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REPORTS OF COMMITTEES mit the entry of 500 children under 6 fornia (Mr. KNOWLAND] relative to the The following reports of committees years of age adopted by United States purported compromise on the so-called were submitted:

citizens while serving abroad in the Bricker resolution. The President in his

Armed Forces of the United States or statement said, among other things: By Mr. MCCARRAN, from the Committee

while employed abroad by the United on the Judiciary:

All action of the President, either doS. 32. A bill to amend title 28, United

States Government, which were ordered mestically or in foreign relations, must be States Code, section 456, so as to increase

to lie on the table and to be printed. within and pursuant to constitutional auto $15 per day the limit on subsistence ex

thority. . Consequently, I am unalterably penses allowed to justices and judges travel

opposed to any amendment which would ing while attending court or transacting ISSUANCE OF SPECIAL QUOTA IM

change our traditional treatymaking power oficial business at places other than their

or which would hamper the President in

MIGRANT VISAS TO CERTAIN official stations, and to authorize reimburse

his constitutional authority to conduct for'ment for such travel by privately owned ALIENS-AMENDMENTS

eign affairs. Today, probably as never beautomobiles at the rate of 7 cents per mile;

fore in our history, it is essential that our

Mr. WELKER submitted 37 amendwith amendments (Rept. No. 608).

country be able, effectively, to enter into ments intended to be proposed by him agreements with other nations. By Mr. CARLSON, from the Committee on Post Office and Civil Service: to the bill (S. 1917) to authorize the is

Mr. President, I ask unanimous conS. 2417. A bill to provide for the creation suance of 240,000 special quota immiof a Commission on Judicial and Congres- grant visas to certain escapees, German

sent that the statement by the Presisional Salaries, and for other purposes; with expellees, and nationals of Italy, Greece, dent, issued by the White House, be amendments (Rept. No. 609). and the Netherlands, and for other pur

printed following my remarks. By Mr. MILLIKIN, from the Committee on

poses, which were ordered to lie on the There being no objection, the stateFinance: table and to be printed.

ment was ordered to be printed in the H. R. 157. A bill to provide that the tax

Mr. McCARRAN submitted 16 amend

RECORD, as follows: on admissions shall not apply to moving-picture admissions; without amendment (Rept. ments intended to be proposed by him to


Senate bill 191., supra, which were Senator KNOWLAND has today introduced a H. R. 4152. A bill to extend the time for ordered to lie on the table and to be resolution to amend the Constitution of the exemption from income taxes for certain printed.

United States. Its purpose is to assure that members of the Armed Forces; with amend

Mr. JENNER submitted 17 amend

treaties entered into by the President and ments (Rept. No. 610). ments, intended to be proposed by him

consented to by at least two-thirds of the to Senate bill 1917, supra, which were

Senate in behalf of the United States shall

not override the Constitution. It provides BILLS INTRODUCED ordered to lie on the table and to be

that treaties and executive agreements shall printed. Bills were introduced, read the first

not violate the Constitution, and that the

courts may so declare; that in the future time, and, by unanimous consent, the

AMENDMENT OF second time, and referred as follows:

the Senate shall vote on treaties by recorded CONSTITUTION RELATIVE TO MAKING TREATIES

yeas and nays as is the case now with a vote By Mr. HUMPHREY:

on overriding a veto; and that the Senate S. 2443. A bill to amend section 2 (II) of


may in each instance, when considering the the National Labor Relations Act to further AMENDMENT

ratification of a treaty, if it so determines, define the term "supervisor”; to the Com

provide that it shall not be effective as inmittee on Labor and Public Welfare.

Mr. KNOWLAND. Mr. President, I

ternal law save by congressional action. By Mr. STENNIS (for himself and Mr.

submit an amendment, in the nature of This resolution has my unqualified supEASTLAND):

a substitute, intended to be proposed by port. S. 2444. A bill to provide that 75 percent me to the joint resolution (S. J. Res. 1) Under our form of Government, the Presiof all moneys received by the United States proposing an amendment to the Con đent has the duty to conduct foreign affairs. from the sale or lease of mineral rights in stitution of the United States relative to Every American knows this to be our tradicertain of its lands be paid to the former

the making of treaties and executive tional policy which has functioned so well owners of such lands; to the Committee on

the agreements,

so-called Interior and Insular Affairs.

