Page images

proper presentations are made, this sub- out some of the funds previously re tions, some $3 million. Then follow committee will be glad to meet and give quested which were in the $112 million items for communications, medical supconsideration to the requests and rec original request, which accounts for plies and training. Is it not a fact that ommendations of the Defense Departo some of the reduction. The committee there are certain other items that might ment.

then proceded to make a number of re be listed there except for the fact that The construction of the overseas bases ductions, and I can say from my own there would be a goose egg alongside of in French Morocco are still giving con recollection that that was in accordance them, namely, the amount of zero? I cern to the committee. This program with the overwhelming sentiment of all refer to items that were requested for got off to a bad start and has never been members of the subcommittee who did welfare services, public-safety services, fully brought into line. The commit- participate in the mark-up session. medical services, and to the fact that tee has requested certain additional in The CHAIRMAN. The time of the those funds have been eliminated withformation which it hopes to obtain in gentlewoman from Massachusetts has out any reasons being given in the rethe near future and after obtaining this expired.

port. The result will be, will it not, that information it will be glad to give further Mr. RILEY. Mr. Chairman, I have no no Federal funds will be available to the consideration to the requests in this area. further requests for time.

States to assist them in securing such The committee feels, however, that the Mr. DAVIS of Wisconsin. Mr. Chair- items of disaster equipment as cots, funds which are available for construc- man, I yield such time as he may desire blankets, fire-fighting apparatus, and tion in this area should be used on work to the gentleman from Massachusetts other things of that nature? which has already been started before [Mr. CURTIS].

Mr. DAVIS of Wisconsin. That is true obligations and contracts are made to Mr. CURTIS of Massachusetts. Mr. with respect to some of them. When you start work on the two bases which are not Chairman, I would like to pursue a little mention "medical,” however, the report yet under construction. This commit- further the question of this Federal Civil definitely does provide funds for matchtee is not setting itself up as a board of Defense Administration budget and ask ing for that purpose, and that is in addistrategy by saying what is needed or the gentleman from Wisconsin whether tion to the strictly Federal program what is not needed in the way of a de or not it is a fact that the so-called which runs into millions of dollars for fense program in this region, but the Eisenhower budget contained $125 mile stockpiling for that purpose. committee is deeply concerned in obtain lion for this agency, and that amount

As to the fire-fighting equipment, ing practical construction results on

on has been reduced by your committee to there were communities throughout the projects which have been approved by $37 million ?

entire Nation that had some pretty big the Defense Department. It feels that Mr. DAVIS of Wisconsin. I believe dreams of getting Uncle Sam to help it is unwise to begin new construction that is correct. But, a major portion of them build up their fire-engine supply. unless definite plans have been made it can be attributed to the very large bal

The committee did not approve of those and line item estimates for necessary ance that was left over in the purchase of dreams and did not provide any money operational facilities have been sub- certain stockpiling supplies and the fact for that purpose. mitted with realistic cost estimates for that large request was made there that

Mr. CURTIS of Massachusetts. I sugthe committee to consider.

appeared to be beyond the physical gest to the gentleman that some of us The committee believes that it is pre- capabilities of those charged with the

are pretty tough on Federal contribusenting to this Committee of the whole program to obtain those stockpiling sup

tions for various things we believe should a sound program and I hope the Com- plies.

be within the jurisdiction of the States. mittee will approve the recommenda Mr. DEVEREUX. Mr. Chairman, will But would not the gentleman agree that tions of its Appropriations Committee. the gentleman yield?

Mr. CURTIS of Massachusetts. I used in a war emergency is a necessary Mr. DAVIS of Wisconsin. Mr. Chair

emergency fire-fighting equipment to be man, I yield 2 minutes to the gentle- yield to the gentleman from Maryland. and proper field for Federal aid? woman from Massachusetts [Mrs. Mr. DEVEREUX. In that connection,

Mr. COLE of New York. Mr. ChairROGERS).

when I asked the gentleman from New Mrs. ROGERS of Massachusetts. Mr. York [Mr. TABER] that very question, it man, I seriously doubt that the sum rec

ommended for the Federal Civil Defense Chairman, I rise to ask the chairman of was brought out that all of the funds had

Administration in this measure is suffithe committee why the civil defense was actually been committed, and the only cient to prepare adequate civil defense cut from the suggested $150 million for reason they had not been received by in this age of peril—when a serious civil defense down to $37 million by the Civil Defense is that they did not have

atomic attack on this country can hapCommittee on Appropriations? the warehousing facilities to take care

pen any day. I visited the tornado stricken area of them; they were simply waiting for

