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gram" (p. 75 of House hearings). In regard of manufactured products, etc. The 1948 July 8, to my letter of June 30 raising certo the 1953 program, Mr. Grieves said: proposal submitted in response to Public tain questions with respect to the Census of “We have devoted the past 2 years to Law 671 therefore contemplated the enumer- Transportation. working out a practical approach to this ation of businesses primarily engaged in the I am glad to learn that it is the intention difficult problem" (p. 72, House hear- sale of transportation services because this of the Department to continue to work toings). A little later in his testimony, Mr. was the only kind of census which could be ward the development of a sound and tested Grieves said: "Five years from now, when taken under the circumstances prevailing at program for the Census of Transportation. I this census comes up again, it would appear that time.
assure you that I shall continue to work for that there would be a better opportunity The primary interest of those seeking addi. an adequate appropriation for this census. to review what is worth doing in the light tional information on transportation appar- I am confident that Congress will not repeal of the 1953 results” (p. 73, House hearings). ently involves transportation as a process the law calling for the census of transporSecretary Weeks spoke of "* * * plan
* plan- wherever it occurs. This concept, of course, tation, and I believe earnestly that it is false ning * * * a sample survey
* and see
offers the possibility of an almost limitless economy to fail to appropriate adequate what it brings forth” (p. 5, House hear- expansion in the traditional concept of cen- funds for this census. The day is bound to ings).
sus taking, since transportation is an all- come when we shall urgently need the staThe program
offered by the Census pervading aspect of modern life. Neverthe- tistical data which only such a census can Bureau in 1953, for a census of transporta- less, as soon as funds were made available by provide, and when that day arrives there will tion, was superior to the program offered the Congress for planning the 1953 census not then be time to take the census. in 1948, but both were totally unsatisfactory program, in the appropriation for the fiscal I shall be grateful if you will keep me in terms of a real census of transportation.
year 1952, the services of a transportation advised from time to time respecting the It appears from the statements above expert were retained and intensive explora- activities of the Department in this connecnoted that the Bureau of the Census had
tion of the whole field of transportation was tion; and if there is anything I can do to 5 years to plan for the census of trans
initiated. We were careful in the selection assist the Department in attaining the objecportation, but used only two of the 5 years,
of the expert adviser to choose a person tives outlined, I hope you will call upon me. and failed to be ready. The Bureau did not
thoroughly familiar with the transportation Kindest personal regards. have an adequate plan, did not have an adesituation and the intent of the legislation.
Sincerely, quate justification for the program which In the planning process the views of many
PAT MCCARRAN. it did present, and did not support that pro
persons inside and outside of Government gram strongly enough.
were sought to determine the more urgent
needs which could be realistically satisfied FINAL VOTE SHOULD BE SCHEDThe program presented for 1953 relied on
It was sampling methods that were not adequately with statistical census measures.
ULED EARLY NEXT YEAR ON ST. tested. It would seem the Bureau certainly
found that to satisfy these needs novel, and can test methods and determine the kind of
indeed unprecedented, statistical techniques LAWRENCE SEAWAY statistical detail that can be collected, and would have to be devised. Experts from our
Mr. WILEY. Mr. President, I have the public need for such data, by relatively regular census organization were assigned
prepared a statement on the subject of inexpensive tests, rather than waiting for to these problems and finally achieved a costly censuses to determine those facts, as result which we felt justified the request
the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence legislaintimated by Mr. Grieves.
ing of a significant sum of money at the tion, S. 2150, and on the related subject Most respectfully, I request advice as to
time the 1953 budget was prepared and sub- of connecting channels for deep water what is the Department's plan for developing
mitted to the Congress. The revised budget 27-foot access to the upper Great Lakes. a sound and tested program for a census of
of this administration requested $1,700,030 I ask unanimous consent that the transportation. I assume the Department
for a transportation census to be appropri- statement be printed in the body of the must have such a plan, otherwise it would be ated for the fiscal year 1954 with $629,011 to
RECORD at this point. clear that the law has been and is being be requested in subsequent years to com
There being no objection, the stateignored.
plete the program outlined. It appears to I should also like to know, and ask to be me that this represents a very sizable ap
ment was ordered to be printed in the informed, what is the plan of the Census propriation to inaugurate a census, involv- RECORD, as follows: Bureau for informing the general public ing new concepts and new procedures.
