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for the wheat agreement. How many ties. It is used to help export them and I do not think that would be logical. I years does that cover? to support prices.
would not want the Senator to tell me Mr. LANGER. Four years.
Mr. FREAR. I understand that, but that I could milk my cows only 6 days a Mr. FREAR. We have concluded a 4 the Senator will also agree that if the week, and let them rest on the seventh, year agreement at a cost of more than $100 million were not used for wheat, it even though I believe in Holy Writ. half a billion dollars. What is the an could be used for other purposes.
I realize that there are certain parts ticipated cost for the next 3 years?
Mr. YOUNG. For perishable com of the economy which cannot be unMr. LANGER. It will be considerably modities.
seated for a particular advantage to less. It will probably be about $100 mil Mr. FREAR. That is correct.
any one group or any one nation, or any lion a year.
I should also like to direct a question group of nations. Let me say with all Mr. FREAR. For a total of 3 years? to either the Senator from Kansas [Mr. the stress I can place upon the stateMr. LANGER. For a total of 3 years. CARLSON) or the Senator from North ment that I am not in disagreement with
Mr. FREAR. Does the Senator think Dakota (Mr. LANGER). I shall not delay the principle of a wheat agreement. that the United States can afford to sub the Senate much longer.
The only thing I am trying to say is that sidize wheat production in this country We are overproduced at the present we should extend it for 1 year instead of without limitation to the tune of either time so far as the consumption of wheat 3 years, in the light of all we have said $600 million or $150 million, or what- in this country is concerned. We shall and done in this country, and all the ever the cost may be, to the exclusion either have to reduce the production of commissions we have appointed to study of other producers in the agricultural wheat or suffer from further surpluses. problems, not only with respect to farm field or producers in the industrial field? If nature does not take care of the situ- products, but with respect to other prod
Mr. LANGER. My answer is that I ation we shall have to establish controls ucts. We have appointed committees believe we cannot afford not to do it. or find greater export markets, either for and commissions and boards to study our We cannot afford to allow other nations, cash, give-away, or some other method, total imports and exports. After the such as Argentina and Russia, supply because our storage facilities are now reports of commissions come before us the demand, thus causing the American breaking at the seams and we are fran we may be in a better position to decide farmer to be caught with a mountain of tically looking for places--even ship bot whether we want to extend the agreewheat.
toms-in which to store this year's wheat ment for 1 year, 3 years, or 5 years. I think we are the luckiest people in crop.
Mr. CARLSON. •Mr. President, will the world to be able to participate in a Suppose the producers of the country the Senator yield? wheat agreement negotiated for 3 years. other than the producers of wheat-per Mr. FREAR. I yield. The importing countries said, “We will haps the producers of corn or cotton, so Mr. CARLSON. The distinguished buy the wheat, but we want a 3-year far as agriculture is concerned—were to Senator from Delaware suggest that he contract. To get it at this particular find themselves in the same position. would be very much opposed to any price, we will raise the price 40 cents a What would be the position of this body order or regulation which would perbushel." I think that was a mighty in regard to those people?
mit us to milk our cows only 6 days in fine achievement.
Mr. CARLSON. Mr. President, will
the week. I remind him that if we could Mr. FREAR. I do not deny what the the Senator yield?
do that, it would no doubt relieve the Senator has said regarding the people Mr. FREAR. I yield.
butter surplus in a hurry. who were interested in bargaining for Mr. CARLSON. This year the wheat
Mr. FREAR. I must correct the Sen. a wheat agreement on behalf of the producers will be forced to take a re
ator slightly. I did not say anything United States; I have the greatest ad duction based upon an order already
about an order being issued. I said I miration for them. Perhaps they have issued by the Secretary of Agriculture.
would object if the Senator told me I obtained the best agreement they could The order, which was issued on June 29, could not milk my cows more than 6 for the benefit of the economy of the calls for the reduction of wheat acreage
days a week. I still believe that the United States and the farmers of the in the United States. Congress will de
farmers are free, and if they do not want country. I want the Senator to know, termine in the next day, I hope—because
to sign the wheat-acreage allotment too, that I have much sympathy for the time expires on July 15—the policy agreement or enter into the control prothe farmer who produces wheat, just as with respect to establishing a national
gram, they do not have to do so. I have for the broiler industry in the wheat quota and acreage allotments, and
Mr. CARLSON. Certainly that is corState of Delaware, and of producers of the extent to which the reduction shall
rect. other agricultural products, not exclud go. In my opinion there will be at least
Mr. FREAR. If they do not sign it, ing any segment of the agriculture of a 20-percent reduction. That is quite they can produce as much wheat as they the United States. There are many a reduction to ask every farmer who pro
like. other segments of agriculture in the duces more than 15 acres of wheat to United States. I admit that wheat is · take.
