, such as Massachusetts Institute of pects of human reproduction so improved
Mr. HARTKE. Mr. President, two Technology, California School of Technology, methods of fertility control are developed. articles published in the August 30, 1965, Purdue or others, who could fill this posi
tion? Is it considered necessary that a mili2. The American people must be informed issue of Aviation Week demonstrate a of the enormous problems inherent in un continuing concern over the future of
tary man take this post? If so, should the checked population growth here as well as the civilian agencies of our Government, be transferred from the Federal Aviation
supersonic transport development program abroad. especially the FAA.
Agency to the jurisdiction of the Pentagon?" 3. A sense of responsibility must be developed concerning marriage and parenthood, a steady pace and again should be an
The military takeover is continuing at Chairman A. S. MIKE MCNRONEY, Democrat,
of Oklahoma, of the Senate Aviation Subincluding the responsibility of bringing into the world only those children whom parents item of national discussion. The two committee, who has championed the superwant and are prepared adequate to care for
articles are well written and of Senate sonic transport in the Senate in the past, and educate.
interest, and I therefore ask unanimous said, "I don't expect a flap” over the replaceconsent that they may be printed in the there will be a sizable fight when the $140
ment of Bain by General Maxwell. Whether 4. Existing knowledge about birth control at low or no cost must be made available to RECORD at this point in my remarks. million appropriation reaches the Senate those who need and wish such information
There being no objection, the articles floor, or before, depends on how much supand guidance.
were ordered to be printed in the RECORD, port Senator HARTKE recruits. The Federal Government has spent milas follows:
The House Appropriations Committee will lions of dollars in research so that the health
CONGRESS TO APPROVE SST MONEY REQUESTof the world could be improved. The effec
lump the $140-million for the supersonic tiveness of our federally financed research in MAJOR OPPOSITION UNLIKELY, BUT PROTEST transport with other Presidential requests for
fiscal BUILDS ON APPOINTMENT OF USAF OFFICER
1966 supplemental appropriations. cooperation with private enterprise has been
The whole bill will be voted within the next so effective that we have now virtually elim
TO HEAD FAA PROGRAM
few days. Then it goes to the Senate special inated many of the killer diseases and our
(By George C. Wilson)
subcommittee for supplemental requests, death rate is now very low. Now our public WASHINGTON.-Congress within the next headed by Senator JOHN O. PASTORE, Demohealth officials must concern themselves with
few days will approve President Johnson's crat, of Rhode Island. Senator MONRONEY is the increase in population which threatens request for $140 million in fiscal 1966 funds on this subcommittee and probably will dethe health and well-being of many millions
for the supersonic transport program but fend the supersonic transport money request of people.
not without protesting what some Members when it reaches the Senate floor. Because In my judgment, action is required. I contend is militarization of the Federal Ayi- Congress is pushing hard to get the money suggest: ation Agency.
bills out of the way so it can adjourn as soon 1. Public health organizations at all levels Chairman, GEORGE H. MAHON, Democrat, after Labor Day as possible, the supplemental of government should give increased atten
of Texas, of the House Appropriations Com- appropriations will reach a vote in the Sention to the impact of population change on mittee, told Aviation Week & Space Tech- ate a few days after it clears the House. No health,
nology there was no significant opposition separate bill authorizing the supplemental 2. Scientific research should be greatly ex- in the House to the President's supersonic appropriations is required as in most regular panded on (a) all aspects of human fertility; transport money request. "I think people money bills. and (b) the interplay of biological, psycho- are sold on the idea that this supersonic
HARTKE'S FORUM logical, and socioeconomic factors influencing transport is desirable. I think it will be a
Although the supplemental appropriation population change. routine thing to get House approval.
for the supersonic transport is entirely sepa3. Public and private programs concerned But a protest is building in the Senate, led rate from the question of whether the apwith population growth and family size by Senator VANCE HARTKE, Democrat, of In- pointments of Generals McKee and Maxwell should be integral parts of the health pro- diana. He said he is "very disturbed” over threaten to militarize the FAA, the debate on gram and should include medical advice and the imminent replacement of Gordon Bain, the money bill will provide a forum for Senaservices which are acceptable to the individ- deputy administrator for supersonic trans- tor HARTKE and his supporters. They came uals concerned. port development, by an Air Force general
within three votes of recommitting the bill 4. Full freedom should be extended to all and intends to make an issue of it when the granting General McKee special treatment to population groups for the selection and use money request reaches the Senate, if not enable him to collect about $8,000 a year in of such methods for the regulation of family before. Senator HARTKE objected to the retirement benefits. Some of that support size as are consistent with the creed and naming of USAF Gen. William F. McKee (re- may be transferred into opposition to the more of the individuals concerned.