STATEMENT BY SENATOR WILEY with regard to its program for a census of The testimony which you quote, offered by
It is with deep regret that the proponents transportation, so that an indication of myself, Dr. Burgess, and Mr. Grieves, is con
of the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence seaway note public need may be obtained. sistent with the situation described above
that this legislation, as reported from the Kindest personal regards and all good and accurately describes the position taken
Senate Foreign Relations Committee, will wishes. by this Department. I believe that you will
not be taken up this year. Sincerely, agree that in the last analysis, the worth
It is an obvious fact that, at this late PAT MCCARRAN. whileness of a census expenditure can only
stage and assuming a July 31st or August be determined by the uses to which it is
8th adjournment, an additional issue on THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE, put. We felt that we were in sufficient mas
which there would be considerable debate Washington, July 8, 1953. tery of the techniques to be employed to
such as the seaway, does not appear very Hon. PAT MCCARRAN, warrant a substantial appropriation request.
feasible for scheduling. United States Senate, Therefore, it was stated in response to a di
We had hoped, however, that if the seaWashington, D. C. rect question that the future development
way had been soundly scheduled before this, MY DEAR SENATOR MCCARRAN: This is in reof the census in 1958 should be largely de
that it would not have run into the inevi. ply to your letter of June 30, in which you termined by the reaction of potential users
table last-minute logjam on the oor. raise certain questions concerning the Cen
of such data to the results achieved in 1953.
And so, virtually from the outset of this sus of Transportation. As you know, the House and he Senate
Congress, I, for one, had urged that considcerning the Department's plan for develophave each passed an appropriation bill for ing a sound and tested program for the
eration be given for early scheduling of the
seaway. census of transportation I am glad to advise this Department providing funds for the fiscal year 1954. In neither bill has there been you that it is our intention to continue to
It is only reporting plain fact when I say made any provision for a Census of Transexplore this whole problem insofar as the
that feeling in the Middle West against the
failure to schedule the seaway is, I believe, portation. Furthermore, the reports of both
appropriations made available by the Conthe House and the Senate Appropriations gress make this possible. Since final action
running very high. Committees explicitly state that funds have has not yet been taken by the Congress it is
After all, it is not as if the seaway were been denied for this purpose. This repre
some new bill, suddenly dreamed up to fill difficult to be specific on this point. sented the second attempt of the Depart
I should like to see this matter brought
some minor, temporary need. The seaway is, ment to obtain funds to carry out a Transto a decisive conclusion so that by 1958 the
on the contrary, a very old bill on a very portation Census as required by Public Law
old, but very major subject, and on which Congress will either appropriate the funds 671, 80th Congress. The first attempt, as you needed to carry out a transportation census
the need is very urgent, very crucial. noted in your letter, was made in 1948, short
or amend the law to relieve this Department OUR GOOD RELATIONS WITH CANADA ARE ly after the passage of this law, and in this of such a responsibility.
INVOLVED instance, likewise, no funds were appropri
Moreover, the seaway does not simply inated.
volve the United States; it involves our rePublic Law 671 makes explicit provision for
Secretary of Commerce,
lations with the best neighbor in the worldcensuses of manufactures, mineral indus
Canada. tries, distributive trades, transportation,
JULY 11, 1953. To our Canadian friends, the further deand other businesses. Traditionally, a cen- Hon. SINCLAIR WEEKS,
lay in American decision on the seaway is sus taken under such authority involves a Secretary of Commerce,
another weary chapter in a dismal, old story. canvass of companies primarily engaged in
Looking at the picture from every standthe kinds of business named in the act. For
Washington, D. C.
point, one can well understand why there is example, the Census of Manufactures coyers MY DEAR MR. SECRETARY: Thank you very bitterness and deep disappointment in the plants primarily engaged in the production much for your prompt reply, under date of hearts of so many of our Canadian friends. What have the Canadians ever done to us There can be no explaining it away in
CONCLUSION to merit this sorry treatment on our part? spite of all the obvious difficulties which do With regard to the overall seaway project, The answer is, nothing. and did prevail.
fortunately Congress' failure to act this year They have upheld their end of the bargain. I could not allow this session to close is not fatal. They have completed more of the joint con- without commenting on this issue and pre- We can still act next year and in time to struction work than we have of ours. They senting these thoughts very frankly. I know join with Canada. have been ready, willing, and able to go that they reflect the views of my constituents The antiseaway lobbyists are apparently ahead for a long, long time.
and the views
going to take the license issue to the courts. We share their disappointment. throughout the Nation.
While the validity of the license is thus beWe share their regret at the unfortunate An administration is judged on the basis ing questioned (and, I am sure, confirmed by inaction of the Congress. We are sorry as of its record, not on the basis of its inten- the courts in the long run) the Congress Americans that our great Nation, the leader tions.
can take final action. of the free world, should be guilty of such
I do not doubt the administration's inten- It is tragic that there should be even this terrible dillydallying.
tions on this issue, but I do say that the delay, that the antiseaway lobbyists should We who favor the seaway do not, because record is hardly impressive,
be trying the one last monkey wrench by an of the lack of scheduling, criticize the dis
attempt to invalidate the license. But these tinguished acting majority leader, my able
HISTORY NOT INTERESTED IN EXCUSES
lobbyists will fail. The cause of progress colleague from California. He is laboring
This issue has never been a partisan one, will win. Of that we are sure. under mountainous burdens. He is trying but I say that the Republican Party has done to satisfy the needs of the Republican Party itself no good by its failure to schedule the and, most important of all, the needs of the seaway in this session.