Bricker during the lifetime of our Republic. By Mr. KERR:

While I have opposed other amendments amendment. Since the amendment in

which would have had the effect of depriving S. 2445. A bill for the relief of Giovannina the nature of a substitute is short, I shall

the President of the capacity necessary to Echelle; to the Committee on the Judiciary. read it:

carry on negotiations with foreign governBy Mr. GRISWOLD:

Strike out all after the resolving clause and ments, I am glad to support the Knowland S. 2446. A bill for the relief of Enrique in lieu thereof insert the following:

amendment for it confirms that this PresiGonzales-Perez; to the Committee on the

"SECTION 1. A provision of a treaty or other dential power cannot be used contrary to the Judiciary.

international agreement which conflicts with Constitution. By Mr. BUSH:

the Constitution shall not be of any force All action of the President, either doS. 2447. A bill to amend paragraph 1530 of the Tariff Act of 1930 with respect to footor effect. The judicial power of the United

mestically or in foreign relations, must be States shall extend to all cases, in law or within and pursuant to constitutional auwear; to the Committee on Finance.

equity, in which it is claimed that the con thority. Consequently I am unalterably opflict described in this amendment is present. posed to any amendment which would

“SEC. 2. When the Senate consents to the change our traditional treatymaking power PRINTING OF COMPILATION OF LEG

ratification of a treaty the vote shall be de or which would hamper the President in his ISLATIVE REORGANIZATION ACT,

termined by yeas and nays, and the names constitutional authority to conduct foreign AS AMENDED

of the persons voting for and against shall affairs. Today, probably as never before in

be entered on the Journal of the Senate. our history it is essential that our country Mrs. SMITH of Maine submitted the

"SEC. 3. When the Senate so provides in be able effectively to enter into agreements following resolution (S. Res. 148), which its consent to ratification, a treaty shall be

with other nations. was referred to the Committee on Rules

come effective as internal law in the United As President I have taken an oath to deand Administration:

States only through the enactment of ap fend the Constitution. I therefore oppose Resolved, That the compilation of th propriate legislation by the Congress.

any change which will impair the President's Legislative Reorganization Act of 1946, as

“SEC. 4. This article shall be inoperative traditional authority to conduct foreign afamended to date, prepared by the staff of the

unless it shall have been ratified as an fairs. Senator WILEY and others who have Senate Committee on Government Opera

amendment to the Constitution by the legis joined in the defense of these constitutional tions, shall be printed as a Senate document,

latures of three-fourths of the several States powers so important to the integrity and and that 6,500 additional copies of such

within 7 years from the date of its submis safety of our Nation, are entitled to comdocument shall be printed for the use of sion."

mendation and support for their efforts. such committee.

It is my belief that the reassurances conMr. President, I ask that the amend

tained in the Knowland amendment meet all ment be printed and lie on the table.

legitimate demands that have been made in ADMISSION OF 500 CHILDREN INTO


this field of foreign relations. ment will be received, and printed, and THE UNITED STATES-AMENDwill lie on the table.

Mr. WILEY. Mr. President, on reMENTS

Mr. WILEY subsequently said: Today, ceipt of the statement by the President, Mr. MCCARRAN submitted amend- there was issued from the White House I prepared a statement of my own, which ments intended to be proposed by him to a statement by the President in relation reads as follows: the amendment of the committee to the to an amendment submitted by the dis Of course, I am very pleased that Presijoint resolution (H. J. Res. 228) to per- tinguished senior Senator from Cali dent Eisenhower has once more stated his

unalterable opposition to the Bricker Mr. DWORSHAK. So the assumption Foreign Service officer of the class of amendment.

is that the Senator from Ohio is aware career minister, to be Ambassador of The President's statement is indeed a vicof the development?

the United States to the Republic of tory for the forces which have sought to

Mr. WILEY. Of course. The Sen Lebanon. maintain the Constitution unimpaired. It is a decisive repudiation of those who at

ator from California [Mr. KNOWLAND] Also received were the nominations of tempted to upset the traditional separation could speak on that subject.

the following-named persons, who were of powers and to strip the Senate of its con

appointed during the last recess of the stitutional powers with respect to treaty

Senate, to the offices indicated: making.


Theodore C. Achilles, of the District It seems essential to me that careful con

The following bills were severally read of Columbia; Cavendish W. Cannon, of sideration should be given to the proposal made by Senator KNOWLAND. Any amend

twice by their titles, and referred to the Utah; Gerald A. Drew, of California; ment to the Constitution is an extremely Committee on the Judiciary.

Raymond A. Hare, of Iowa; and Edserious matter.

H. R. 684. An act for the relief of Kim ward B. Lawson, of the District of CoOur Constitution has worked exceptional- Jung Soo;

lumbia, for promotion from Foreign ly well for over a century and a half. Like H. R. 723. An act for the relief of Mrs. Service officers of class 1 to Foreign a watch it is in fact a delicate mechanism Fumiko Sawai Skovran;

Service officers of the class of career that is very carefully balanced. We should

H. R. 728. An act for the relief of Helga

minister. hesitate a long time before we yield to the G. Jordan and her son; temptation to tamper with that mechanism.

