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comparable grades in the other military
There being no objection the state- which represents cash appropriations to services"; On page 57, line 10, to change the section RECORD, as follows: ment was ordered to be printed in the liquidate prior-contract authorizations in
the Navy. Thus, the bill contains a grand number from '642" to "641";
total of $34,430,848,000 of new money, which On page 57, line 15, to change the section
STATEMENT BY SENATOR FERGUSON
is over half of the total new funds for the number from "643” to “642”;
The Senate has now proceeded to consider entire Federal Government in the new budgOn page 57, line 20, to change the section ation of H. R. 5969, the Defense Department et year. The amount of new money—the number from "644" to "643"; in the same appropriation bill for the 1954 fiscal year. As obligational authority—in this bill is $10,line, after the word “of”, to strike out "this chairman of the Senate Appropriations Sub 491,810,412 less than was appropriated by the or any other” and insert "any”; and on page committee which considered this bill, I pro
Congress last year. The amounts recom58, line 15, after the word "possessions”, to pose to make a general presentation of the mended by the Senate Committee are $77,insert a colon and the following additional nature of the bill.
161,500 more than the amount of $34,353,proviso: "Provided further, That none of the The purpose of this legislation is to pro 686,500 as passed by the House of Represent
tatives. funds appropriated by this act shall be avail
vide financing for the various programs of able for expenditure under any contract the Department of Defense for the fiscal year
This bill, Mr. President, is the product of without regard to the provisions of law rebegining July 1, 1953 and ending June 30, the concerted efforts of the new adminis
tration in its review of the programs and lating to the making, performance, amend
1954. This bill provides the money needed ment, and modification of contracts, for the during that period.
policies in the Department of Defense since To survive as a free and independent na
January 1953, and the detailed and lengthy purpose of correcting or preventing economic dislocations";
tion in this complex, hate-ridden world, our hearings before your committee on these On page 58, line 21, to change the section
programs over a period of almost 2 months. spiritual strength must be buttressed by our number from "645" to "644";
economic strength, and military The committee has taken more than 2,000 strength.
pages of printed testimony, reviewed the 4,On page 60, line 4, to change the section
We are appropriating now the money with
500 pages of testimony received by the House number from "646" to "645"; which to buy the military strength, the hard
committee and reviewed an additional roomOn page 60, after line 10, to insert a new
muscle upon which our survival depends. high pile of supporting data. section, as follows: The committee in its recommendations also
Before going into some of the broader as"SEC. 646. During the fiscal year 1954, unhas been aware of our economic strength.
pects of these programs, let me say at the expended balances of allocations heretofore
Remember that production of defense
outset that this bill, like all other appromade, and allocations hereafter made to the items does not add to the Nation's economy.
priation bills coming before the Senate, repDepartment of Defense, from any appropriaWar is wasteful. Production for war, or the
resents our most earnest and sincere efforts tion for military assistance may be trans
possibility of war, is wasteful. The materials to consider and provide for our national ferred to such appropriations of the Deused, the man-hours used, are materials and
defense in light of the serious fiscal probpartment of Defense as may be determined
man-hours which cannot go into production lems confronting this Nation, which has by the Secretary of Defense and when so
of those things which can raise our standard just completed the fiscal year 1953 with the transferred shall be merged and consolidated of living.
highest peacetime budget deficit in the hiswith and be available for the same pur But we must be prepared, and we must
tory of this country-a whopping total of poses and period of time as the appropriation be prepared realistically to defend our in
$9,389,000,000. One of the first and most to which transferred. The total amount of stitutions and moral values.
important tasks of the new administration these allocations (except for funds allocated
Between the idea of total defense, or the
has been to review the 1954 budget submitted for offshore procurement purposes) shall be idea of putting everyone into uniform, and
by the previous administration, and to deaccounted for to the Director of Mutual the idea of no defense at all there is a proper
termine the steps that could be taken in Security, by title and by country, solely on
middle ground which can be found only by proceeding toward accomplishment of a balthe basis of the value of material delivered close analysis of the facts, sound experience
anced budget as soon as practicable. At the and services performed, such value to be and sound judgment.
same time, the administration and the comdetermined in accordance with the provi
Our recommendations are based on the
mittee have not taken the point of view that sions of the Mutual Security Act, as sound military experience of our Commander
we could proceed to balance the budget amended: Provided, That nothing herein shall be construed to authorize the furnish, and the sound industrial experience of the in Chief, the President of the United States,
without regard to the continuation of an
effective military strength. We have striven ing of military assistance under the Mutual Security Act, as amended, in excess of the Secretary of Defense and his aides. Their
to weigh and evaluate the programs insofar combined thinking of what type of defense
as time has permitted to determine, on the amounts appropriated”; this Nation needs in these times, and of how
one hand, whether some programs might not On page 61, after line 3, to insert a new much can be produced in our industry is re
better be eliminated or at least deferred unsection as follows: flected in this bill.