THE KNOWLAND SUBSTITUTE AND Nation as he and the members of the major- The American people are not interested in ity party see them. excuses.
THE BRICKER AMENDMENT He is flooded with requests for scheduling Great historic opportunities such as we
Mr. WILEY. Mr. President, yesterday of this bill and that. It would be a short- have had for participation in the seaway do sighted man, indeed, who attempted to critinot exist forever.
I pointed out on the Senate floor that cize in a personal way the position of the If we had not built the Panama Canal, all
the substitute of the Senator from Calimajority leader on the scheduling problem. the explanations in the world regarding the
fornia (Mr. KNOWLAND] to Senate Joint I am not criticizing any individual per- difficulties of building the canal would not Resolution 1, as amended, requires the sonally. I try not to indulge in personalities.
have sufficed. History has a grim way of very careful consideration of the Senate. POSITION OF THE PRESIDENT
reckoning results. It brushes aside so-called I feel that the Knowland substitute is Moreover, my comments are not, of course, explanations, excuses, alibis.
very definitely a step in the right direca reflection on the President. My admira
I have been what I regard a real sup- tion. It is a step in the direction of protion of the President of the United States porter of this administration. I shall remain is too well known to require elaboration at a supporter because I feel that in domestic tection of the United States Constitution this time. and foreign affairs, it has been doing, by and
from those who would impair it, however It is my judgment that Dwight D. Eisen- large, an excellent job. It has many fine patriotic their motives, however esteemed hower has performed superb service in the things to its credit.
their personal background. first 6 months of his administration.
The public opinion polls, showing that the The Knowland substitute raises, howWhen one contemplates the tremendous President is at the peak of his popularity, ever, extremely consequential points, not problems which he has faced and the lim- speaks volumes; so I do not want my remarks
only of legal policy and constitutional Ited time in which he has had to deal with
to be misinterpreted or exaggerated. them, one feels the deepest gratitude, in- But on this issue of the seaway, the grim policy, but of international policy. deed, that Ike Eisenhower is in the White facts speak for themselves, and I believe in
Since I am not a cosponsor of the House to deal so well with the pressing needs calling a spade a spade.
Bricker amendment, I was not consulted of our Nation at home and abroad.
with regard to the Knowland substitute VITAL POSITION OF MIDWEST ON CONNECTING And, so I know that my comments with
to that amendment.
CHANNELS regard to the unfortunate lack of schedul
I do feel very frankly, however, that it ing of the seaway will not be taken as a
Now I want to point out that we of the
would have been far better all around if personal criticism of the President because
Midwest are deeply concerned on the issue they are definitely not so intended.
of deepening the connecting channels to the there had been consultation with the To anyone who has any doubt of the Presiupper Great Lakes.
chairman of the Senate Foreign Reladent's position, I call his attention to Senate
It is absolutely imperative that the upper tions Committee, because of the very sigReport 441-the report of the Senate Foreign
Great Lakes States have deep water, 27-foot nificant international implications of Relations Committee on S. 2150. access, to all the ports of the world.
this issue. In this report is President Eisenhower's
This can only be achieved by the deepen- Be that as it may, this is not a matter letter to me-as far back as April 23—stating of the connecting channels.
of personalities or personal pride. It is ing his agreement with the view of the Na. Unfortunately, a Senate-House conference
my hope that the issues involved in both tional Security Council that the St. Lawrence committee, by reducing the amount of funds
the Knowland substitute and the Bricker seaway is definitely in the national interest. for Corps of Engineer survey purposes, left I cannot say, however, that all phases of some slight doubt as to whether these con
amendment will be carefully reviewed by the administration downtown have given the necting channels would be the subject of our Nation. sort of leadership or the adequate sort of such engineering survey.
I hope that the best legal minds of encouragement to those of us on the Hill To my way of thinking, however, all such our country will now begin an intensive fighting its fight on this issue.
doubt should be completely eliminated. analysis of the Knowland substitute. The administration downtown took a long I know of few engineering surveys more I hope that the best experts on Ameritime-too long-making up its mind on this important than relate to the deepening of
can foreign relations, on treaty law, will issue. This admittedly is partially under these Midwest channels. standable because of the fact that it only
also make such an analysis.
We of the Middle West have too often took office 6 months ago. It has been called seen Corps of Engineer funds used for what
Most important of all, I hope that the upon to decide on literally scores of issues we regard as insignificant purposes in other
man in the street will find time to give for which this or that group waited im- areas of the Nation. Waterways which do his attention to a subject which affects patiently.
not carry the tiniest fraction of the traffic the welfare of his Nation so crucially. So, I want to be fair all around. I do not the Great Lak's carry, have received the My distinguished colleague from Ohio, want to join in with those critics who expect benefit of tens of millions of dollars of who has labored so long and so industhe administration to solve everything over- engineering funds. night by waving a magic wand.
triously on this problem, has said that
Let there be no doubt whatsoever thereBut the plain fact of the matter is that
he will take the issue to the country. fore that the preliminary surveys must be there is nothing new about this issue. The made of the connecting channels, because
That is, of course, his prerogative. I, for administration did not have to explore it from scratch. regardless of the ultimate decision on the
one, welcome the fullest grassroots disThe record of every President, of every overall Great Lakes-St. Lawrence seaway, the
cussion of his amendment. administration for decades, as well as the recchannels must be deepened.