I should like to call attention to one in Massachusetts and saw the terrible the warehouing facilities, and just as damage there and the suffering. I noted soon as Civil Defense could say that they particularly significant decrease in the the great help that the civil defense had the facilities to take care of those funds toward informing and educating

the public in civil-defense measures. rendered. First, the able Deputy Ad- purchased items, that they would obtain

The Federal Civil Defense Administraministrator of Civil Defense, Mrs. an increase in the fund.

tion requested $994,000 for this purpose. Charles Howard, visited the disaster Mr. CURTIS of Massachusetts. I

The committee has recommended that area, later on Mr. Val Peterson. I was thank the gentleman. I have another

this be decreased to $700,000. You may there 36 hours after the tornado myself question. Is it not a fact that the adand was amazed at the accomplishments ministration of disaster relief has by for defense supplies and facilities on the

feel justified in failing to appropriate of the civil defense organization. I Executive order been committed to the noted their orderly procedure and their Federal Civil Defense Administration? grounds of economy but there can be no

defense of failing to educate the people cooperation with all groups in the cities I ask that having in mind that we re

in the steps they should take on their assisted. Not to have the American pub- cently had a tornado disaster in Massa

own initiative for their own personal lic, American families, notified as to chusetts and that the Federal Civil De

defense. what to do in case of an atomic bombing fense Administration gave a mighty fine

The report on the 1953 supplemental attack, for instance, seems to me to be account of itself. very unfortunate. Not to have the medi Mr. DAVIS of Wisconsin. That is appropriation bill stated: cal supplies would be a tragedy. I was correct. According to a recent order This concept has as its basis the developwondering why the Committee on Ap- that has been transferred, but the dis

ment of adequate attack warning communipropriations made such a cut in Civil aster relief funds, however, previously cation and the training and education of the

American people in matters of self-protecDefense appropriations. appropriated, when it was handled by

tion. Mr. DAVIS of Wisconsin. I would another administrative means, are not say to the gentlewoman from Massachu- included in this appropriation for Civil

The committee at that time, by the setts that this matter was quite fully Defense.

way, recommended $1,600,000 for public gone into by the chairman of the com Mr. CURTIS of Massachusetts. One education and self-protection. mittee, the gentleman from New York more question. I refer to page 41 of the The Agency's original request for 1954 [Mr. TABER] in his opening remarks. committee report under the item of of less than a million dollars for this There was a revised budget submitted by "Federal contributions." You have vital educational program may well have the present administration which took given money for attack warning installa- been too conservative in light of the


tragic consequences of ignorance in ernor of Nebraska, Val Peterson, as Civil heavy pressure, frequently is taken at emergency. Defense Administrator:

the expense of prudence and reason, and Recently the President told a news The task of civil defense is vital to our

yet with the best motives in the world. conference that the time has come when national life. It demands a preparedness That, I suspect is what has happened the American people must be given more that can do more than limit the damage of a here. information about atomic weapons, both

wartime disaster. It means developing a The action that disturbs me is that United States and Russian. He said preparedness, vigilance so impressive as to

of the Emergency Agencies Subcommitthat it is time for us to be more frank deter aggression itself. * * * This awareness

tee of the Committee on Appropriations must touch every community, every citizen with the people than has been the cus

in disallowing the $82 million asked for of our land. • * * The responsibility of the tom in the past. I have been in hearty

Federal Government is to provide leadership. by the Federal Civil Defense Administraagreement with the need for such an

This entails more than the stockpiling of tion for stockpiling medical supplies and information program and even now am supplies and the furnishing of technical equipment against the day of atomic atengaged to that objective. Once the guidance. It demands inspiring our whole tack on this country. That there is conpeople understand the tremendous force citizenry to be alert to their collective task,

stant danger of such an attack, I subof modern atomic weapons, they will

Obviously, the Congress by its own mit, is not debatable. Our highest milimore readily and generously appropriate law-Public Law 920—shares with the

law-Public Law 920-shares with the tary authorities and our best intelligence funds for protective measures. President and the executive branch, the

tells us that this is so and that it will The major responsibility in this field

be until assurance of a permanent world grave responsibility of leadership in this of informing and protecting the Ameri

great voluntary program. Moreover, it

Moreover, it peace can be found. There is no proscan people was imposed by the 81st Con

shares responsibility with the executive pect of that now; nor can anyone see one gress upon the Federal Civil Defense Ad

branch for inspiring our whole citizenry for a long time to come. Such an attack ministration, and properly so, for it is a to be alert to their collective task.