til subsequent fiscal years without impair"SEC. 647. None of the funds appropriated
ing the military posture of the Nation, and,
To my way of thinking, the defense proin this act shall be used for the purchase of
on the other hand, how much we could an. gram authorized in this bill is sincere and passenger automobiles except for replace
ticipate reducing expenditures in the current realistic. It is aimed at providing a dollar's ment";
fiscal year 1954 in order to assist in reaching worth of defense for every dollar of tax On page 61, after line 6, to insert a new
a balanced budget as soon as practicable. money. It will not permit extravagances section as follows:
Let me say, further, that no one can be which in the past have plagued the tax"SEC. 648. None of the funds appropriated
absolutely sure whether the amount we are payer in the myth of necessity. in this act shall be used for the expenses of
recommending in this bill is too high, too
There has been too much fog in the past low, or just about right. If we knew that operating the Armed Forces Textile and Aparound what was necessary to defend this
we would be involved in a major war in the parel Procurement Agency after December 31, Nation and what was merely desired as a frill. 1953”;
near future, then the amount we are rec
The ornaments and the gay trappings ommending would be clearly inadequate. On On page 61, line 11, to change the section
which in the past formed a fat cushion the other hand, if we knew that there would number from "647" to "649.”
around the defense program must go—and definitely be no future war, and that the
they will go under this bill. We are elimMr. FERGUSON subsequently said:
Korean truce would in fact mean a cominating the fat and getting down to the Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent hard bone and muscle upon which our sur
plete cessation of combat, then the amount
we are recommending could be cut. Unthat, following the remarks I made this vival must depend.
fortunately, we do not and cannot know morning, I may have printed the state We are clearing the fog which obscured either of these things. The only basis upon ment I prepared explaining the defense the proper paths and are assuming a com which we have been able to proceed has appropriation bill. There was so much pletely realistic view of what our Nation been that there appears no evidence which must have and what it can have.
indicates that the threat and danger to the yielding that my remarks were broken
This realistic approach will assure us of free world has appreciably lessened. At the up.
economic strength and military strength to same time, the drain on the resources of My reason for making the request is safeguard our spiritual strength.
this country by the Korean war has been that if there is any value to my explana The bill, H. R. 5969, as recommended by substantial, and, although important progtion by way of interpretation, it would your committee, is the largest single appro ress has been made in increasing the mili
tary strength of the free world, we are be much clearer if presented in the order priation for the Federal Government in the
1953–54 fiscal year. The amount of cash considerably short of what our state of readiin which I had prepared my statement. appropriations provided in this bill total
ness ought to be. I, therefore, ask unanimous consent to $34,511,302,000, which includes $275,000 for The military programs provided for in this have placed at the end of my extempo the National Security Council and the Na appropriation bill represent a middle course raneous remarks the statement which I tional Security Training Commission; $769, between the dangerous 'extremes of feast or had prepared regarding the defense ap
600,000 for the Office of the Secretary of De famine, as has been our policy in the past.
fense; $13,013,156,000 for the Army; $9,480, As President Eisenhower has so aptly stated, propriation bill.
408,500 for the Navy; and $11,247,862,500 for we must have a national-defense policy patThe PRESIDING OFFICER. Is there the Air Force. In terms of new obligational terned for an age of danger, not a day of objection?
authority, we must subtract $80,454,000 peril. The programs of national defense
represent achievement of a military posture mittee's detailed analysis of the budget pres carrier task forces, and funds are provided that can be sustained over an indefinite pe entation may reveal some areas where fur for an additional new super aircraft carrier riod for as long as international tensions ther reductions may be made without im of the Forrestal class, and for the planning continue, without exhausting the Nation, pairment of the force goals and overall de and design of a submarine of the latest type. without continuing to induce inflation, and fense objectives."
Naval aviation will be further strengthened without continuing high taxes indefinitely The - charge has been made that this by delivery of several thousand new modern and without inviting aggression.
budget was prepared by money men and that aircraft which will continue to modernize In this connection, let me make clear that the President did not formulate this budget the fleet air units. These new aircraft are the dollars recommended in this bill are, in and is not aware of its implications. Such fully capable of meeting the best planes of the committee's judgment, ample to provide a charge is unfair and completely misleading. the enemy and coming out on top. As in the for the continued improvement of the state The budget for the Armed Forces, which case of the Army, the Navy will have to reof military preparedness which we ought to is the basis for this appropriation bill, was duce personnel in the shore establishments, have in light of our defense problems of to developed, as I pointed out, under the direct and in overhead activities so as to accomplish day. A great deal of confusion has been cre guidance of the President and the National this objective, within a military personnel ated in the minds of the American people Security Council.