tired) as FAA administrator on grounds it supersonic transport appropriation although Recognizing that the population problem,
amounted to militarizing the civilian agency not enough to deny the President the money. nationally and internationally, has become a (Aviation Week & Space Technology, June
Privately, those Senators pushing for the serious crisis, we must determine a course of 28, p. 31).
supersonic transport program generally and action. I recognize that a great deal of work
the $140 million specifically contend that has already been done by the drug firms Although General McKee weathered this there was no place other than the military throughout America and other interested attack and was confirmed, the whole ques- to recruit the kind of experienced manageorganizations. Nothing should be done to tion will be raised again because General ment needed to run the billion-dollar effort. detract from their achievements. In fact, we McKee has announced that USAF Brig. Gen. "Where are you going to get somebody should compliment their efforts. Jewell C. Maxwell will replace Bain.
who knows enough about the aircraft develCXI-1410
opment to run the supersonic transport pro- Princeton University, and is a graduate of to you the words of the broadcast letter gram," asked one Senator. "Do you really the War College.
to the patron saint of the Chinese think you're going to get a $75,000-a-year Industry sources are avoiding any public
Communists: man from Boeing or Douglas or any place else comments on the merits of General McKee's to work for the FAA for less than half that bringing a fellow Air Force officer into the
On behalf of the South Vietnam people money? We're getting near the metal cut- supersonic transport program. The airlines and the NFLSV, and in my own name, I ting stage now. Where are you going to go are particularly anxious to see to what ex- would like to extend the warmest and highto get somebody who really knows aircraft tent General Maxwell will seek their ad- est respect to you, the great leader of the development and procurement if you don't vice.
Chinese Communist Party and the Chinese go to the military?”
"The supersonic transport must be de- people. The South Vietnamese people are Although Bain enjoyed considerable sup- veloped in a fish bowl, without any secrecy," deeply inspired by receiving the full and port within the aerospace industry during one airline official said. “The airlines do not valuable sympathy and support from the his tenure as FAA's supersonic transport buy off-the-shelf aircraft. Each one, even Chinese Communist Party and the fraternal chief, backers of General Maxwell counter though it is a basic model, must have fea- Chinese people in their patriotic and just Bain's work was mainly organizing the Gov- tures desired by the individual carrier." struggle and war of resistance against the ernment's paper effort. The hardware stage, At present, FAA sources said, the only part U.S. imperialist aggressors and their lackeys they contend, demands a breadth of ex- of the supersonic transport still covered by and for national independence. perience different from the experience Bain Defense Department security is performance brought to the job. and interior technology on the engines.
Mr. President, I ask unanimous conOne byproduct of having military officers Bain told Aviation Week & Space Tech
sent to have this inserted into the at the forefront of the civilian supersonic nology that he felt now was the most op- RECORD at this point, the entire text of transport development is bound to be a full portune time for him to resign.
the letter from Nguyen Huu Tho to Mao assessment of the military potential of the “When I took this job in 1963, I had no Tse-tung. aircraft, despite the contention of Defense intention of seeing it through to the end,"
There being no objection, the stateSecretary Robert S. McNamara that there is Bain said. “My job was to pull everything
Bain said. “My job was to pull everything ment was ordered to be printed in the no military requirement for it. This could together and get it headed forward in good be a most significant byproduct, including order. That has been done, and the patthe very real possibility that the Defense De- tern for the next 18 months is set. So I [Communist China, International Affairs, partment eventually will pay for part of the feel it is a good time for me to step out."
Aug. 20, 1965) supersonic transport's development, perhaps Industry officials who have worked closely
NFLSV CHAIRMAN'S LETTER TO MAO TSE-TUNG the engines. with Bain acknowledge that he has kept the
Chairman Mao Tse-tung recently received program working smoothly and that schedule
a letter from Nguyen Huu Tho, Chairman of DEPARTURE OF BAIN SPURS CONCERN OVER deadlines have been met. The main point FUTURE FAA DIRECTION OF SST
the Presidium of the NFLSV Central Comof disagreement between himself and the
mittee, thanking the Chinese people for their WASHINGTON.-Gordon M. Bain's decision industry has been over the eventual produc
support to the South Vietnam people in to leave the Federal Aviation Agency where tion of flying prototypes—the industry want
their struggle against U.S. imperialist aghe has directed the supersonic transport ing two and Bain insisting on one. program since 1963 has created concern
"We in the industry know that the best gression. At the same time, Chairman Liu
Shao-chi, NPC Chairman Chu Te, and Preamong airlines and aircraft manufacturers airplane and engine always comes from an
mier Chou En-lai also received letters from over the future of the program. intense competition," one airline official said,
Comrade Nguyen Huu Tho. The letters were Adding to the uncertainty is the appoint"but recognize that Gordon might have had
hand delivered to Premier Chou En-lai by ment of Air Force Brig. Gen. Jewell C. Maxa tough time convincing the Government
Tran Van Trung, head of the NFLSV permawell, to replace Bain. that the added expense * was justified."