would result in casualties in the millions Federal responsibility. How can we pos Knowing how severely the Congress

and a destruction of property almost besibly inform 45 million American fami- has treated civil-defense appropriations

has treated civil-defense appropriations yond imagination. With civil defense we lies on self-protection against atomic, in the past, I wonder how much leader

can cut those casualties and the damage biological, and chemical warfare for an ship is now indicated by cutting an al

50 percent, bring about the speediest reexpenditure of $700,000 or even a mil

ready modest appropriation by nearly 70 habilitation of our stricken centers, and lion dollars over 1 year's period? In percent. I wonder, too, how we can

provide ourselves with the best insursharp contrast to this, the automotive arouse and protect our people; how much

ance against disruption of our producindustry spends hundreds of millions of

we can inspire them during the coming tive industrial capacity without which dollars to sell its products each year. The automobile unlike civil defense has Ruthless economy can be blind folly. year with the investment of $700,000. no modern war can be fought.

We have made a start at building civil long been an accepted part of America's

The CHAIRMAN. The Clerk will read defense, but there is a long way to go. I way of life, yet sound business practices the bill for amendment.

regret to say, the Congress, in repeatedly in the industry require the many millions

The Clerk read down to and includ slashing the appropriations made for the of dollars spent each year to sell and ing page 1, line 7.

Federal civil defense has been, perhaps, resell the automobile to the public.

Mr. DAVIS of Wisconsin. Mr. Chair the major brake on our progress toward At a time when so many of us both man, I move that the Committee do now

that goal. When we cut civil defense within and outside of Government are

appropriation to the bone the States and hammering on the necessity of having The motion was agreed to.

communities, who look to Congress for all of America's families know the true

Accordingly the Committee rose; and leadership, in many cases, follow our facts about the dangers we face and how the Speaker having resumed the chair, example. Civil defense begins at home. they can protect themselves against its Mr. BYRNES of Wisconsin, Chairman of But without Federal leadership and asdangers, it seems quite unrealistic to re- the Committee of the, Whole House on

sistance, we cannot expect the States duce by nearly 30 percent the small the State of the Union, reported that and communities to assume the burdens, amount asked for that program. that Committee, having had under con

However, it is with the health and I believe that the people of this Nation sideration the bill (H. R. 6200) making medical defense aspect of the civil dewill act wisely if they have the full truth supplemental appropriations for the fis

fense problem that I am concerned toand that our Government must be can- cal year ending June 30, 1954, and for day. Without Federal help, no city, howdid with the American people about the other purposes, had come to no resolu

ever rich and populous, can hope to atomic dangers that confront us. We tion thereon.

supply itself with the medical supplies should at least vote Civil Defense the

and equipment it would need immedimoney requested for educating the peo

ately after an atomic attack. By our law, ple in self-protection.

the FCDA is duty bound to give the back

CIVIL DEFENSE Earlier I cited the committee's interest

up medical supplies for our cities. They in early attack warning. It strongly be

Mrs. ROGERS of Massachusetts. Mr. have submitted a reasonable program lieves in the concept of a good warning Speaker, I ask unanimous consent to for this purpose and estimated the cost.

address the House for 5 minutes. program which is primarily based on a

It is this program, that the committee siren system of warning the public.

The SPEAKER. Is there objection to

Is there objection to has curtailed.

the request of the gentlewoman from Strangely enough, however, I know

The reasoning of the committee, as Massachusetts ?

given in its report, is as follows: The many, many people who do not know

There was no objection,

FCDA asked for $82 million for medical what the air-raid signals are and who Mrs. ROGERS of Massachusetts. Mr. supplies and equipment. As of May 30, do not know what to do when they hear Speaker, I rise to discuss briefly the cut 1953, orders had been placed for such them. To me, it does not make a great in the appropriations for civil defense. supplies in the amount of $79,350,637. deal of sense for the House to financially Mr. Speaker, as a woman and a Mem- of this amount only $41,997,144 had been endorse a stronger public-warning sys- ber of the House, I am profoundly dis- delivered. Hence, we will give you $20 tem and then make a 30-percent cut in turbed by a House committee action that million, which, with the undelivered the program which would, among many involves the lives of millions of my fel. items, will provide a realistic medical other

low Americans. The action I speak of stockpiling program for 1954. understand those signals and what to do would disturb all the women of America This reasoning would perhaps be unwhen they hear them. If the public does