strength of 745,066. Naval aviation, includby statements made in the press and in the No President of the United States, no Sec ing the Marine Corps, will have. 9,941 ophalls of the Congress about the "dollars” retary of Defense, nor head of any agency erating aircraft, which will be available to in the revised budget for 1954, without re can possibly know all of the details that a support United States foreign policy gard to the basic programs for which these büdget contains—details that require the wherever needed. In addition to delivery of "dollars” provide the financing. To continue combined efforts of the budget staffs of 3 several thousand modern planes this year these statements about the billions appro military departments, the Bureau of the funds are provided to the Navy for setting priated or spent without telling the Ameri
Budget, and many program witnesses to pre contracts for about 1,300 additional aircan people what we have obtained for these sent in documents running to many thou craft in the 1954 fiscal year to be delivered billions is certainly unfair to them. In sands of pages. The Bureau of the Budget, in subsequent years as production is acmany instances, these statements about dol
as an agency acting for and on behalf of the complished. lars could only be interpreted as half-truths President, has a staff of over 400 people just The Marine Corps is organized into 3 diat best, promulgated to serve a special to present the annual budget of the United visions and 3 air wings, with supporting eleinterest.
States to the Congress. It is ridiculous to ments, and military personnel of about 250,Much has been made in some quarters that assume that the President should become a 000, and is completely equipped, although the budget recommendations of the new ad clerk to check the detailed accuracy of each many of the equipment items are not as ministration for the Defense Department figure or statement in the budget document modern as might be desired. The funds prorepresented private decisions and policies of to see whether it conformed with the basic vided in this bill will enable the Marine the Secretary of Defense and his assistants, budgetary assumptions and policies approved Corps to continue its 3 divisions and 3 air and did not represent the views of the Presi by him. The same holds true for the head wings, with 230,021 military personnel at dent. Apparently those who have attempted of any agency, including the Secretaries of the end of the 1954 fiscal year. Deliveries of to make something out of such a charge have each of the three military departments who new equipment during the next year will subdone so because the new administration, in have their own budget and review and plan- stantially improve the quality of both Makeeping with its policy of attempting to bal. ning staffs.
rine Corps aircraft and ground equipment. ance the budget as soon as practicable, re Instead of laboring this point, let us spend At the end of April the Air Force had duced the amounts requested of the Con our time more profitably by looking at what activated 106 wings, 13 of which had not gress by the Truman administration in Jan
programs for national defense we will be at that time been provided with their uary 1953 of $41.3 billion to $36 billion, or a
financing with the dollars on this bill and planned combat aircraft, and had a military reduction of $5.3 billion. Also, some people how far along we are in achieving a proper personnel strength slightly over 970,000. have erroneously concluded that this reducmilitary preparedness.
During the summer and fall of 1953 an intion from the former administration's budg The Army now has 20 divisions, 18 regi tensive and detailed study of the entire et was done without regard to the basic pro mental combat teams, and 113 antiaircraft defense picture is planned by the newly grams and projects for the defense of this
battalions, together with the necessary sup designated Joint Chiefs of Staff. Pending country. Such charges are ridiculous.
porting elements, and military personnel of completion of this study an interim goal Let me say, in the first place, that the about 1,500,000. The divisions are reason of 120 wings has been provided in this apbudgets of all the agencies of the Govern ably well equipped, and in many cases the propriation bill. The results of the study ment for the 1954 fiscal year were reviewed Army is beginning to accumulate mobiliza to be made by the Joint Chiefs of Staff will as soon after the new administration took
tion reserve stocks in certain categories with provide the basis for the fiscal year 1955 office as possible. This review was required large quantities of goods still on order. The budget and its review by the Congress. of the Department of Defense along with
programs included in this appropriation bill The 120-wing program will provide for the other departments and agencies. The
provide for the maintenance during the 114 wings to be activated and substantially Director of the Bureau of the Budget, on coming fiscal year of the same basic forces, well equipped by the end of the current behalf of the President, launched the gen but with their effectiveness improved by fiscal year for the Air Force and, in addition, eral review by his memorandum of February substantially increased modernization of 7 Air National Guard and Air Reserve wings 3, 1953. During the months of February, equipment, and with four more antiaircraft all equipped with modern aircraft-a total March, and April, the Department of De battalions. However, the Army will have to of 121 wings to be attained this year. By fense instituted a detailed review of the pre make reductions in total military personnel June 30, 1955, the total number of wings for vious appropriations and current budget re in the overhead and supporting activities, the Air Force provided by this bill will be quests. This review was conducted under
so that the Army total strength will be about 120, plus an additional 23 wings in the Air the direction and with the guidance of the 1,421,000 on June 30, 1954, if combat con National Guard and Air Reserve. All of these National Security Council, of which the Pres
tinues in Korea up to that time. If combat wings will be equipped with modern airident of the United States is Chairman. The
ceases, present plans call for a reduction of craft, thus making a total of 143 wings. fiscal and budget staffs of the Army, the Army strength to 1,370,000. In addition, and The Air Force is currently operating more Navy, and Air Force, the Office of the Secre for the first time in a regular appropriation than 27,000 airplanes of all types. The Navy tary of Defense, and the Bureau of the
bill, funds have been provided to finance and Marine air wings contain another 10,000 Budget, presented detailed studies for the combat consumption of supplies and equip- aircraft, giving this country a total military consideration of the National Security Coun ment in Korea during fiscal year 1954, and aircraft strength of 37,000. Of course, not cil in its endeavor to scrutinize carefully ammunition will be financed for an addi all of these planes are first-line combat airthe plans and programs of the Department tional 6 months at combat consumption craft, but almost all of them do have miliof Defense. The President was present at rates. The modernization of the Army will tary effectiveness under some conditions. all of the deliberations of the National Secu continue at a greater increased rate, and If the combat planes in the Air Force, rity Council, and personally approved the reasonable additions will be made to the Marines, and Navy were all organized on the guidance directives to the Department of mobilization stocks of critical items.