I am confident of the outcome-an The Middle West. does not propose to be
outcome of decisive repudiation of any ord of engineering reports, committee reports, and hearings is clear. Why should all
treated any further as an orphan child. impairment of the traditional constituthis delay have occurred? It does not propose to be ignored at the ex
tional separation of power. The failure of the administration as a pense of its economic health, and it does not This morning's Washington Post carwhole to act in time and overcome obstacles propose to be left in the lurch in dealing ries a rather blunt editorial on this genand flash the green light on the St. Lawrence with competition with other economic areas eral issue. I believe that its brief comseaway speaks for itself. of the Nation.
ments on the substitute proposal are of
particular interest. I ask unanimousing greatly to the national security of the subject matters under consideration by said consent that they be printed at this point United States.
committee. in the body of the RECORD.
Hereof fail not, as you will answer your The preamble was agreed to. There being no objection, the excerpts
default under the pains and penalties in such
cases made and provided. were ordered to be printed in the RECORD,
To — to serve and return. as follows:
CITATION OF HARVEY O'CONNOR Given under my hand, by order of the [From the Washington Post] FOR CONTEMPT OF THE SENATE
committee, this 8th day of July, in the year In our opinion, Messrs. Dulles and Brownell
of our Lord one thousand nine hundred and went to the edge of danger when they agreed
Mr. KNOWLAND. Mr. President, I fifty-three. to write into the Constitution a provision to move that the Senate proceed to the
JOE MCCARTHY, let the Senate decide, in consenting to rati- consideration of Senate Resolution 147,
Chairman. fication of a treaty, whether it should there- citing Harvey O'Connor for contempt upon become the law of the land or require of the Senate.
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA further action by the entire Congress. Of The PRESIDING OFFICER. The
DISTRICT OF RHODE ISLAND course, the Senate could now attach such question is on agreeing to the motion of
JULY 10, 1953. a reservation to a treaty, but to write a prothe Senator from California.
I made service of the within subpena by vision of this sort into the Constitution would encourage an unwise practice.
The motion was agreed to; and the reading and leaving a true and attested copy Probably the power would be seldom used,
thereof in the hands and possession of the Senate proceeded to consider the resolufor the Senate would not often yield to the
within named Harvey O'Connor, at Little tion (S. Res. 147) citing Harvey O'Con
Compton, R. I., in said district, at 10 o'clock House authority to undo what it was doing nor for contempt of the Senate.
47m a. m., e. d. s. t. on the 10th day of July by a two-thirds majority vote. Even so, this Mr. MCCARTHY. Mr. President, in 1953. innovation might be mischievous, and it is this connection I ask unanimous con
CHARLES M. ELDRIDGE, certainly not necessary, for without any sent to submit a report of the Commit
United States Marshal, District of change in the Constitution Congress can tee on Government Operations and re
Rhode Island. at any time deprive a treaty of its status as internal law by the simple process of
quest that it be printed in the RECORD. passing a statute to that effect. In other There being no objection, the report
EXHIBIT 2 words, this part of the Knowland compromise (No. 630) was received and ordered to be
(Vol. No. 128) would offer no additional protection against printed in the RECORD, as follows:
STATE DEPARTMENT INFORMATION SERVICE unwise treaties, and might impose more work The Senate Permanent Subcommittee on
(INFORMATION CENTERS) on the already overburdened Congress Investigations of the Committee on Govern
UNITED STATES SENATE, It is unfortunate that the President has ment Operations as created and authorized
SENATE PERMANENT given this unnecessary substitute his wholeby the Committee on Government Opera
SUBCOMMITTEE ON INVESTIhearted endorsement. tions, under the Standing Rules of the Sen
GATIONS OF THE COMMITTEE ate, caused to be issued a subpena to Harvey
ON GOVERNMENT OPERATIONS, O'Connor. Said subpena directed Harvey
Washington, D. C., July 14, 1953. THANKS OF CONGRESS TO GEN. O'Connor to appear before the said subcom- The subcommittee met at 10:45 a. m., purmittee at 9:30 a. m. on July 14, 1953, in room
suant to Senate Resolution 40, agreed to PEYTON C. MARCH 357, Senate Office Building, Washington,
January 30, 1953, in room 318 of the Senate Mr. KNOWLAND. Mr. President, I D. C., then and there to testify relative to
Office Building, Senator JOSEPH R. MCCARTHY move that the Senate proceed to the such subject matters under consideration (chairman) presiding. by said subcommittee, designated "Exhibit
Present: Senators JOSEPH R. MCCARTHY consideration of Senate Concurrent
1.” Attendance pursuant to such subpena (Republican, Wisconsin), KARL E. MUNDT Resolution 43. was held in public session on July 14, 1953,
(Republican, South Dakota), EVERETT MCThe PRESIDING OFFICER. The at which time the witness appeared.