I feel sure, if they knew the full import derstandable were it not for, first, the not know what the sirens mean and the of it.

peculiar conditions of the medical supply actions they must take to save their lives, it takes in human life and suffering. In

I have seen much of war and the toll industry; and, second, the required then our siren system might just as well

it takes in human life and suffering. In methods of Government procurement for

the First World War and in the years be mute for its value in alerting the

economy purposes. Delivery, as I will between it and World War II, I was enpeople.

explain, is not the criteria. Actually, gaged in the medical care and rehabili FCDA had obligated all the moneys alMay I call your attention to a state- tation of the victims of war.

lotted it and needs the sum it has asked ment made by President Eisenhower, As a Congresswoman, I know that com- for, which will be obligated in turn for March 4, when he swore in the able Goy- mittee action, taken in haste and under the items needed to carry on its program.

We are all familiar with the expression pons defense services of Civil Defense

pons defense services of Civil Defense House recede from its disagreement to Sen"lead time” in connection with produc- if we are to have any assurance that

ate amendment No. 4 and agree to that tion and supply. In the field of medical we will be able to survive the crushing

amendment with an amendment. supply it is especially significant and we blow of an all-out attack with the wea

1. Amendment No. 1 deals with the basis

on which the Secretary is to allot to irrigashould not be misled into a false econ- pons of modern war.

tion projects and other new areas the one omy at the cost of serious damage to our In deepest sincerity, I urge that the

percent of the national acreage allotment civil defense program because we have FCDA be given the funds it must have of wheat which is set aside for this purpose. misunderstood these special conditions. to assure us adequate medical care and Under the provisions of the House bill, the

The FCDA's medical supply program health protection which would be so Secretary would allot this acreage on the has a dual function: First, that of pro desperately needed if the enemy's atomic basis of the new areas coming into producviding for local stockpiling on a match. bombs ever fall on our cities.

tion of wheat during the ten calendar years ing fund basis under the Federal con I would like to say that those who have

"immediately preceding" the calendar year

in which the national acreage allotment is tributions program to provide for emer- visited the tornado-stricken areas know

proclaimed. The Senate amendment gency medical care and public health full well what civil defense can do and

changed the words "immediately preceding" services in the first few post-attack how extremely necessary it is, and that to “ending with.” This will have the effect hours; and second, that of establishing President Eisenhower has directed the of requiring the Secretary to take into conFederal backup reserves, financed en Civil Defense to assist in stricken areas. sideration the latest available records of tirely by the Federal Government to pro- Anyone who has visited and seen Oper

wheat production in distributing this one vide for the continuance of such care ation Doorstep knows how vital knowl. percent reserve.

2. This amendment adds language not in and services after the first few post- edge of the dangers of bombings, fires

the House bill which will have the effect of attack hours and through the postand other disasters and what to do to

repealing the now obsolete provisions of the attack emergency period. help. I suggest that all Members of

Agricultural Adjustment Act establishing a Only those quantities and types of Congress visit the exhibitions given by

Congress visit the exhibitions given by penalty of 15 cents per bushel for wheat supplies needed for about the first four Civil Defense at the college in Maryland. grown in excess of marketing quotas. This post-attack hours are being stored by

provision has been superseded several times

by later and higher penalty provisions but our communities. The remainder of the


for some reason has not been previously resupplies needed to carry a community

pealed. It is specifically superseded by secfor the emergency period would be stored


tion 3 of the bill agreed upon by the conby the FCDA in warehouses strategically Mr. HOPE submitted the following ferees, which has the effect of establishing placed to serve the 67 target areas. To conference report and statement on the the wheat penalty at 45 percent of the parity store within each of these areas all of the bill (H. R. 5451) to amend the wheat

price. supplies needed by all nearby target marketing quota provisions of the Agri

3. The House bill contained provisions areas for 3 weeks casualty care would cultural Adjustment Act of 1938, as

which would have changed the present law

relative to exemption of small wheat growbe an unwarranted drain on production amended, and for other purposes: ers from quotas, by raising the exemption and money. It is estimated that such a

level from 15 acres or 200 bushels to 25 acres, plan for each target area would cost CONFERENCE REPORT (H. REPT. 786) or 400 bushels. Senate amendment No. 3 3 to 5 times as much as the plan The committee of conference on the dis eliminated these provisions from the bill. proposed by the FCDA.