basis of an Air Force wing, our military air Defense. The budget requests to the Con The Navy is operating 408 warships and strength now would be the equivalent of gress were the result of this review and were 16 carrier air groups with necessary sup 152 wings, and by June 30, 1956, this total based on this guidance of the National Se porting combatant and auxiliary vessels, a air strength will rise to 176 equivalent wings. curity Council. The President himself ap total of 1,131 vessels, with 9,941 operating No major type combat aircraft are elimiproved the revised budget estimates, and is
aircraft, and military personnel strength of nated from the original program by this fully conversant with the force goals and
slightly over 800,000. Except for aircraft, budget with the exception of the B-47's prebudgetary matters.
the Navy is equipped with reasonably modern viously scheduled to equip combat training In his letter of June 30, 1953, to Represent material and in numerous areas is acquiring wings and these aircraft are not yet on order. ative SCRIVNER he stated that his letter mobilization reserves.
The funds provided in this bill, when conoffered him another opportunity “to reiterate The funds provided in this bill in general publicly that this budget represents my own
sidered together with funds provided the Air call for the maintenance during fiscal year Force in prior years by the Congress, will views and bears my personal endorsement in 1954 of the same basic combat forces in the finance completely the procurement of airall major particulars," the President went on Navy, with the delivery of a limited number craft for the full 143-wing program. to say: "to repeat-I have studied this of new vessels and the modernization of In addition to the provision for new airbudget thoroughly and am in full accord others. The Navy program provides for con craft for the modernization of the Air Force, with it, recognizing of course that your com tinuation of the gradual modernization of funds are provided in this bill for continuing
the necessary procurement of ground equip- of the Korean war. Hence that program ances, approximately $60 billion. We ment, ammunition for combat operations, must go on even if a reliable peace comes in have spent $33,300,000,000 on the Air and related equipment, including the latest Korea. Our major danger remains. To cut
Force since the Korean war. electronic devices.
any additional funds from this appropriaThe Air Force is provided funds for an tion bill would mean that we would be cut
The immediate problem which conaverage strength of 970,000 military person ting into the basic combat effectiveness and
cerns us in this bill, as I see it, is the renel in fiscal year 1954, with an end strength military preparedness of the Armed Forces.
duction which has been proposed by of 960,000 by June 30, 1954. This reduction Certainly arbitrary and capricious across President Eisenhower in the Air Force of about 2 percent will be accomplished en the-board cuts could only result in upsetting appropriations. First, I wish to go over tirely by the elimination of unnecessary over the balance which must exist between the
the expenditures which will be made unhead personnel, such as excess bands, air equipment, the facilities (training stations, police, etc. airfields, repair facilities, supply systems, tablishments, and compare those ex
der this bill, in the various military esThe committee has included in this bill etc.), and the manpower to utilize them. rather large sums of money, $356 million for Let me conclude by pointing out that this penditures with expenditures for the the continued development, on a well coor
bill was considered by the committee with previous fiscal year, so as to lay at rest dinated basis, of the program for building our national defense uppermost in mind. It any anxiety which may exist on the part up reserves of hard-to-get machine tools and was not considered on the basis of partisan
was not considered on the basis of partisan- of anyone that we are reducing military standby plant and manufacturing facilities. ship or politics--there should be no politics expenditures as compared with the exThis is a program which will assure the in our national security. existence of a production base which can
I believe this bill, as reported by the com
penditures of the previous fiscal year.
Under the Eisenhower plan there will be swiftly expanded if the need arises, and mittee, is a good bill and one that provides provides the Nation with a national defense adequate financing for the continued
be spent for the Army $16,500,000,000 establishment that is much stronger than strengthening of our national defense. It is this fiscal year. We spent last year $16,the number of divisions or air wings we
a bill for national security, and I urge Sen 493,000,000. In other words, we shall now have or plan to acquire. ators to support it.
spend $7 million more this fiscal year This appropriation bill contains the tangi.
The PRESIDING OFFICER. The bill
than last year. ble evidence that the new administration is open to further amendment.
For the Navy we shall spend under the and the committee have great confidence in the research programs of the military
Mr. BYRD. Mr. President, I wish to
Eisenhower plan $11 billion, Last year services and a realization of their impor- make a very brief statement of the rea we spent $11,776,000,000. We shall tance to our long-time national security. sons which have prompted me to take
spend $776 million less on the Navy this This bill provides $1,430,000 for research the position which I have decided to take
year than last year. and development work in the military serv with respect to the pending legislation.