KINLEY DIRKSEN (Republican, Illinois). question is on agreeing to the motion of
The said Harvey O'Connor, having ap
Present also: Roy Cohn, chief counsel; the Senator from California. peared as a witness and having been asked
Daniel Buckley, assistant counsel; David The motion was agreed to; and the certain questions, which questions were
Schine, chief consultant; Ruth Young Watt, Senate proceeded to consider the con- pertinent to the subject matter under in
chief clerk. current resolution (s. Con. Res. 43), quiry, made answer as appears in the record
The CHAIRMAN. Who is your first witness,
Mr. Counsel? tendering the thanks of Congress to
of the said hearings on July 14, 1953, which
Mr. Cohn. Harvey O'Connor, Mr. ChairGen. Peyton C. March, former Chief of hereof, designated as "Exhibit 2.”
man. Staff of the Army.
As the result of said Harvey O'Connor's
The CHAIRMAN. Mr. O'Connor, will you Mr. SALTONSTALL, Mr. President, refusal to answer questions pursuant to the
take the witness chair? I believe the thanks of Congress are long said inquiry, as appears in the record an
You are reminded, Mr. O'Connor, that you overdue to an eminent officer of the First nexed and designated "Exhibit 2,” the sub
were administered the oath this morning. World War who has now reached the committee was prevented from receiving tes
You are still under oath. ripe, fine, old age of 88 years. The con- timony concerning the matter committed to current resolution was unanimously resaid subcommittee in accordance with the
The CHAIRMAN. Mr. O'Connor, you have terms of the subpena served upon this wit- been subpenaed here today to answer quesported by the committee. ness.
tions in regard to the writings which were The PRESIDING OFFICER. The
The Senate Committee on Government Op
purchased by the old Acheson State Departquestion is on agreeing to the concurrent erations met on July 16, 1953, and, after
ment. Before we ask you any questions, resolution.
reviewing the facts in this matter as set may I ask: The concurrent resolution (S. Con. forth in this report, resolved to present to
Mr. Cohn, has it been established and conRes. 43) was agreed to, as follows: the United States Senate for its immediate
firmed by the State Department that Mr. Whereas Gen. Peyton C. March retired from action a resolution requiring the United
O'Connor's writings have been purchased and the position of Chief of Staff of the United States attorney of the District of Columbia
have been distributed in various information States Army on June 30, 1921, after a dis
to proceed against the said Harvey O'Connor centers throughout the world?
Mr. COHN. Yes, Mr. Chairman. tinguished career; and
The CHAIRMAN. Then, Mr. O'Connor, we Whereas, despite his retired status, his in
will ask you this question: At the time you terest in national defense has continued to
wrote the books which were purchased by be profound and continuing; and
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
the old State Department, were you then a Whereas he has displayed this interest by
CONGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES
member of the Communist Party? many constructive suggestions which have been of great value to the War Department To HARVEY O'CONNOR, Warren Point, Lands TESTIMONY OF HARVEY O'CONNOR (ACCOMPANIED and the Department of the Army: Now,
End, Little Compton, R. I., Greeting:
BY HIS COUNSEL, LEONARD B. BOUDIN) therefore, be it
Pursuant to lawful authority, you are Mr. O'CONNOR. Mr. Chairman, may I make Resolved by the Senate (the House of Rep- hereby commanded to appear before the a brief statement? resentatives concurring), That the thanks Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations The CHAIRMAN. No. You will answer the of Congress are hereby tendered to Gen. of the Committee on Government Operations question. Peyton C. March for his selfless and patriotic of the Senate of the United States, on Tues- Mr. O'CONNOR. About my objection to the interest in the United States Army since his day, July 14, 1953, at 9:30 o'clock a. m., at jurisdiction of this committee? retirement, manifested so often by his help- their committee room 357, Senate Office The CHAIRMAN, Yes; you may make a state. ful counsel to the War Department and the Building, Washington, D. C., then and there ment on that. Department of the Army, thereby contribut- to testify what you may know relative to the Mr. O'CONNOR. Thank you.