agreeing votes of the two Houses on the By agreeing to the Senate amendment, the Two major factors condition the prob amendments of the Senate to the bill (H. R. committee of conference reports a bill which

will leave the present exemption levels unlem that the FCDA program is designed 5451) to amend the wheat marketing quota

changed at 15 acres, or 200 bushels of wheat. to solve: First, the fact that inventories provisions of the Agricultural Adjustment

Act of 1938, as amended, and for other pur 4. The fourth amendment of the Senate of normal medical supplies of a com

poses, having met, after full and free con changed from 66 to 61 million acres the munity are extremely small when com

ference, have agreed to recommend and do statutory minimum national acreage allotpared to the quantities and types of recommend to their respective Houses as ment for 1954. The compromise recomthose needed in a civil defense emer follows:

mended by the committee of conference will gency; and, second, the Department of That the House recede from its disagree. establish the minimum national acreage

allotment for 1954 at 62,000,000 acres. Defense has advised the Federal Civil ment to the amendments of the Senate

CLIFFORD R. HOPE, Defense Administration that the Armed numbered 1, 2, and 3 and agree to the same. Forces stockpile of medical supplies and Amendment numbered 4: That the House

AUG. H. ANDRESEN, recede from its disagreement to the amend

WILLIAM S. HILL, equipment will not be available to civil ment of the Senate numbered 4, and agree

W. R. POAGE, defense in an emergency without seto the same with an amendment, as follows:

GEORGE GRANT, riously jeopardizing military medical In lieu of the matter proposed to be inserted

Managers on the part of the House. operations, except perhaps on an ex by the Senate amendment insert the followtremely limited basis.

ing: "sixty-two"; and the Senate agree to Mr. HOPE. Mr. Speaker, I ask unaniMost surgical supplies are shipped al the same.

mous consent for the immediate con

CLIFFORD R. HOPE, most immediately from the production

sideration of the conference report on

Aug. H. ANDRESEN, line to the hospital or physician con

the bill (H. R. 5451) to amend the wheat.

WILLIAM S. HILL, sumer, frequently without any inter

marketing-quota provisions of the Agri

W. R. POAGE, mediate retail step. Most manufactur


cultural Adjustment Act of 1938, as ers warehouse their products only to

Managers on the Part of the House,

amended, and for other purposes. the extent necessary to maintain these


The SPEAKER. Is there objection to shipments. Inventories of retail surgi


the request of the gentleman from Kancal supply dealers, sufficient for only 30


sas? or 60 days of normal peacetime consump


There was no objection. tion, would in an emergency be exhausted


Mr. HOPE. Mr. Speaker, I ask unanialmost immediately. For example, a Managers on the Part of the Senate, mous consent that the statement of the Department of Commerce study of sur

managers on the part of the House be gical instruments and equipment re


read in lieu of the report. vealed that within a 100-mile radius of The managers on the part of the House at

The SPEAKER. Is there objection to the District of Columbia there were not the conference on the disagreeing votes of

the request of the gentleman from Kanenough supplies in the hands of dealers the two Houses on the amendments of the

sas? Senate to the bill (H. R. 5451) to amend to equip a single 100-bed hospital. Furthe wheat marketing quota provisions of

There was no objection. thermore, retail medical and surgical the Agricultural Adjustment 'Act of 1938, as

The Clerk read the statement. supply dealers are generally situated in

amended, and for other purposes, submit the Mr. HOPE. Mr. Speaker, the statethe business sections of cities and are, following statement in explanation of the ment of the conferees pretty well points therefore, highly vulnerable in the event effect of the action agreed upon by the con out the differences in the two bills and, of attack.

ferees and recommended in the accompany. unless there are some questionsHence, it is very apparent that we ing conference report:

Mr. ROGERS of Colorado. Mr. must carry forward the proposed pro

The Senate made four amendments to the

Speaker, will the gentleman yield? House bill. The committee of conference gram for medical stockpiling against has agreed to recommend that the House re

Mr. HOPE. I yield. the enormous casualty load that will be cede from its disagreement to Senate amend Mr. ROGERS of Colorado. I direct thrown upon the health and special wea ments numbered 1, 2, and 3, and that the the gentleman's attention to the first

statement contained herein—that the While previous production is given bill

previous production is given bill would effect corresponding reallotment of wheat is set aside for this weight, the committee is not confined by ductions. purpose, dealing with the irrigation proj any means to the previous history of The new bill continues the section of ects, and so forth-does that apply only production; the allotment depends also

production; the allotment depends also Public Law 874 which provides for payto those projects that are financed by upon the number of tillable acres on the

upon the number of tillable acres on the ments to a school district on property Government reclamation projects or farm and upon the crop rotation prac- acquired by the Federal Government does that apply to general irrigation? tices on the farm as well as type of soil since 1938, which was not acquired in Mr. HOPE. It applies to acreage and topography.