Everett F. Drumright, of Oklahoma, H. R. 752. An act for the relief of FranWhile we are relieved that the President coise Bresnahan;

now a Foreign Service officer of class 1 has again flatly opposed the Bricker resolu

H. R. 806. An act for the relief of Sullivan

and a secretary in the diplomatic serytion, we must not rush into hasty action on Construction Co.;

ice, to be also a consul general of the the substitute.

H. R. 824. An act for the relief of Deme United States of America. I have in the past questioned the necessity trious Konstantno Papanicolaou;

Robert P. Terrill, of California, for of any amendment of the Constitution on H. R. 907. An act for the relief of Wolo

appointment as a Foreign Service officer this subject.

dymyr Hirniak; A quick preliminary study of the text of H. R. 917. An act for the relief of Luigi

of class 1, a consul, and a secretary in the Knowland substitute reveals the follow Lotito;

the diplomatic service of the United ing:

H. R. 953. An act for the relief of Jekabs

States of America. Section 1 of the Knowland substitute is a Lenbergs;

Erwin P. Keeler, of Indiana; C. Monrestatement of constitutional law, as defined

H. R. 965. An act for the relief of Michael

tagu Pigott, of California; and Edward in the Constitution and in the decisions of Demcheshen;

E. Rice, of Wisconsin, now Foreign Seryour courts. Section 2 is in effect, an amend H. R. 1130. An act for the relief of Golda ment of the Senate rules which could be

ice officers of class 2 and secretaries in I. Stegner; accomplished by simple Senate action. Sen H. R. 1339. An act for the relief of Dr.

the diplomatic service, to be also conate 3 provides, in effect, that the Senate can Soon Tai Ryang;

suls general of the United States of attach reservations to treaties—a power it H. R. 1689. An act for the relief of the America. already has and one which it has already Frank M. Hill Machine Co., Inc.;

Mallory Browne, of Virginia; Alfred exercised on many occasions. If this sec H. R. 1795. An act for the relief of Helena

Puhan, of New Jersey; William R. Tyler, tion means more, then it raises most funda Shostenko;

of the District of Columbia; and Franmental questions as to the ability of this H. R. 2029. An act for the relief of Rose country to conclude treaties that are self Maria Gradelone Calicchio;

cis T. Williamson, of Virginia, for apexecuting in nature.

H. R. 2035. An act for the relief of Mrs.

pointment as Foreign Service officers of I make these points only to illustrate the Michaline Borzecka;

class 2, consuls, and secretaries in the need for comprehensive analysis and public H. R. 2603. An act for the relief of Carmela diplomatic service of the United States discussion of this or any amendment to our Daino Davenia;

of America. Constitution. It would be fantastic if we

H. R. 2774. An act for the relief of Endre

Edward Anderson, of Florida; John were to take up either the Bricker amend Szende, Zsuzsanna Szende, Katalin Szende

B. Holt, of Maine; John P. Hoover, of ment or the Knowland substitute in the few (a minor), and Maria Szende (a minor); remaining weeks of this session.

H. R. 2785. An act for the relief of Wera

California; and William Witman 2d, of I am opposed to any precipitate action on Fazio, a minor;

Pennsylvania, now Foreign Service of this question at this time.

H. R. 2801. An act for the relief of David

ficers of class 3 and secretaries in the Since the whole subject has such an im Zorub;

diplomatic service, to be also consuls portant impact on foreign relations, I do not H. R. 3006. An act for the relief of Ruth general of the United States of America. believe that this joint resolution should be Irene Ledermann;

Robert N. Anderson, of California; taken up on the Senate floor without hear H. R. 3046. An act for the relief of William

John M. Kennedy, of Virginia; Coburn B. ings first being held in the Senate Foreign Urban Maloney; Relations Committee.

Kidd, of Oklahoma; Vernon L. Phelps, of
H. R. 3268. An act for the relief of Hiroki

Illinois; Joseph Sweeney, of California; Mr. DWORSHAK. Mr. President, will

H. R. 3396. An act for the relief of Dr. Percy de F. Warner, of the District of the Senator from Wisconsin yield? Hamdi Akar;

Columbia; and Findley Weaver, of OklaMr. WILEY. I yield.

H. R. 3749. An act for the relief of Wolde homa, for appointment as Foreign SeryMr. DWORSHAK. Can the distin mar Jaskowsky;

ice officers of class 3, consuls, and guished chairman of the Committee on H. R. 4056. An act for the relief of Man

secretaries in the diplomatic service of Foreign Relations advise the Senate

fred Singer;
H. R. 4328. An act for the relief of Mrs.

the United States of America.
whether the distinguished junior Sen.
Edith D. Williamson;