nent delegation to China, on August 12. Bain's resignation is effective September Bain's leading role in the program also was
The full text of Chairman Nguyen Huu 15. Bain said it was for "personal reasons"
affected when President Johnson named Deand that he plans to return to private in
fense Secretary Robert S. McNamara to head Tho's letter to Chairman Mao Tse-tung reads: a special advisory committee whose recom
SOUTH VIETNAM, dustry, although he has not said where or what his new job will be. mendations led to the recent phase 20 re
June 1, 1965. search decision.
CHAIRMAN MAO TSE-TUNG OF THE CCP Bain was considered to have a sympathetic understanding for the problems faced by negotiations on the phase 2C contracts that
DEAR CHAIRMAN: On behalf of the South both the airlines and the airframe and engine manufacturers in developing a practical the order to continue research for another Bain was not in complete agreement with Vietnam people and the NFLSV, and in my
own name, I would like to extend the warmtransport.
18 months. "We differed with him on a lot of points,
est and highest respect to you, the great but at least you could argue constructively sonic transport now before 1975,” one indus
“We cannot expect delivery of a U.S. super
leader of the Chinese Communist Party and
the Chinese people. The South Vietnam with him,” one airline equipment planner try spokesman said. “But Gordon agreed people are deeply inspired by receiving the The fact that the supersonic transport is ready by 1973.” with those of us who know we could have it
full and valuable sympathy and support from
the Chinese Communist Party and the fraa commercial enterprise, and that it is to be
ternal Chinese people in their patriotic and directed by an active-duty Air Force general,
just struggle and war of resistance against is the basis for most of the current concern.
THE THEORY THAT THE VIETNAM- the U.S. imperialist aggressors and their However, Gen. William F. McKee, FAA Ad
lackeys and for national independence.
ESE COMMUNISTS ARE ministrator, said in making the appointment
The historic statement issued by you on that General Maxwell was the best man he
August 29, 1963, on the South Vietnam quescould find who had lengthy experience in Mr. DODD. Mr. President, we are tion is of great significance to the revoluR. & D. work.
frequently assured by those who urge an tionary cause of the South Vietnam people. The job Bain holds pays $24,500 a year, which is not considered high by industry American withdrawal from Vietnam It also demonstrated once again the close,
solid militant friendship between the Chinese standards for a project like the supersonic that our withdrawal will not result in
and South Vietnam people, and has strengthtransport. turning Vietnam and southeast Asia over
ened further our solid strength to defeat the General Maxwell, 48, is presently com
to the effective political control by Pei- U.S. aggressors. mander of the Air Force Western Test Range ping. We are told that the Vietnamese To avoid its inevitable defeat in South at Vandenberg AFB, Calif. Among his re- Communists are basically anti-Chinese, Vietnam, U.S. imperialism is exerting great search and development activities was serythat Ho Chi Minh is basically another
efforts to intensify its war of aggression ice as chief military coordinator in devel- Tito, and that
the most effective
way of against South Vietnam, has dispatched to opment of the Boeing B-52 bomber.
South Vietnam tens of thousands of U.S. assuring the continued independence He is a former chief of staff of USAF
troops and some troops of its vassal countries, Systems Command, and in 1963 was chairover Vietnam from Peiping would be to
and has continuously extended the bandit man of the aircraft committee of Project turn the entire country over to the con
war to North Vietnam. At the same time, Forecast, which included analysis of future trol of the so-called Nationalist Com- it has spread the so-called unconditional Air Force needs for transports. For 5 years munists.
peace talks tricky offer, attempting to dehe was chief of the bomber aircraft division Mr. President, I believe that the most
ceive world opinion and to cover up its true at Wright-Patterson AFB. General Maxwell effective answer to those who entertain
aggression and bellicose nature. However, few 44 missions as a Martin B-26 pilot in these theories was recently given by the
the NFLSV Central Committee's five-point World War II, and was executive officer of the Chairman of the Presidium of the Na
statement issued on March 22, 1965, has 386th Bomb Group in the European Theater
pointed out that the South Vietnam people of Operations. tional Liberation Front of South Viet
are convinced that no frantic schemes, no He holds a mechanical engineering degree nam, in a letter to Mao Tse-tung. This tricky arguments, and no modern weapons from the University of Tennessee, a masters letter was broadcast over Peiping domes- and troops of U.S. imperialism and its vasdegree in aeronautical engineering from tic service on August 19. Let me quote sals could make the 14 million patriotic