exchange for other Federal property; which has been brought into production Mr. RAYBURN. Tillable acreage on which had an assessed value of not less within recent years, mostly through irri the farm?

than 10 percent or more of the assessed gation but not limited to that. But as Mr. HOPE. That is one of the fac- value of all real property at the time of it applies to irrigation it is not limited tors, but it is up to the county com acquisition, which has placed a subto irrigated land brought in under the mittee to give the proper weight. That

That stantial and continuing financial burden Reclamation Service.

is a factor in determining what the on the school district; and from which Mr. ROGERS of Colorado. And it acreage would be to the individual farm. no continuing substantial compensation must be of recent origin. As you and Mr. RAYBURN. I thank the gentle- is being received. I know, in the West there have been man.

Maximum payments to a local educamany irrigation projects that have exist Mr. HOPE. Mr. Speaker, I move the tional agency are computed by formulas. ed for a number of years and in many previous question on the conference re The number of children under certain instances they use irrigation for the pur port.

categories is determined as follows: pose of growing wheat. Would it apply The previous question was ordered.

(a) Children in average daily attendonly to the recent ones or generally to The conference report was agreed to, ance during preceding fiscal year who all crops that have been grown as a result and a motion to reconsider was laid on

and a motion to reconsider was laid on resided on Federal property with parent of irrigation? the table.

employed on Federal property, situated Mr. HOPE. Its effect would be to ap

in whole or in part in State, or within ply, principally at least, and I think al OPERATING EXPENSES OF SCHOOL reasonable commuting distance from most altogether, to the recent projects

DISTRICTS AFFECTED BY FED- school district; or had a parent who was because in the case of irrigated areas

on active duty in uniformed services, as

ERAL ACTIVITIES which have been in existence for a num

defined in section 102 of Career Comber of years, if the producers had desired Mr. MCCONNELL. Mr. Speaker, I pensation Act of 1949. to grow wheat, they would have built up move that the House resolve itself into (b) Children in average daily attenda wheat history by this time. It is de the Committee of the Whole House on ance during preceding fiscal year who signed to apply particularly to those the State of the Union for the considera- either resided on Federal property, or areas which are now coming into culti tion of the bill (H. R. 6078) to amend resided with a parent employed on Fedvation which have not had a chance Public Law 874 of the 81st Congress so eral property situated in whole or in part previously to build up a wheat history. as to make improvements in its provi- in State, or within reasonable commutMr. ROGERS of Colorado. I thank

sions and extend its duration for a 2- ing distance from school district. Maxithe gentleman.

year period, and for other purposes. mum payment is the local contribution Mr. RAYBURN. Mr. Speaker, will the The motion was agreed to.

rate multiplied by the sum of number gentleman yield?

Accordingly the House resolved itself children category (a) and one-half the Mr. HOPE. I yield to the gentleman into the Committee of the Whole House number of category (b) minus 2 percent from Texas.

on the State of the Union for the con- of difference between such sum and total Mr. RAYBURN. Under the confer sideration of the bill H. R. 6078, with number of children in average daily atence report there is allowed a total of Mr. SCRIVNER in the chair.

tendance during preceding fiscal year, 62 million acres of wheat; is that cor The Clerk read the title of the bill. No payment under this section unless rect?

By unanimous consent, the first read- sum of number children category (a) Mr. HOPE. That is correct. ing of the bill was dispensed with,

and one-half number children category Mr. RAYBURN. Along the line of the The CHAIRMAN. Under the rule, (b) is 10 or more. questions of the gentleman from Colo general debate is to be confined to the For exceptional circumstances, Comrado [Mr. ROGERS), I am interested to

bill and to continue not to exceed 1 hour, missoner may waive or reduce the 2-perknow how many years they are going to to be equally divided and controlled by cent deduction and the requirement of take for the average on the individual the gentleman from Pennsylvania [Mr. 10 or more children. farm. Has that been determined yet?