Arthur S. Abbott, of Illinois; Edward ator from Ohio [Mr. BRICKER], as the

H. R. 5486. An act for the relief of Irene Anderberg, of New York; H. Reid Bird, author of the Bricker amendment, has Andrews; and

of Utah; Mrs. Elizabeth C. Bouch, of been consulted concerning the substi

H. R. 5950. An act for the relief of Gattas Oregon; G. Edward Clark, of New York; tute? E. Maloof.

Francis J. Galbraith, of South Dakota; Mr. WILEY. I can assure the Senator

Miss Constance L. Grant, of Massachuthat I have not been consulted. I can

NOTICE OF CONSIDERATION OF setts; William F. Gray, of North Caroassure the Senator that, from newspaper


lina; Albert Harkness, Jr., of Rhode accounts, I understand the Senator from

Island; L. Douglas Heck, of Maryland; Ohio has been in consultation with other


Valdemar N. L. Johnson, of Florida; persons. But I have never been con Mr. WILEY. Mr. President the Sen

William B. Kelly, of Ohio; Duncan A. D. sulted, and probably I am not entitled ate today received the nomination of to be consulted. Cavendish W. Cannon, of Utah, a For

Mackay, of New Jersey; Harold M. MidMr. DWORSHAK. Does the Senator eign Service officer of the class of career

kiff, of Florida; Givon Parsons, of Texas; from Wisconsin say those persons have minister, to

to be Ambassador of the

Albert A. Rabida, of Colorado; Robert been in constant consultation with the United States to Greece, and to serve

E. Reed, of New York; and Elbert R. junior Senator from Ohio, or with some concurrently and without additional Williams, of Pennsylvania, for appointone else?

compensation as chief of the American ment as Foreign Service officers of class Mr. WILEY. With the Senator from Mission for Aid to Greece.

4, consuls, and secretaries in the diploOhio, and, I think, with the Senator from There was also received the nomina matic service of the United States of California [Mr. KNOWLAND).

tion of Raymond A. Hare, of Iowa, a America.

Hermann F. Eilts, of Pennsylvania, and William H. Bray, Jr., of Missouri; Mr. PASTORE. Mr. President, I asCurtis F. Jones, of Maine, now Foreign Winthrop G. Brown, of Virginia; William sociate myself with the eloquent and Service officers of class 5 and secretaries S. B. Lacy, of Virginia; Howard L. Par

S. B. Lacy, of Virginia; Howard L. Par- fitting tribute paid to the late Edward in the diplomatic service, to be also con sons, of Iowa; Howard A. Robinson, of L. Leahy by my distinguished colleague, suls of the United States of America. Pennsylvania; and William M. Rountree, the senior Senator from Rhode Island,

Miss Anna E. Simmons, of Texas, for of Maryland, Foreign Service reserve and join with him in extending to Mrs. appointment as a Foreign Service officer officers, to be secretaries in the diplo

officers, to be secretaries in the diplo- Leahy and the Leahy family my sincere of class 5, a vice consul of career, and a matic service of the United States of sympathies in their great loss. The passsecretary in the diplomatic service of the America.

ing of Judge Leahy is a shock and perUnited States of America.

Notice is given that the nominations sonal loss to me.

sonal loss to me. For a long time we John B. Anderson, of Illinois; Malcolm will be considered by the Committee on were associated together in State governR. Barnebey, of Texas; Roger N. Benson, Foreign Relations, after 6 days have ex ment and enjoyed many pleasant moof Wisconsin; John A. Billings, of Mis- pired, in accordance with the committee ments of sincere friendship. It was more souri; Lewis W. Bowden, of the District rule.

than a relationship of two fellow workers, of Columbia; William G. Bradford, of Illi

for in Ed Leahy I had the pleasure and nois; William R. Brown, of Ohio; Charles ADDRESSES, EDITORIALS, ARTICLES, honor of knowing a man who took a B. Cook 3d, of Pennsylvania; Thomas A.


paternal attitude in my career as GovDeHart, of California; Thomas I. Dick

ernor of the State of Rhode Island.

On request, and by unanimous consent, son, Jr., of Texas; William B. Edmond

During the time I was privileged to son, of Nebraska; Alfred J. Erdos, of addresses, editorials, articles, etc., were

serve my State as Governor, Ed Leahy ordered to be printed in the Appendix, Arizona; Leo Espy, of Oregon; Miss

was my director of finance. In that as follows: Barbara C. Fagan, of New York; John E.

capacity he earned for himself the repuFeissner, Jr., of the District of Columbia;


tation of being a noble, conscientious William Lee Frost, of New York; Charles Dr. George S. Reuter, Jr.