Mr. CARLSON. With respect to the
They are going to take it. They basic, and I favor protecting wheat, but must take it in order to get advantage strict production, the wheat-acreage al
rules, regulations, and orders which realso I do not wish to exclude other seg- of the guaranteed loan price.
lotment which will be submitted to the ments of our agricultural economy.
I am most sympathetic toward pro
farmers of the Nation must carry by a Mr. LANGER. We are very anxious ducers of other commodities which are
two-thirds vote, not merely a majority. to have Missouri sell all the mules it in surplus. I am interested not only in
If two-thirds of the wheat growers do not can possibly sell, and to have Delaware wheat, but in other commodities. A
vote for the wheat-acreage allotment resell all the broilers it can sell. But there moment ago the distinguished Senator
duction of 20 percent, there will be no is an enormous surplus of wheat, and a from Delaware asked whether we could
wheat-acreage allotment, and loans will good agreement is needed, one which afford this program, the cost of which
go to $1.05 a bushel next year. will afford us an opportunity to dispose has been $565 million. A serious quesof 270 million bushels a year. I think tion is, Can we afford not to do it?
Mr. FREAR. I think the Senator from have made a good deal, and I think
Kansas is strictly in accord with that
It might be logical to say, “Let us we ought to take advantage of it.
provision of our Controls Act. quit producing wheat for 2 or 3 or 4 Mr. YOUNG. Mr. President, will the years.”
Mr. CARLSON. I am very definitely
Even if we could stop wheat Senator yield?
in favor of acreage allotments and conproduction in the Nation for several Mr. FREAR. I yield.
trols when we have guaranteed prices. years, we would immediately destroy our Mr. YOUNG. I do not believe this economy, and the good people of the Sen
In fact, that is the only way we can con
trol surpluses. proposal would operate to the exclusion ator's State would be looking for work of all other agricultural products. The the next morning if such a thing were
Mr. FREAR. I am very happy to hear Senator knows that all the duties and to happen.
the Senator say that, although I think tariffs which are collected go into a Mr. FREAR. Mr. President, I have a
he has said it before, and I think I have fund known as the section 32 fund. It great deal of sympathy with what the
known previously his views on that quesamounts to a little more than $100 mil Senator says. I do not believe we could tion. We cannot economically continue lion a year, which is used to help the tell the farmers of Kansas that they are to give price supports unless we have producers of perishable farm commodi- not to produce wheat for an entire year. some method of controlling the produc
tion of the product whose price we seek Mr. YOUNG. The International made very intelligent answers to my to support.
Wheat Agreement, in effect, gives us a questions, and they have sought to do Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President, will two-price system for a part of our wheat justice to their convictions. I am sure the Senator yield?
exports. That is very similar to the trade it is unfortunate that the junior Senator Mr. FREAR. I yield.
programs or practices carried on by al- from Delaware cannot wholeheartedly Mr. MANSFIELD. I should like to say
most every other nation in the world. agree with their opinions. to the distinguished Senator from Dela- The Canadians, in the wheat pool, estab Mr. President, I wish to commend ware that so far as his objection to the lish an arbitrary and higher price for again the courage which the representa3-year extension is concerned, the Amer domestic consumption, and a lower price tives of the foreign nations have exempliican delegation did try to obtain a short- for export. That is the practice of fied in the meeting on the wheat agreeer period for an extension of the Inter Argentina, Russia, and almost every ment, and I should also like to pay tribnational Wheat Agreement. Unfortu- other country of the world which exports ute to the representatives of our Govnately, the great majority of the nations wheat. I do not know of any other way ernment. concerned agreed to a 3-year extension. American wheat producers could com Mr. GORE. Mr. President, I suggest Some of them wanted a 5-year extension. pete in foreign markets. I hope some the absence of a quorum. At the present time this particular agree
day we can get down to a self-financing The PRESIDING OFFICER. The ment is before the parliaments of most program for a two-price system so that clerk will call the roll. of the countries, and it would be almost
we can meet competition from other na The legislative clerk called the roll, an impossibility now to consider a 1-year tions of the world.
and the following Senators answered to extension. If we were to do so, the en
Mr. FREAR. I should like to ask an their names: tire agreement would have to be reother question of the Senator from North
Goldwater Martin written. Dakota. If the free world market price Anderson
McCarthy Another thing I should like to bring of wheat or if the free market price in
McClellan to the attention of the Senator from Del- this country falls below $1.55 a bushel,
Hendrickson aware is this: There is no reason why, in does it have any bearing on the cost?