On the Air Force, under the pending ices for hundreds of research projects. Few legislative matters have given me
bill, we shall spend $15,100,000,000. Last In this connection, the committee has pro- greater concern than the position which
year we spent $14,800,000,000. In other vided ample funds for continued progress in
words, we shall spend $300 million more the field of guided missiles. The committee I should take with respect to this par
on the Air Force the coming year than received impressive testimony in executive ticular bill. session concerning progress in this field by I have always been a very strong advo
we spent last year. all three military services. cate of national defense-national de
The total expenditures under this bill In summary, the funds provided by the bill fense sufficient to protect this country in
will be $43,193,000,000. Last year we before us will enable us to continue our
any emergency which may occur. I have spent $43,151,000,000. Therefore, we defense program on an effective basis under
had the great honor to be a member of shall spend this year $41 million more a frugal management of the money. It does not provide funds for financing the crash the Armed Services Committee, and one
than we spent last year. I wish to make
that clear, because by reason of the disprograms and easy spending of the past. At of its predecessor committees, for nearly
cussion involving the reduction of approthe same time, we have tried to provide 21 years, first as a member of the Naval necessary funds below which we cannot Affairs Committee, and then as a mem
priations—not expenditures in this fiscal safely go without endangering the whole ber of the Armed Services Committee,
year, but appropriations-it may appear complicated fabric of our military program. serving as ranking Democratic member
to some that we are cutting the expendiWe have kept both need and cost in mind.
to my very distinguished and able col tures for the coming year, which is not It is our objective to achieve greater effi
the case. ciency and economy, while continuing to im- league, the Senator from Georgia (Mr.
I have concerned myself with the Air prove the combat effectiveness of our forces. RUSSELL). I was named to represent the Our program calls for a total military Armed Services Committee on the Ap Force. I am an Air Force man. I bestrength of 3,356,000 as of June 30, 1954, with propriations Committee considering the
lieve in a strong Air Force. I am not an a reduction to 3,300,000 if war ceases in Korea. question of appropriations for the armed enemy of the Air Force in any respect. While it is admittedly very difficult to con- services.
I believe that the basic security of this trol the rate of expenditures, the Secretary I wish to commend the Senator from country lies in a great Air Force. Howof Defense and the National Security Council Louisiana (Mr. LONG] for his congratu
ever, my investigation and I shall athave expressed the hope that the expendi- lations to the Senator from Michigan tures for the Department of Defense military
lations to the Senator from Michigan tempt, in very brief and concise language, functions aim at a goal of $43.2 billion for
[Mr. FERGUSON] for the excellent manner to describe it—impels me to believe that the 1954 fiscal year. in which he conducted the hearings. In
the reduction which is proposed will not From the overall expenditure picture, all my experience I do not believe that
weaken our Air Force to a point which there will be a planned increase in defense I have seen so much detail gone into, or
will represent a threat to our security. spending during the current, 1954 fiscal year. such long hearings as occurred in the
As of July 1 the Air Force had a carryLast year the armed services, in total spent consideration of this bill.
over of $28,500,000,000. Not a great deal $43 billion and during the coming year,
Mr. President, I do not underestimate
has been said about that so far. It had spending plans call for expenditures of $43,the great dangers which confront this
that money, not in the bank, but as an 200,000,000. With the funds provided in this bill, that
country. I think we are confronted with unexpended appropriation. Three bilwould leave an estimated unexpended bal
one of the most serious conditions in the lion three hundred million dollars was ance on June 30, 1954, of about $51.2 billion, history of our Nation. We are confront
history of our Nation. We are confront, not even obligated. If there was such a as compared with the estimated unexpended ed with the threat of war, a threat of war
great demand for the construction of balance, a carryover of $62.6 billion on June which may last for 20 or 30 years. No
which may last for 20 or 30 years. No planes and other things, why was it that, 30, 1953.
one knows how long it will last. We must of an appropriation made a year ago, As we all know, substantial unexpended meet that threat. A threat of war, from
$3,300,000,000 has not been obligated, carryover amounts are always necessary to an economic standpoint, if long con
and is still not obligated? provide for the lead time required in the
tinued, may be even worse than war it Let us take as a base the carryover production of military material. Particularly is this true in the early stages of a
self, because a war ends sometime, while of appropriations, $28,500,000,000. The buildup period. Once the program is well the threat of war may continue for a pending appropriation will add to that under way, and a reasonable level of produce long time.
sum, so that we shall have for expendition is under way with designs becoming I have tried to evaluate, in terms of our ture $40,500,000,000; I mean for expendifirm, there is a lesser requirement for advance security, the questions which have arisen
security, the questions which have arisen ture, but not necessary in this fiscal year. financing to provide for lead time. We are
with respect to this bill. Let me first re In other words, the Air Force, under now approaching this stage of the buildup peat that we have appropriated $160 bil
peat that we have appropriated $160 bil- the present appropriations, has $40,500,period, and the estimated unexpended balances reflect this fact, as does the amount
lion for the military since the beginning 000,000 to spend. That is a huge sum provided in this appropriation bill.