Under the first amendment to the Consti- The resolution (S. Res. 147) was Mr. WILEY. In substance the joint tution, my writings, my books, and my polit. agreed to as follows:
resolution is identical with the bill which ical opinions are of no legitimate concern to
Resolved, That the President of the Senate
was introduced by the Senator from New this committee. If I have violated any laws in the writings that I have written, that is a
certify the report of the Committee on Gov- York [Mr. IVES). The committee heard
ernment Operations of the United States the testimony of Representative MILLER, proper concern for the law-enforcement
Senate as to the refusal of Harvey O'Connor agencies and not the proper concern of this
the sponsor of the joint resolution. It to answer questions before the Senate Percommittee.
amends the original joint resolution setmanent Subcommittee on Investigations, · The CHAIRMAN. Will you get nearer to the microphone, Mr. O'Connor, so that we can
said refusal to answer being pertinent to the ting up the Niagara Falls Bridge Comhear you?
subject matter under inquiry, together with mission in two main respects.
all the facts in connection therewith, under It permits the Commission to issue Mr. O'CONNOR. My second point would be
the seal of the United States Senate to the bonds payable from the revenue from all that this committee has no right to inquire
United States Attorney for the District of bridges operated by the Commission ininto my writings, under the point of the constitutional limitations on the powers of
Columbia, to the end that the said Harvey stead of, as under existing law, permit
O'Connor may be proceeded against in the ting the payment of bonds only from Congress and its committees. I might say
manner and form provided by law. in that regard that I have not known until
the revenues of a particular bridge withthis moment that my books were in overseas
out prejudice to such bondholders. This libraries, and most certainly I had nothing INCREASE IN THE MAXIMUM SUM change is thought desirable to finance
the purchase of a nearby privatelyIn the third place, I would object to the
owned bridge whose toll operation in authority of the committee, under the stat
competition with a toll-free public bridge ute by which it was created by Congress, to
Mr. KNOWLAND. Mr. President, I would cause serious traffic problems. It inquire into my writings or my political views.
move that the Senate proceed to the authorizes the Commission to replace The CHAIRMAN. Just for your information, consideration of calendar No. 362, H. R. existing bridges with new bridges at apMr. O'Connor, we are not concerned with 4484.
proximately the same location. any political views of yours. We would not
The PRESIDING OFFICER. The
No public funds are to be appropribe concerned about your writings. You are
question is on agreeing to the motion of ated; and bridges will be built by using entitled to write whatever you care to write. the Senator from California.
the proceeds of bonds which will be sold. Any American or anyone else is entitled to
The motion was agreed to; and the purchase your books, your writing. You are
The PRESIDING OFFICER. The Senate proceeded to consider the bill joint resolution is open to amendment. here this morning because your writings were purchased by the old Acheson State Depart- (H. R. 4484) to amend section 365 of the
If there is no amendment to be proment, distributed throughout the world, act entitled "An act to establish a code posed, the question is on the third readostensibly for the purpose of fighting com- of laws for District of Columbia," ap- ing of the joint resolution. munism. Now, when the taxpayers pay for proved March 3, 1901, as amended, to
The joint resolution (H. J. Res. 253) your books, when the royalties of your books, increase the maximum sum allowable by was ordered to a third reading, read the paid by the taxpayer, go into the Communist
the court out of assets of a decedent's coffers, then this committee is concerned estate for funeral expenses.
third time, and passed. with that. For that reason, I again ask you the question: At the time you wrote the Mr. BARRETT. Mr. President, the books which were purchased with taxpayers' purpose of the bill is to change the ENTRY OF CHILDREN ADOPTED BY money and put in our information libraries amount that may be allowed as a pre
UNITED STATES CITIZENS SERVthroughout the world, at that time were you ferred claim for funeral expenses in the a member of the Communist conspiracy?
The figure of $300 was set 51 years ago. Mr. KNOWLAND. Mr. President, I on the three grounds I have already stated.
The Committee on the District of The CHAIRMAN. You can object. Now you
move that the Senate proceed to the will answer, unless you feel that the answer Columbia heard testimony on the sub- consideration of House Joint Resolution will tend to incriminate you.
ject, and it was considered to be vital 228, Calendar No. 607. Mr. O'CONNOR. I do not feel that the an- and necessary that the amount be raised The PRESIDING OFFICER (Mr. BARswer will tend to incriminate me.
to conform to the present-day economy. RETT in the chair). The joint resolution The CHAIRMAN. Then you are ordered to
Furthermore, the bill raises the will be stated by title, for the informaanswer.
amount that may be allowed, for spe- tion of the Senate. Mr. O'CONNOR. I have already answered. The CHAIRMAN. I apparently did not hear cial cause, upon an order of the court,
The LEGISLATIVE CLERK. A joint resto a total of $1,000. The figure in the olution (H, J. Res. 228) to permit the you answer then. You are ordered to answer whether or not
present law is $600. The latter figure entry of 500 children under 6 years of you were a member of the Communist Party. could not be the subject of a preferred age, adopted by United States citizens
Mr. O'CONNOR. On the three grounds I claim, but could be merely deducted for while serving abroad in the Armed have stated, I have declined to answer. State and inheritance-tax purposes. The CHAIRMAN. Let us have the record
Forces of the United States; or while
The PRESIDING OFFICER. The bill employed abroad by the United States clear, so that we will know what you have declined to answer. I will repeat the ques
is before the Senate and open to amend- Government. tion. At the time you wrote the books which ment. If there be no amendment to be
The PRESIDING OFFICER. The were purchased by the old Acheson State offered, the question is on the third question is on agreeing to the motion Department and distributed in our informa- reading and passage of the bill. tion centers, were you a member of the Com
of the Senator from California.