Hennings the United States, other agreements can
Butler, Md. Hickenlooper Mundt not be worked out covering other prod- time cash wheat is selling for as much
Butler, Nebr. Hill
Murray ucts. I understand that is one of the as 65 cents a bushel below the support Byrd
Payne objections which the Senator has to the level of $2.21 per bushel. There are
Robertson While I am on my feet, I will say that which wheat could be purchased and
Russell the chairman of the subcommittee han- actually a profit made on the purchase. Therefore, at present cash market wheat Cooper
Johnson, Colo. Saltonstall dling this particular measure, the dis
Johnson, Tex. Schoeppel
Dirksen tinguished Senator from North Dakota prices there would be practically no loss
Johnston, S. C. Smathers whatever for international wheat pro Douglas Kennedy Smith, Maine [Mr. LANGER] did a magnificent job in the gram operations. Of course, prices can
Smith, N. J. hearings. He certainly tried to protect
Dworshak Knowland Symington the interests of all concerned in the go up, too.
Tobey course of the proceedings covering this the question was that the distinguished Ferguson
Lehman Watkins particular agreement. senior Senator from North Dakota
Welker It is the hope of the committee that stated it might cost the Government $100 George
Williams this agreement which is the best we can million over a period of 3 years. I as
Mansfield Young do at this time, will be ratified as soon as possible, so that under this agreement mined on the basis of the cash wheat sume the figure may have been deter
The PRESIDING OFFICER. A quowe can get our share of the world market. price in this country, because if the cash
rum is present. The agreement gives us a great deal of price went up the only thing that could
The question is on agreeing to the security with respect to our surplus affect it would be the loan agreement question.) Two-thirds of the Senators
resolution of ratification. [Putting the wheat. The agreement establishes both wheat on which we would have to pay a a ceiling and a floor, and gives us that subsidy, so to speak. In that event, if
present concurring therein, the resolumuch in the way of protection, which
tion of ratification is agreed to, and the the price went up 40 cents a bushel, it otherwise we would not have.
agreement is ratified. would amount to more than $100 million. Mr. FREAR. I believe that what the
Mr. YOUNG. If the cash price went Senator from Montana has said is true. up, it would be much more. The agree
LEGISLATIVE SESSION I also say to the Senator from North Da- ment in the pact called for $1.80 a bushel. kota that I believe that when he is con
Mr. LANGER. Mr. President, I ask
In the future the price is $2.05 a ducting the affairs of the subcommittee bushel, which is 25 cents a bushel more
unanimous consent that the Senate reor the committee at all times he is fair
sume the consideration of legislative than last year.
business. to those who present their problems to
Mr. FREAR. I realize the sincerity him as well as to his colleagues in the of the sponsors of the agreement, and I resumed the consideration of legislative
There being no objection, the Senate Senate. realize the sincerity of those who fought
business. I do not wish my statement to be con for the best interests of the United States sidered as any reflection on the ability in the meeting of the nations when the of the Senators with whom I have had proposed agreement was entered into by
AMENDMENT OF INTERNATIONAL debate. I am quite confident that their the representatives of the 45 countries.
WHEAT AGREEMENT ACT OF 1949 ability is of the highest, and that their However, I wish at least to be on record Mr. LANGER. I move that the Senmotives are to do what is best for the
as having expressed myself somewhat in ate proceed to the consideration of Senfarmers of the country. I will go even
opposition, and as being alarmed, per ate Joint Resolution 97, to amend the further than that. I believe that they haps, in view and in light of what the International Wheat Agreement Act of would not give the farmers any undue
Senate has done in extending the Recip- 1949. The joint resolution is brief, was advantage over other elements of our
rocal Trade Agreements Act for 1 year, reported favorably by the committee, and society. I think they would be fair to
and also with reference to the participa- will make applicable to the new Interthe entire economy, including the farm
tion that is expected of members of this national Wheat Agreement the legislaers. I believe they are perfectly sincere
Government with other governments in tion which applied to the International in the attitude they have taken in the regard to other commodities within the
regard to other commodities within the Wheat Agreement of 1949. hearings and in the proposal they have next 12-month period.
The motion was agreed to; and the brought before the Senate for ratifica It is certainly not my intention to de- Senate proceeded to consider the joint tion.
lay action on important bills before the resolution. Mr. YOUNG. Mr. President, will the Senate.
The PRESIDING OFFICER (Mr. Senator yield?
I wish to thank the Senators who have PAYNE in the chair). The joint resoluMr. FREAR. I yield.
answered my questions. They have tion is epen to amendment.