of the Korean war. We have expended of money when we consider that the total Although our defense program started after $100 billion, and there remains unspent,
$100 billion, and there remains unspent, expenditures for military purposes in the the Korean war, it was only partly because as of June 30, 1953, in appropriated bal- fiscal year 1951, which was the year the
Korean war started, as Senators know, from present funds, plus what is con this bill all we can do. I believe we were $18,871,000,000.
tained in the pending bill, nearly enough have done what the advocates of 143 I have been confused, as I believe other with which to complete 143 wings.
wings have been asking for, because we Members of the Senate have been con Mr. President, all that Congress can appropriate the money for the 143 wings. fused, about the 143-wing program or do is appropriate the money. We do not I can show by the figures I have here, the 123-wing program. The point that make the contracts. We cannot say after we deduct the attrition by loss and concerns me is, How many planes are in when the planes are being delivered. All obsolescence, that practically the numthese wings?
we can do is appropriate enough money ber of planes that Mr. Talbott says will Mr. President, it is possible to have all
for a given program, as we believe it compose 143 wings will then be in exiskinds of wings. A wing can consist of is needed. I am told by Mr. Talbott tence. 100 planes, or 50 planes, or it can be un that they are pushing the airplane pro Therefore, Mr. President, I shall vote dermanned.
duction program as fast as they can push for the bill as reported by the committee. So I took occasion to get the facts. I it. It is not a question of lack of money. I realize—as I believe other Senators do do not know whether they have been If there is any question at all about it it also—the situation we are in. I am not brought out. I obtained the facts as to is a question of lack of facilities.
critical of the Air Force. I am a supexactly what a 143-wing program means. Mr. President, I have before me, which porter of the Air Force. I am a critic of Mr. President, the 143-wing program I shall be glad to show to any Member of waste in the Air Force. It has been my means 21,069 aircraft. That figure was the Senate, another letter showing the privilege to be a member of the Comgiven to me by Mr. Talbott, the Secre actual production by month of the air- mittee on Nonessential Expenditures in tary of the Air Force. It includes 11,000 planes in this country. I can only say planes in this country. I can only say the Executive Departments. The waste
that exists in our armed services is alcombat planes. That is what 143 wings that we are producing on the basis of consist of. Of course, wings vary. 5 or 6 times as many per month as we most unbelievable until one sees it. I Some wings have more airplanes and produced in the first months of the say it is also inexcusable. other wings have fewer airplanes. airplanes. Korean war.
The Air Force, in its present status of These figures do not include Navy, It is for that reason, assurance is strength, is a new department in the Marine Corps, and Army aircraft.
given me that the sum of money will be Government, comparatively speaking. It Mr. Wilson testified that there were sufficient-after we take off obsolescence has been expanding tremendously. It 10,000 aircraft at present in the Naval and loss figures—and that there will be would not be reasonable to expect the and Marine air wings. Those figures enough planes for 143 wings, or nearly Air Force at this period of its developshould be added. enough, by number of planes.
ment to be as efficient as the other armed Mr. President, I have a letter before I submit that that is the real test. services. I say that hundreds of millions me, written to me by the Secretary of There is nothing sacred about a certain of dollars, can be saved by reasonable the Air Force, Mr. Talbott. Unfor- nuniber of wings. The number of air efficiency in the Air Force, as well as in tunately part of the letter is marked in planes is the important consideration. the other operations of our Government strict security, and I cannot read the They are the machines that do the relating to our military services. letter on the floor of the Senate. How- fighting. They are the machines that I shall mention only one instance. ever, if any Senator wants to read it, are going to protect us in time of war. Consider the Kaiser-Frazer contract for under security provisions, he may do so. We do not know what a wing may consist constructing airplanes for the Air It gives the contracts that have been let of. We have wings now, I am told Force. I happened to serve on the with the airplane companies, and it and the same was true in the past subcommittee which investigated that shows the delivery on the airplanes, and which are paper wings, or contain only matter. The Kaiser-Frazer
Kaiser-Frazer Co. reso forth. I can say that there are on a few planes.
ceived $1,250,000 per plane, whereas the hand and on order, for the Air Force In Mr. Talbott's letter, the informa- Fairchild Co. was building the same alone, 24,900 planes, as compared with tion is given as to the definite number of planes for $250,000 each. In other words, the 143-wing staff strength of 21,069 planes in the wings, the number of planes
planes in the wings, the number of planes the Kaiser-Frazer Co. was paid five planes. And we have in addition on on hand, the number of planes under times as much for each plane as the hand now as I have stated 10,000 planes contract, and the number of the esti Fairchild Co. was. Perhaps there was in the Navy, Marines, and Army.
mated planes that must be deducted due some justification for Kaiser-Frazer to The proposed appropriation will pro to attrition by loss and obsolescence dur- proceed on that basis when the contract vide 2,662 additional planes. Therefore ing the next 2 or 3 years.
was first given to it. But in response to there will be a total of 27,000 planes in Mr. President, that is the reason why my question, it was stated that it would the Air Force. These figures do not in I have decided to vote for the commit- take 7 years for Kaiser-Frazer to be in a clude the Marine Corps, the Navy, and tee's recommendations.
competitive position with the Fairchild the Army.