The bill was crdered to a third readmunist conspiracy?
The motion was agreed to; and the ing, read the third time, and passed. Mr. O'CONNOR. My political affiliations or
Senate proceeded to consider the joint lack of political affiliations are no legitimate
resolution, which had been reported concern of this committee.
CREATION OF NIAGARA FALLS
from the Committee on the Judiciary The CHAIRMAN. Do you refuse to answer?
with an amendment, to strike out all Mr. O'CONNOR. Apparently.
after the enacting clause and insert: The CHAIRMAN. Not "apparently."
Mr. KNOWLAND. Mr. President, I refuse to answer?
That, not to exceed 500 special nonquota Mr. O'CONNOR, I refuse to answer,
move that the Senate proceed to the con- immigrant visas may be issued, subject, to The CHAIRMAN. You are not refusing on
sideration of calendar 608, House Joint all provisions of the Immigration and Nathe ground that the answer might tend to Resolution 253.
tionality Act, to eligible orphans as defined incriminate you?
The PRESIDING OFFICER. The in this act who are under 10 years of age Mr. O'CONNOR. I am not asserting the priv- question is on agreeing to the motion of
question is on agreeing to the motion of at the time the visa is issued and such ilege against self-incrimination. the Senator from California,
eligible orphans may be admitted into the The CHAIRMAN. You are not asserting the The motion was agreed to; and the
United States for permanent residence: privilege against self-incrimination. All Senate proceeded to consider the joint this act shall terminate not later than De
Provided, That the issuance of visas under right. You may step down. resolution (H. J. Res. 253) to amend the
cember 31, 1954. The PRESIDING OFFICER. The
OFFICER. The joint resolution of June 16, 1938, creating SEC, 2. When used in this act the term question is on agreeing to the resolution. the Niagara Falls Bridge Commission, . "eligible orphan" shall mean an alien child (1) who is an orphan because of the death On page 3, line 9, strike out "the or- mittee on Interior and Insular Affairs or disappearance of both parents, or bephan” and insert "such child."
with an amendment, to strike out all cause of abandonment or desertion by, or
On page 3, line 10, immediately pre- after the enacting clause and insert: separation or loss from, both parents, or who has only one parent due to the death
ceding the word “by”, insert “have been That the Secretary of the Interior is hereby or disappearance of, abandonment or de given.”
authorized and directed to grant perpetual sertion by, or separation or loss from the On page 3, line 11, strike out "while” easements, subject to such reasonable conother parent and the remaining parent is and insert "is."
ditions as are necessary for the protection incapable of providing care for such or- On page 3, line 13, strike out "the or
of the Federal interests, for rights-of-way phan and has in writing irrevocably released phan” and insert “such child.”
through, over, or under the parkway lands him for emigration and adoption; (2) (a) who has been lawfully adopted abroad by and insert "such citizen and spouse.”
along the line of the Chesapeake and Ohio On page 3, line 13, strike out "they"
Canal, now or hereafter acquired, for the a United States citizen and spouse while
purposes of electric, telephone, and telegraph said citizen is or was serving abroad in the
On page 3, line 13, immediately pre- lines or conduits, gas, oil, and water pipeUnited States Armed Forces, or while em
ceding the word "adopt”, insert "legally.” lines, tunnels, and water conduits, or for ployed abroad by the United States Gov- Mr. WATKINS. Mr. President, will other utility purposes incident to industrial, ernment, or (b) for whom assurances satis- the Senator from Nevada yield to me? commercial or agricultural use, or to the factory to the consular officer to whom a Mr. McCARRAN. I yield.
supply of water for domestic, public, or any visa application on behalf of the orphan
other beneficial use, where it is intended to
Mr. WATKINS. Are the amendments is made, by a United States citizen and
use such rights-of-way for any one or more to the committee amendment technical spouse while said citizen is serving abroad
of the purposes hereinabove named. in the United States Armed Forces, or amendments, for the purpose of clarifi
SEC. 2. No part of said easements shall be while employed abroad by the United States cation?
used for any other than the purposes for Government, that if the orphan is admitted Mr. McCARRAN. They are corrective which they are granted, and in the event into the United States they will adopt him amendments, correcting the language. of any breach of this restriction, or in the in the United States and will care for him Mr. WATKINS. I have no objection.
event of any failure to observe the condiproperly; and (3) who is ineligible for ad
The PRESIDING OFFICER. With
tions in said easements, either of which mission into the United States solely be
shall continue for a period of 90 days after out objection, the amendments of the cause the nonpreference portion of the quota
notice thereof, or in the event the said easeSenator from Nevada to the committee to which he would otherwise be chargeable
ment is abandoned for the purposes granted, is oversubscribed by applicants registered amendment will be considered en bloc.