, of Arkansas Agri

Article entitled "A New Look,” written by public servant; so much so that when A. Gendreau, of Minnesota; Robert K.

the time came that he desired retirecultural and Mechanical College, describing German, of Texas; James E. Goodby, of

ment from that responsibility, I was a new educational program in Arkansas. Massachusetts; Richard C. Harmstone,


fortunate enough to persuade him to reof the District of Columbia; Roy T. Hay Fourth, fifth, and sixth of a series of arti main on a consulting basis in fiscal erkamp, of Missouri; Robert T. Henne- cles on Adlai E. Stevenson's trip through policies. This was hailed from all meyer, of Illinois; Robert W. Kent, Jr., Asia, written by Barry Bingham, and pub corners of the State, because the loss of California; Lucien L. Kinsolving, of lished in the Louisville (Ky.) Courier-Jour to the service of the State of a man with

nal. New York; Burton Kitain, of New Jersey;

his background of experience would have

By Mr. HUMPHREY: Paul H. Kreisberg, of New York; Jerome

Article entitled "Don't Plow Under the

been deeply felt. Consequently, when a M. Kuhl, of Texas; William W. Lehfeldt, Small Farmer," written by Harold Martin,

vacancy arose in this august body in the of California; John A. Linehan, Jr., of condensed from the Atlanta Constitution.

month of August in 1949, it was my Massachusetts; John Lloyd 3d, of New

privilege and joyous opportunity to apJersey; John G. MacCracken, of Cali

point him to serve as the junior Sena

FORMER SENATOR LEAHY, OF fornia; David P. Mann, of the District of

tor from the State of Rhode Island in Columbia; Thomas G. McGowan, of


the United States Senate. New York; Thomas N. Metcalf, Jr., of

Mr. GREEN. Mr. President, it is with

Nothing gave me more satisfaction Massachusetts; Harry J. Mullin, Jr., of sadness that I announce to the Members

than when I came here myself to learn Kentucky; Miss Marian L. Nash, of of the Senate the death of my personal

that he had made a legion of friends in Louisiana; Michael H. Newlin, of North friend, my former colleague in this

the Senate, and hardly a day passed Carolina; Donald R. Norland, of Iowa; Senate and a patriotic American, Judge

when somebody did not inquire of me of Richard B. Owen, of Michigan; Russell Edward L. Leahy. He died in the early

Senator Leahy. R. Pearson, of Minnesota; Richard St. F. hours of this morning at his home in

In December of 1950 he was appointed Post, of Connecticut; Jess F. Reed, of Bristol, R. I., where he was born and

by the President to serve as judge of the Washington; James F. Relph, Jr., of lived his entire life.

United States District Court for the DisCalifornia; Ralph W. Richardson, of

He served in many official positions, trict of Rhode Island, a position which California; Theodore Sellin, of Pennsyl- not only in his home town but also in

he filled with equal dignity and distincvania; Lawrence L. Starlight, of New the State and in the Nation.

tion. His passing is a tragic loss to his York; Yancey M. Taylor, of Tennessee; It was my privilege when I served as

friends. Rhode Island will feel his abLewis R. Townsend, of New Jersey; Governor of Rhode Island to name him

sence but will always remember that in Robert B. Warner, of Michigan; Victor a member of my military staff. He

Ed Leahy they had every exemplificaWolf, Jr., of New York; Thomas A. Wolfe, also served as a State tax official dur

tion of what an honest, able, and conof New York; and Pan A. Zachary, of ing my administration as governor.

scientious public servant should be. Illinois, for appointment as Foreign Many times I conferred with him on mat Mr. JOHNSON of Texas. Mr. PresiService officers of class 6, vice consuls of ters concerning the State in which he

dent, I know that every Member of this career, and secretaries in the diplomatic was interested and his advice was always

great body will be distressed to learn of service of the United States of America. sound and helpful.

the passing of our former Member, Judge George A. Berkley, of Pennsylvania; My colleague, Senator PASTORE, then Leahy. Philo Dibble, of Utah; Miss Marjorie F. Governor of Rhode Island, appointed I had the pleasure of serving with Ferguson, of New York; Arthur W. Hum- him to the United States Senate to fill Judge Leahy shortly after I came to the mel, Jr., of Maryland; Donald H. Robin

the vacancy caused by the resignation Senate. He was a judicious man, an exson, of New Jersey;

Schubert E. Smith, of of former United States Senator J. tremely conscientious American, and Michigan; Ben A. Thirkield, of Virginia; Howard McGrath, who had been named one of the most patriotic men I have ever John N. von der Lieth, of New York; Attorney General of the United States. known. I extend to his wife and his Victor E. von Lossberg, of New York; and Judge Leahy served as a Member of family my deep sympathy in their great Walter M. Walsh, of California, Foreign this body with distinction and honor and hour of sadness. Service staff officers, to be consuls of the made many friends while he was here. Mr. KNOWLAND. Mr. President, I United States of America.

Later he was appointed United States speak for the Members of the Senate on J. Howard Garnish, of New York; district judge for the district of Rhode this side of the aisle when I say I know Milton J. Helmick, of New Mexico; and Island and served in that capacity until every Member joins with me in asking to Donald L. Nicholson, of Florida, Foreign his death this morning.

be associated with the remarks of the Service reserve officers, to be consuls of I know I speak for all the Members of two distinguished Senators from Rhode the United States of America.

the Senate in extending to Mrs. Leahy Island and the remarks of the distinRichard C. Salvatierra, of Arizona, and the members of his family our deep guished minority leader relative to the Foreign Service officer, to be a vice con and heartfelt sympathy in their great passing of our late colleague, Senator sul of the United States of America. loss.