MCCONNELL] and the gentleman from Where the children in average daily Mr. HOPE. Under the law the naNorth Carolina [Mr. BARDEN).

attendance at schools of a local educational acreage allotment will be appor

The Chair recognizes the gentleman tional agency during the fiscal year endtioned to the States on the basis of the from Pennsylvania [Mr. MCCONNELL]. ing June 30, 1939, exceeded 35,000, there 10-year average of seeded acreage, and

Mr. MCCONNELL. Mr. Chairman, I shall be a 3-percent deduction in lieu of the allotment to the States will in turn yield myself 10 minutes.

2 percent, and the Commissioner may be allotted to the counties on the basis Mr. Chairman, the bill H. R. 6078 is in not waive or reduce the 3-percent deof a 10-year average of seeded acres. effect somewhat in the nature of a com duction. The allotments to the farms will be panion bill to H. R. 6049, which was The local contribution rate is obtained made on a formula which is set out in passed last week. The bill which was in the following manner: the law and which includes a number of passed last week, H. R. 6049, provided First. The Commissioner shall deterfactors.

Federal payments to assist in the con- mine which school districts within the Mr. RAYBURN. How many years are struction of minimum school facilities State are generally comparable to school you going to allow for the individual in districts affected by Federal impact.

in districts affected by Federal impact. district for which computation is being farm-10 years?

H. R. 6078 amends and extends Public made. Mr. HOPE. No. On the farm it is Law 874, a law which provides for main Second. He shall then divide (A) the subject to a number of factors including tenance and operation assistance to aggregate current expenditures-during the number of tillable acres, crop rota- school

school districts affected by Federal second fiscal year preceding the fiscal tion practices, type of soil and the acre

activities of the Government, principally year for which computation is being age grown on the farm in past years. due to the defense program of the made—which the comparable school disI think there are 1 or 2 other factors country.

tricts made from revenues derived from which I do not recall at the moment.

The appropriation for Public Law 874 local sources by (B) the aggregate numMr. RAYBURN. What would be the for this fiscal year ending June 30, 1954 ber children in ADA during such second situation on a farm that had been rais, will be approximately $60,500,000. If fiscal year. The quotient obtained is ing wheat for only 2 years?

this bill, H. R. 6078, were in effect it the local contribution rate. Mr. HOPE. It would be up to the would reduce that amount to about $50 A floor on the local contribution rate county committee to apply the formula million. Although the amounts needed is provided as follows: In no event shall and to determine the weight to give each for the succeeding 2 years cannot be esti- the local contribution rate be less than of the factors which I have mentioned. mated accurately it is estimated that the 50 percent of the aggregate current ex

penditures during second fiscal year to receive educational payments under thousands of additional workers have made by all local educational agencies the Johnson-O'Malley Act. Those taken employment on Federal property in such State-without regard to source States which elect to receive Public Law in their own or new communities. of the funds—divided by the aggregate 874 funds will officially notify the Office In many federally affected school disnumber of children in ADA in the schools of Education before January 1 of the tricts where problems of World War II of such agencies during that second pre year preceding the fiscal year for which increases have been carried over, and ceding fiscal year.

they desire to receive such payments. local resources have been strained to the If amount computed for payment Public Law 874 was enacted September utmost, the assistance provided under under previous categories together with 30, 1950, and by its terms would expire Public Law 874 alone has served to preall other funds from available sources is June 30, 1954. The Congress so limited vent serious deterioration in the school not sufficient to provide a level of edu- the duration of the law because of the situation. In other districts where sudcation equivalent to other generally then untried character of this new ap den and substantial new increases in comparable school districts in the State, proach to the meeting the Federal re school enrollments have resulted from and if such agency is making a reason sponsibilities involved, and because of Federal projects, a complete breakdown able tax effort and using due diligence the obvious need for careful reconsid in the public-school system has been in availing itself of State and other eration of its various provisions on the avoided and the absorption of the growth financial assistance; and if not less than basis of actual experience.

made possible through payments made 50 percent of total number children in The purpose of H. R. 6078 is to extend under this law. ADA in schools of such agency during the provisions of this law for an addi The Federal responsibility to which preceding fiscal year resided on Federal tional 2 years, that is, until June 30, 1956, Public Law 874 is addressed will continue property, and if effective for fiscal year and to make various amendments which for as long as the Federal Government beginning July 1, 1955, the eligibility of the committee believes are indicated as continues to own and use large areas of such agency is no less favorable than a result of its review of the law's ob tax-exempt property and to impose subfor other local agencies in the State— jectives in the light of present day con stantial burdens on school districts in the Commissioner may increase the ditions and the past 3 years' experience the form of reduction in their tax base amount to the extent necessary to en with the law's administration,

or increase in their educational load able educational agency to provide edu Public Law 874 recognizes the dual

or both. cation equivalent to comparable school burden placed on school districts by Fed The need for extending Public Law 874 districts.