I was much impressed this morning Co. Then Secretary Talbott—and propI should like to feel at liberty to give by the remarks made by the distin erly so, I believe-cancelled the contract further data to the Senate, such as when guished acting majority leader, the Sen
guished acting majority leader, the Sen. with Kaiser-Frazer. As I have said, the planes would be delivered and the ator from California [Mr. KNOWLAND). Kaiser-Frazer was receiving five times as character of them, but Senators realize He said we are faced with a long-range much for each transport plane-and that I cannot do so. However, the let program. We are, Mr. President. We those planes did not involve any conter is before me, and any Senator who are faced with a threat that will test this struction difficulties—as the Fairchild desires, under the same security pro- Nation right down to its very roots, if we Co. was. When the contract was canvisions in which this letter was given to are to keep up our military preparedness celled, $212 million was saved. Certainly me, may read it. It is a vital question for the 15, 20, 30, or 40 years which are that was worth saving. Let me repeat that 143 wings contem- ahead of us. There is no assurance that Some reference has been made to the plate 21,069 airplanes, which include we can ever trust Russia, no matter what ammunition shortage. I shall refer to it 11,000 combat planes. We have on order agreements she makes. We must keep briefly. As is well known by all Members and on hand a total of 24,900 airplanes, up our military preparedness, and at the of the Senate now present who served on for which contracts have been made. same time we must preserve the solvency that subcommittee with me, the inUnder the proposed appropriation, 2,162 of our country. We must preserve the vestigation of the ammunition shortage more planes will be provided, making a freedom of the private enterprise system disclosed most colossal inefficiency and total of 27,000 planes.
at home. The freedom of our private waste. It showed that although ConMr. President, of course I agree that enterprise system can be destroyed by gress had appropriated every dollar that we must deduct from that figure the at- insolvency. It can be destroyed by a sys- had been requested for ammunition, trition by loss and obsolescence between tem of taxation that brings diminishing when the Korean war began it took 2 now and the time that these planes will returns if we impose too great taxation years' time before the first shell was be delivered. I have that figure, but I upon the people.
manufactured, and in the meantime the do not feel at liberty to give it on the We must balance these things, Mr. Army was depleting our national stockfloor of the Senate. However, after President. It will require the greatest
It will require the greatest pile of ammunition.
pile of ammunition. Under those cirdeducting the number of planes that judgment and the finest patriotism that cumstances, there developed one of the must be deducted because of attrition this country has ever been called upon most critical and dangerous situations by loss and obsolescence, we will have to exhibit. I believe we have done in we have ever experienced, because in
that way our national stockpile of as President of the United States and it. We shall debate the amendment, of ammunition was rapidly being depleted. Commander in Chief, and the one who course. Every shell which was fired in Korea has primary responsibility for the safety Mr. SALTONSTALL. Mr. President, during a period of 2 years was taken of the Nation.
it is not my intention at the present time from our national stockpile of ammuni Mr. SALTONSTALL. Mr. President, I to discuss the amendment the Senator tion which was left following World War wish to commend the Senator from from South Carolina offered. At a later II.
Michigan (Mr. FERGUSON] for the over time the Senator from Michigan will The Army did not begin to replenish all, comprehensive statement he has discuss it. our ammunition stockpile until 2 years made in support of what is perhaps the Mr. MAYBANK. The Senator from had passed. When the funds were ap- largest appropriation bill that has been Massachusetts is referring to one of the propriated, it took 30 days to allocate before the Senate in many years. amendments the Senate has approved them to the departments. Then it took Mr. MAYBANK. Mr. President, will temporarily, is he not? 5 months to draw up the specifications the Senator from Massachusetts yield to Mr. SALTONSTALL. Yes. and award the contracts, and then it me at this point?
Mr. President, again I commend the took 18 months to obtain delivery.
Mr. SALTONSTALL. I yield.