Mr. FERGUSON. Mr. President, all To my way of thinking, the defense ministration in its review of the proof us are saddened by the announcement program authorized in this bill is sincere grams and policies in the Department of of the death of our former colleague. I and realistic. It is aimed at providing a Defense since January 1953, and the deknow that every Member of the Senate dollar's worth of defense for every dollar tailed and lengthy hearing before your wishes to extend his sympathy to the of tax money. It will not permit extrav committee on these programs over a family of the deceased and to the people agances which in the past have plagued period of almost 2 months. The printed of Rhode Island.

the taxpayer in the myth of necessity. hearings are on the desks of Senators, As has been said, after leaving the It has been no easy task for the admin and comprise a total of more than 1,960 Senate, Senator Leahy went upon the istration during the past few months to pages. At the hearings literally piles of Federal bench, which is one of the coor eliminate the extravagances, but it has evidence which the committee did not dinate branches of the Government. In been working on the job.

deem advisable to have printed as a part both that capacity and in his capacity There has been too much fog in the of the official record were accumulated; as a Senator he rendered most important past around what was necessary to de- but they are retained in the committee service to both his State and his Nation. fend this Nation and what was merely as a part of its records, and of course I am sure he will be greatly missed. desired as a frill.

are subject to examination. Some of The ornaments and the gay trappings those matters are classified, for security

which in the past formed a fat cushion reasons, and therefore could not be inDEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE

around the defense program must go cluded in the printed record. The comAPPROPRIATIONS, 1954

and they will go under this bill. We are mittee has reviewed the 4,500 pages of The Senate resumed the consideration the hard bone and muscle upon which eliminating the fat and getting down to testimony received by the House com

mittee, and has also reviewed an addiof the bill (H. R. 5969) making approour survival must depend.

tional room-high pile of supporting data. priations for the Department of Defense

We are not unmindful of the fact that Before going into some of the broader and related independent agencies for the

since Korea much money has been pro- aspects of these programs, let me say at fiscal year ending June 30, 1954, and for vided in defense appropriation bills, and the outset that this bill, like all other other purposes.

it is difficult to find just where cuts can appropriation bills coming before the Mr. FERGUSON. Mr. President, the Senate has now proceeded to considera- done our best. be made at the present time, but we have Senate, represents the committee's most

earnest and sincere efforts to consider tion of H. R. 5969, the Defense Depart

We are clearing the fog which ob- and provide for our national defense in ment appropriation bill for the 1954 scured the proper paths and are assum light of the serious fiscal problems confiscal year. As chairman of the Senate ing a completely realistic view of what fronting this nation, which has just comAppropriations Subcommittee which

our Nation must have and what it can pleted the fiscal year 1953 with the highconsidered this bill, I propose to make

have. This realistic approach will assure est peacetime budget deficit in the hisa general presentation of the nature of

us of economic strength and military tory of this country-a total of $9,389,the bill.

strength to safeguard our spiritual 000,000. One of the first and most imThe purpose of this legislation is to strength.

portant tasks of the new administration provide financing for the various pro The bill H. R. 5969, as recommended has been to review the 1954 budget subgrams of the Department of Defense for by the committee, is the largest single mitted by the previous administration, the fiscal year beginning July 1, 1953, appropriation for the Federal Govern- and to determine the steps that could be and ending June 30, 1954. This bill pro- ment in the 1953-54 fiscal year. The

taken in proceeding toward accomplishvides the money needed during that pe

amount of cash appropriations provided ment of a balanced budget as soon as riod.

in this bill total $34,511,302,000, which practicable. At the same time, the adTo survive as a free and independent includes $275,000 for the National Secu- ministration and the committee have not Nation in this complex, hate-ridden rity Council and the National Security taken the point of view that we could world, our spiritual strength must be Training Commission; $769,600,000 for proceed to balance the budget without buttressed by our economic strength, and the Office of the Secretary of Defense; regard to the continuation of an effecour military strength.

$13,013,156,000 for the Army; $9,480,- tive military strength. We have striven We are appropriating now the money 408,500 for the Navy; and $11,247,862,500 to weigh and evaluate the programs, with which to buy the military strength, for the Air Force. In terms of new obli

insofar as time has permitted us to the hard muscle upon which our sur gational authority, we must substract determine, on the one hand, whether vival depends if war should come. The $80,454,000, which represents cash ap- some programs might not better be elimcommittee in its recommendations also propriations to liquidate prior contract inated or at least deferred until subsehas been aware of our economic authorizations in the Navy. Thus the

Thus the quent fiscal years without impairing the strength.

bill contains a grand total of $34,430,- military posture of the Nation, and, on Remember that production of defense 848,000 of new money, which is over half the other hand, how much we could items does not add to the Nation's econ of the total new funds for the entire anticipate reducing expenditures in the omy.