eral activities. The two dominant fea during this session of Congress arises If Commissioner determines that as a tures of Federal activity in relation to from the necessity of giving the affected direct result of activities of the United the public school program of a commun school districts some assurance now States—carried on directly or through ity are, first, the tax-exempt status of that Public Law 874 payments will be contract—an increase in number of property acquired by the Government forthcoming after the 1953–54 fiscal year. children in ADA has occurred in schools which lowers school revenues and, sec They need this assurance now in order to of local agency, equal to at least 5 per ond, the employment by the Federal budget soundly for their 1955 and 1956 cent of the number of all children in Government of substantial numbers of school years, and in order to avoid needADA in those schools of such agency

workers whose children add to the nor less and wasteful disruption of their during preceding fiscal year, and that mal school population. Frequently, school programs. those activities placed a substantial and homes for Federal workers are built on The bill postpones until July 1, 1954, continuing financial burden on those military or other installations which

the taking effect of those amendments schools, and that such agency is making means that both the place of employ which will operate to reduce the entitlea reasonable tax effort, but is unable ment and residence are tax exempt. ments of local school agencies. This will to secure sufficient funds to meet in Thus, fewer local tax dollars per pupil permit an orderly adjustment on the part creased costs—then such agency shall be are available to pay the costs of educa of affected school districts from the entitled to receive an amount equal to

tion for all children in the community. existing law to the amended law. the number children to be the increase The Congress enacted Public Law 874 Public Law 874 had as its basic prinresulting from Federal activities in such in September 1950, after intensive inves ciple the concept that the Federal Govyear in ADA, multiplied by the amount tigation undertaken by this committee

ernment would compensate a local school Commissioner determines to be the cur for the purpose of defining the nature district for the burden imposed on such rent expenditures per child necessary to

and extent of the problem and of the district by the Federal Government and provide free public education to such

Federal responsibility in connection would pay its just share of the school additional children in ADA minus the therewith. In general, the provisions maintenance and operation costs borne amount to be available from State, local,

written into the law have proved to be from local taxation. To carry out this and Federal sources not counting as

both wisely conceived and equitable in principle, the law provided that the available payment on property acquired application because they insure that

amount of the payment to any local by the Federal Government or funds

Federal funds will be directed to the school agency for children who lived on from local sources necessary to provide place of immediate need and that they Federal property, or with a parent emfree public education to other children. will be in proportion to the burden

ployed on Federal property, or both, was Except where determination made placed on the schools by a Federal ac

determined by reference to the rate of for fiscal year ending June 30, 1956, such tivity.

expenditure for school purposes from agency shall receive for next fiscal year In the 3 years Public Law 874 has been local tax revenues to comparable com50 percent of such product.

in operation the number of eligible dis munities in the State. In the adminThe bill provides that local educa- tricts and the number of federally con istration of the law to date it has been tion agencies may receive payments with

nected children have increased sharply learned that this concept is sound where respect to Indian children attending each year, and the amount of Federal the bulk of the funds are obtained by their schools. Most of these children, funds required has risen substantially local taxation.

local taxation. However, this committee even though they reside on tax-exempt above the annual cost estimated when has received extensive testimony showing property, cannot be counted for purposes the act was passed. These increases that in those States where the State has of Public Law 874 payments because they

have been due largely to the expansion adopted a plan financed by State reveare eligible for educational services, pro of defense spending since the law was nues of equalizing educational opporvided through the Bureau of Indian Af first enacted, and not anticipated at that tunities in the less wealthy communities fairs in the Department of Interior. time.

of the State with those in communities That Bureau operates, pursuant to the This spending has, of course, been re in which there is a higher per capita Johnson-O'Malley Act, a program of flected in new and reactivated military income, the local contribution rate reFederal financial assistance to State and bases, new defense plants under Federal mains low, with the result that the Fedlocal educational agencies which provide lease or ownership, and considerable ex eral payment under Public Law 874 is free public education to Indian children. pansion of production for defense pur low. Thus local school agencies in This bill will permit States to decide poses by private industry.

. The mobili States where the most has been done to for themselves whether to become eligi- zation of our Armed Forces has uproots raise standards of education by the use ble to receive Public Law 874 payments ed many families and brought them into of a financing system based on Statefor their Indian children, or to continue new and congested districts. Many wide tax levies find themselves at a great

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