Senator from Michigan for the fine work When we see things of that sort occur, Mr. MAYBANK. As I understand the he has done on the bill and for the comif Senators then say there cannot be situation, the chairman of the subcom- prehensive statement he has made retremendous economies in connection mittee, the senior Senator from Michi- garding it. with the operations of the armed serv gan (Mr. FERGUSON], who did so much Mr. FERGUSON. I thank the Senator ices, I say they do not know all the fine work both day and night on this from Massachusetts. Let me say that he facts.
bill—and I think he will agree that I also labored very greatly, and we appreMr. MAYBANK. Mr. President, will sat with him-has agreed to the adop- cite very much, indeed, his outstanding the Senator from Virginia yield to me? tion of all the committee amendments service as chairman of the Armed Sery
The PRESIDING OFFICER (Mr. Pur- except my amendment. Is that correct? ices Committee.
is understood that from now on they can
OBJECTION TO COMMITTEE MEETMr. MAYBANK. I was glad to hear the present situation. the Senator from Virginia make the
Mr. MAYBANK. Yes. Of course, the INGS DURING SENATE SESSION statement he has just made, because cerdistinguished Senator from Michigan
Mr. MORSE. Mr. President, will the tainly reductions can be made. The and the distinguished Senator from Mas
Senator from Massachusetts yield to me? Senator from Virginia well knows that I sachusetts realize that only five of us
Mr. SALTONSTALL. I yield. also favor the making of reductions. were present in the subcommittee at the
Mr. MORSE. I have been called to my On the other hand, I would not want it meeting which was held late in the eve
office and will be off the floor for a few said—and I know the Senator from Vir- ning; and thereafter, because of the minutes. I object to the holding of any ginia would not make such a statement- great work pressure upon Senators, some
great work pressure upon Senators, some committee meetings today or tomorrow that the Air Force was responsible for members of the full committee were not
while the Senate is in session. I now ask the shortage of ammunition. able to be present at the full committee
unanimous consent that during my temmeeting. Mr. BYRD. I did not say that.
porary absence from the floor, if a reMr. MAYBANK. Of course, the Sen- what the distinguished senior Senator
Let me say that I deeply appreciate quest is made for authority for a comator from Virginia did not. The am- from Michigan has done for so many
mittee to meet while the Senate is in from Michigan has done for so many session, my objection be applied. munition shortage certainly was a terrible situation, and it occurred because weeks in working on the bill; and I can
The PRESIDING OFFICER. Is there supplement what the distinguished Senof the great delays in connection with ator from Virginia (Mr. BYRD) has said,
objection? the letting of contracts and the per- by stating that everyone who wished to
Mr. SALTONSTALL. Mr. President, formance of the work under the con- testify regarding the bill had a chance
while the Senator from Oregon is still in tracts when they were let.
the Chamber let me say I think the actto do so. Mr. BYRD. At that time we were in
ing majority leader, the distinguished
At this time let me inquire about the vestigating the Army, not the Air Force. procedure in connection with the various
senior Senator from California [Mr. The ammunition shortage investigation amendments, including the committee
KNOWLAND], who has temporarily left had to do with the Army.
the floor, should hear the request in amendments. Will it be necessary to The testimony showed that it took 10,- have the bill read for amendment?
order that there may be no misunder000 miles of travel before contracts were
Mr. FERGUSON. That will not be signed; the signing of the contract in- necessary. Amendments of any sort,
Mr. MORSE. I assumed that another volved sending it back and forth for a
Senator was acting for him. either to the text of the bill itself or to total of 10,000 miles, and then they had committee amendments, will be in order,
Mr. SALTONSTALL. Mr. President, 33 different kinds of bookkeeping, and a just as if the committee amendments
I see the Senator from California regreat deal of other inefficiency.
turning to the Chamber at this time. For had not already been agreed to. Under those circumstances, I simply
his information let me say that the Sen
Mr. MAYBANK. Will the legislative am unable to agree with those who say it part of the bill be taken up before the so
ator from Oregon has just requested is impossible to make savings of many called money part of the bill? It is im
called money part of the bill? It is im- unanimous consent that when he is not millions, and even in fact, billions of material to me, of course.
on the floor, either today or todollars.
The PRESIDING OFFICER. It is the
morrowTherefore, Mr. President, I shall cast understanding of the Chair that the bill
Mr. MORSE. Oh, no. my vote in favor of the action taken by can be amended at any point, whenever
Mr. SALTONSTALL. Then will the the subcommittee, because I know of the a Senator who wishes to offer an amend
Senator from Oregon restate his request? great care taken by the subcommittee ment obtains the floor.
Mr. MORSE. Yes. I have stated that headed by the Senator from Michigan Mr. FERGUSON. Yes; just as if the I have been called to my office for a few [Mr. FERGUSON). I know they went into committee amendments had not already
minutes. I have asked unanimous congreat detail in regard to these matters. been agreed to.
sent that if during my absence a request Furthermore, I have confidence in The PRESIDING OFFICER. That is is made for authority for a committee to President Eisenhower, the greatest mili correct.
meet today or tomorrow, while the Sentary general, I imagine, now living. If Mr. FERGUSON. I point out that the ate is in session, it shall be understood he says the recommended appropriation amendment of the Senator from South that I have a standing objection to such is sufficient, that should go a long way Carolina is included.
a request, and that during my absence toward convincing the people of the Mr. MAYBANK. I thank the Senator for a few minutes, that objection will United States, because he is responsible from Michigan. I know he is agreeable be applied. not only as a great general who has led to having that course followed, and I was The PRESIDING OFFICER. That our forces to great military victories, but not attempting to quarrel with him about was the understanding of the Chair.