War is wasteful. Production for Federal Government in the new budget current fiscal year 1954 in order to assist war, or the possibility of war, is wasteful. year.

in reaching a balanced budget as soon The materials used, the man-hours used, Mr. MORSE. Mr. President, will the as practicable. are materials and man hours which Senator yield?

Of course, Mr. President, the sums of cannot go into production of those things Mr. FERGUSON. I yield.

money we are speaking of are beyond which can raise our standard of living. Mr. MORSE. Perhaps I misunder- human imagination. We are speaking But we must be prepared, and we must stood the Senator. Would he return to

now of billions of dollars, instead of be prepared realistically to defend our the item of $80 million or $80 billion millions of dollars, with which we dealt institutions and moral values. which he mentioned?

only a few years ago. Between the idea of total defense, or Mr. FERGUSON. It is $80,454,000.

Let me say, further, that no one can the idea of putting everyone into uni Mr. MORSE. To what does it refer?

be absoutely sure whether the amount form, and the idea of no defense at all Mr. FERGUSON. It represents cash

we are recommending in this bill is too there is a proper middle ground which appropriations to liquidate prior-con high, too low, or just right. If we knew can be found only by close analysis of tract authorizations in the Navy.

we would be involved in a major war in the facts, sound experience, and sound Mr. MORSE. I thank the Senator. the near future, then the amount we judgment.

Mr. FERGUSON. The amount of new are recommending would be clearly inOur recommendations are based on the money—the obligational authority-in adequate. On the other hand, if we sound military experience of our com this bill is $10,491,810,412 less than was knew there would definitely be no future mander in Chief, the President of the appropriated by the Congress last year war, and that the Korean truce would United States, and the sound industrial for the Defense Establishment. The in fact mean a complete cessation of experience of the Secretary of Defense amounts recommended by the Senate combat, then the amount we are recomand his aids. Their combined thinking committee are $77,161,500 more than the mending could be cut.

mending could be cut. There would be of what type of defense this Nation needs amount of $34,353,686,500 as passed by no excuse for not cutting it, in that event, in these times, and of how much can be the House of Representatives.

because, after all, appropriations and exproduced in our industry is reflected in This bill, Mr. President, is the product penditures of money for the Military this bill.

of the concerted efforts of the new ad Establishment are not simply for the


purpose of providing employment for the to get the industrial machine running former administration's budget was made military; the purpose is to provide for smoothly, keeping in mind that the fewer

smoothly, keeping in mind that the fewer without regard to the basic programs the defense of the Nation. Unfortun the changes that are later found neces and projects for the defense of this ately, we do not know and cannot know sary, the smaller the amount of money country. when war may come. Since we are not that will be required. We have heard Let me say, in the first place, that the an aggressor nation, we cannot deter

of even as many as 3,000 changes being budgets of all the agencies of the Govmine that time. In view of present con made in an airplane. No one wants ern for the 1954 fiscal year were reviewditions, it would seem that that deter development to be at a standstill, and no ed as soon as possible after the new admination must be made by those in the one wants to prevent desirable changes. ministration took office. This review Kremlin. The only basis upon which It is a question of holding the changes was required of the Department of Dewe have been able to proceed has been down to the minimum, in the interest offense along with the other departments that there is no evidence that the threat speedy production.

and agencies. The Director of the and danger to the free world have appre The military programs provided in the Bureau of the Budget, on behalf of the ciably lessened. At the same time, the pending bill would present a middle President, launched the general review drain on the resources of this country course between the dangerous extremes by his memorandum of February 3, 1953. by the Korean war has been substantial; of "feast or famine,” as our policy has During the months of February, March, and, although important progress has been in the past. As President Eisen and April, the Department of Defense been made in increasing the military hower has so aptly stated, we must have instituted a detailed review of the prestrength of the free world, we are con a national-defense policy patterned to vious appropriations and current budget siderably short of what our state of

meet the requirements of an “age of requests. This review was conducted readiness ought to be. In some aspects danger”—and in view of the present under the direction and with the guidit is shocking to observe what little de situation in the world I emphasize "age

ance of the National Security Council, fense we have. So we must turn the of danger”—not a “day of peril.” In

of which the President of the United wheels of industry as rapidly as possible,

stead of saying, as we did in the past, States is Chairman. The fiscal and budgin order to obtain the needed strength.

that war would come in 1950, and again, et staffs of the Army, the Navy, and Mr. MORSE. Mr. President, will the that it would come in 1952; and instead the Air Force, the Office of the SecreSenator from Michigan yield at this

of trying to attain a peak of prepared- tary of Defense, and the Bureau of the point? I seek information.