the entire interest herein authorized to be on the consular waiting list at the time his
The question is on agreeing to the granted shall, upon a declaration to that visa application is made.
amendments of the Senator from Nevada effect by the Secretary of the Interior, revert SEC. 3. No natural parent of any eligible to the committee amendment.
to the United States. orphan who shall be admitted into the The amendments to the amendment SEC. 3. The Secretary of the Interior shall United States pursuant to this act shall were agreed to.
cause an appraisal to be made of the fair thereafter, by virtue of such parentage, be
market value of the said easements, includ
The amendment, as amended, was accorded any right, privilege, or status
ing the resulting damage, if any, to the under the Immigration and Nationality agreed to.
residue of the parkway lands, which apAct.
The PRESIDING OFFICER. The praisal, after approval by the Secretary of SEC. 4. Any eligible orphan granted a visa question now is on the engrossment of the Interior, shall be paid in cash by the under this act shall be deemed a nonquota the amendment and third reading of the grantees requesting the easement as the immigrant for the purposes of the Immi- joint resolution.
consideration for said easements when gration and Nationality Act.
The amendment was ordered to be en
granted by the United States.
SEC. 4. The Secretary of the Interior is The PRESIDING OFFICER. The grossed, and the joint resolution to be
further authorized, in his discretion, to grant question is on agreeing to the committee read a third time.
perpetual easements, subject to such condiamendment.
The joint resolution was read the third
tions as are necessary for the protection of Mr. MCCARRAN. Mr. President, I time, and passed.
the Federal interest, for rights-of-way send to the desk a series of amendments,
The title was amended so as to read: through, over, or under the parkway lands which I offer, en bloc, to the committee "Joint resolution to permit the entry of along the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, now amendment. 500 eligible orphans under 10 years of
or hereafter acquired, for railroad tracks or
for other utility purposes: Provided, That The PRESIDING OFFICER. The age, adopted abroad or to be adopted
such easements may be granted in exchange amendments of the Senator from Ne- in the United States by United States
for the relinquishment of existing easements vada to the committee amendment will citizens serving abroad in the United
across land now or hereafter in Federal be stated.
States Armed Forces or employed ownership within the parkway: Provided furThe LEGISLATIVE CLERK. It is proposed abroad by the United States Govern- ther, That the Secretary may cause an apto amend the committee amendment as ment."
praisal to be made of the value of such follows:
easements and may require payment to be
made by the grantee as provided in section On page 2, line 12, strike out the EASEMENTS FOR RIGHTS-OF-WAY
3 of this act: Provided further, That no part comma.
AND EXCHANGE OF LANDS ALONG of said easements shall be used for any other On page 2, line 13 immediately after
CHESAPEAKE & OHIO CANAL than the purposes for which they are granted, the word "subject,” strike strike out the
and in the event of any breach of this comma.
Mr. KNOWLAND. Mr. President, I
restriction, or in the event of any failure On page 2, line 16, after the word
move that the Senate proceed to the to observe the conditions in said easements, “yisa” insert "application."
consideration of Senate bill 711, Calen- either of which shall continue for a period dar No. 590.
of 90 days after notice thereof, or in the On page 2, line 16, strike out "issued"
The PRESIDING OFFICER. The bill
event the said easement is abandoned for and insert "filed." On page 2, beginning in line 21, strike tion of the Senate. will be stated by title, for the informa
the purposes granted, the entire interest
herein authorized to be granted, upon a out “is an orphan because of” and in
declaration to that effect by the Secretary,
The LEGISLATIVE CLERK. A bill (S. sert “has suffered.”
shall revert to the United States. 711) to authorize the Secretary of the On page 2, line 22, strike out “both Interior to grant easements for rights
SEC. 5. The Secretary of the Interior is
hereby authorized, in his discretion, when in parents.”
of-way through, over and under the the best interest of the United States, to On page 2, beginning in line 22, strike parkway land along the line of the
convey, at the fair market value, to counties out "because of.” Chesapeake & Ohio Canal, and to au
and municipalities for roads, streets, highOn page 3, line 2, strike out “orphan” thorize an exchange of lands with other
ways, or other municipal facilities, by proper and insert "child."
deed or instrument, any lands or interests Federal departments and agencies, and On page 3, line 6, strike out "while"
in lands of the United States within the for other purposes. and insert "is or was.”
parkway along the line of the Chesapeake The PRESIDING OFFICER. The
and Ohio Canal, under the jurisdiction of On page 3, line 8, strike out “for" and question is on agreeing to the motion of the Department of the Interior and located insert “concerning." the Senator from California.
within the boundaries of such county or On page 3, line 8, immediately follow- The motion was agreed to; and the municipality, which are not needed for parking the word "assurances" insert a Senate proceeded to consider the bill, way purposes, but not to the extent of severcommar.
which had been reported from the Com- ing in any manner the continuity of the