ness as to some particular date, we are Budget, presented detailed studies for The PRESIDING OFFICER

now endeavoring to be ready at all times, the consideration of the National SecurDANIEL in the chair). Does the Senator

and to continue to be ready. The pro- ity Council in its endeavor to scrutinize from Michigan yield to the Senator from

grams of national defense represent carefully the plans and programs of the Oregon?

achievement of a military posture that Department of Defense. The President Mr. FERGUSON. I yield.

can be sustained over an indefinite pe was present at all of the deliberations Mr. MORSE. When the Senator from riod for as long as international ten

riod for as long as international tens of the National Security Council, and Michigan says, if I correctly interpret sions continue, without exhausting the

sions continue, without exhausting the personally approved the guidance dihis remarks, that in some phases of our

Nation, without continuing to induce in- rectives to the Department of Defense. defense program it is really shocking to flation, and, without continuing high

flation, and, without continuing high The budget requests to the Congress observe what little defense we have and taxes indefinitely, and without inviting

were the result of this review and were I hasten to state that I do not wish him

aggression because of national financial based on this guidance of the National to disclose the nature of such shortages, weakness.

Security Council. The President himbecause I am as anxious as is he to pro

In this connection, let me make clear self approved the revised budget estitect our security secrets-I assume that

that the dollars recommended in this mates, and is fully conversant with the he wishes to give the Senate assurance

bill are, in the committee's judgment, force goals and budgetary matters. that he believes the pending appropri

ample to provide for the continued im In his letter of June 30, 1953, to Repation bill will strengthen as rapidly as possible, commensurate with efficiency paredness which we ought to have in

provement of the state of military pre- resentative SCRIVNER, who was in charge and wise spending, the weak spots in our

light of our defense problems of today. stated that his letter offered him andefense program. Is that correct?

A great deal of confusion has been other opportunity to reiterate publicly Mr. FERGUSON. That is correct, and created in the minds of the American

that this budget "represents my own that is the purpose of the bill. people by statements made in the press

views and bears my personal endorseMr. MORSE. The Senator makes that and in the Halls of the Congress about

and in the Halls of the Congress about ment in all major particulars,” the statement with the understanding that

the dollars in the revised budget for President went on to say: "to repeatreasonable men may differ as to whether 1954, without regard to the basic pro I have studied this budget thoroughly the amounts recommended by the com

grams for which these dollars provide and am in full accord with it, recognizmittee, particularly for the Air Force,

the financing. To continue these state- ing of course that your committee's deare adequate.

ments about the billions appropriated tailed analysis of the budget presentaMr. FERGUSON. One is reminded of

or spent without telling the American tion may reveal some areas where furthe remark made on one occasion by

people what we have obtained for these ther reductions may be made without William Knudsen, the man who guided

billions is certainly unfair to them. In impairment of the force goals and overour industrial program through World

many instances, these statements about all defense objectives." In other words, War II, "You cannot hatch an egg any dollars could only be interpreted as half

the President of the United States was faster by putting two hens on it.”' truths at best, promulgated to serve a

not setting himself up as a dictator, but Mr. MORSE. No; but one can get No; but one can get special interest.

he merely endeavored to give the House more chicks if he puts double the number

There has been much comment in

the benefit of his best judgment, a of eggs under two hens, provided they

some quarters to the effect that the judgment he was able to form by reason can cover tilem. budget recommendations of the new

of his military standing, his military Mr. FERGUSON. That is correct

administration for the Defense Depart- experience, and his present position as provided they can cover the eggs.

ment represented private decisions and Commander in Chief. Mr. President, the subject under dis policies of the Secretary of Defense and The charge has been made that this cussion involves a recognition of the fact his assistants, and did not represent the budget was prepared by money men, there must be production. We must be views of the President. Apparently, those

and that the President did not formusure that the things which result from

who have attempted to make something late the budget, and is not aware of its our research and development programs out of such a charge have done so be- implications. Such a charge is unfair have been perfected, and that the final

cause the new administration, in keep- and completely misleading. models leave nothing to be desired; and ing with its policy of attempting to bal The budget for the Armed Forces, we must know where we are going in ance the budget as soon as practicable, which is the basis for this appropriaconnection with their manufacture. reduced the amounts requested of the tion bill, was developed, as I pointed out,

By reason of these requirements, I am Congress by the Truman administration under the direct guidance of the Presipleased to know that we have in the in January 1953 of $41.3 billion to $36 dent and the National Security Council. Defense Department men who are ad- billion, or a reduction of $5.3 billion. No President of the United States, no mittedly industrial geniuses, men who Also, some people have erroneously con Secretary of Defense, no head of any will endeavor to increase production and cluded that this reduction from the agency, can possibly know all of the

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