If there be no amendment to be pro- rier service to the general public at low with the Civil Aeronautics Board asking posed, the question is on engrossment cost—in the interest of protecting the that it expedite a hearing on the subject and third reading of the joint resolution. so-called grandfather carriers. Paren of the regulations on which the current
The joint resolution (S. J. Res. 97) thetically, I may say that, in 1938 there proceedings are based. It is interestwas ordered to be engrossed for a third were 16 certified grandfather carriers. ing to see the basis on which the CAB reading, read the third time, and passed. There are, in 1953, 13 certificated car- rejected this petition on July 1, 1953. as follows:
riers. It may well come to pass that dur. The Board states: Resolved, etc., That section 2 of the Inter ing the next couple of months, through
The question whether the challenged regnational Wheat Agreement Act of 1949 (63 merger, there may be only 11 certificated ulation revoked in part the "license” auStat. 945) is amended by inserting before the companies carrying passengers on the thority of respondent air carriers can better parenthesis at the end of the first sentence main trunk routes of the Nation.
be determined following the compilation of thereof the following: "and the agreement
We have yet to witness the Civil Aero
the factual record herein than at the presrevising and renewing the International nautics Board issuing one certificate of
ent time. Accordingly, it is ordered that the Wheat Agreement for a period ending July
petition be and it hereby is deferred. 31, 1956, signed by Australia, Canada, France,
convenience and necessity in the comthe United States, and certain wheat-im mon-carrier field for trunkline service In other words, the Board says, "We porting countries." between two major cities.
will try you first and, after we are SEC. 2. Reference in any law to the Inter
We have yet to see an enforcement through trying you, we will then take a national Wheat Agreement of 1949 shall be proceeding against a nonscheduled oper look at the regulations to see whether deemed to include the agreement revisingator in which there was any doubt what they have any validity.” Of course, the and renewing the International Wheat
soever as to the technical violations of Board is proceeding on the certainty Agreement.
the company involved—and as to the that it can establish violations of regu
outcome of the proceeding. It would lations that may be invalid in the case. CIVIL AERONAUTICS BOARD POLI- be impossible for any operator to fly It will then be in a much stronger posi
CIES IN RELATION TO INDEPEND- large aircraft on the basis of irregu tion to establish the relevancy of the ENT CARRIERS
larity and infrequency and still main regulations. Any normal and logical Mr. MORSE. Mr. President, last Sat
tain any kind of adequate public service. procedure would defer the trial and first
A traveler must know in advance when a urday, when I was giving my weekly re
examine the validity and basis of the plane is going to depart, when it is going charges. There seems to be an intemport as the representative of the Inde
to arrive, where he can buy his ticket, perate thirst on the part of the Board pendent Party, I postponed a brief dis
and from what place he can collect his which can apparently be satisfied only if cussion of certain policies of the Civil Aeronautics Board, stating that I would if the operation is conducted on a trampbaggage. These things cannot be done this company, the North American Line,
the leader of the independent industry, take up that subject at a later date.
steamer basis. The Civil Aeronautics is liquidated. On Saturday afternoon, at a later
Board knows this better than anyone I know the history of the North Amerhour, the Senator from Alabama [Mr.
else. Yet it has designed a series of ican group, and I know the crime with SPARKMAN] inserted in the RECORD a
snares, traps, tightropes, and pitfalls in speech he had prepared on the subject the guise of economic regulations. If charged with having flown too frequent
which it is charged. On the record it is of irregular air carriers. His speech will
one can run their gauntlet and not be ly and too regularly. In fact, the North be found in the CONGRESSIONAL RECORD on
tagged he will discover new rules and American aircoach system is guilty of page 8572. I am happy to associate my
new obstacles are immediately contrived having flown too many people, too often, self with the remarks of the Senator
to take away the fruits of success. too cheaply, and at the same time made from Alabama on this subject.
The regulations which the Board is money without public subsidy. Earlier today the Senator from Misinvoking against the nonscheduled
I now apply the statement I made a souri [Mr. HENNINGS] delivered a brief
operations in the current proceedings while ago in regard to the subsidies the speech on the general subject matter
were adopted without any hearings. The of the policies of the Civil Aeronautics Board adopted so-called economic regu
Government is paying to the ship inBoard in relation to the so-called inde- lations with the avowed intent to put the aircraft industry, that they should
dustry, to the subsidies it is paying to pendent carriers. At this time I wish to
the new enterprises out of business. Its be looked into. If we want to save money continue that discussion for a few min
intention is revealed in written memor for the American taxpayers, let us look utes.
anda which were exposed during the into the subsidies. If we want to bring Mr. President, during the last few recent Senate Small Business Commit
to an end an unwarranted handout, in weeks the Civil Aeronautics Board has
tee hearings when Oswald P. Ryan, part, let us take a look at the aircraft once again revealed its naked desire to
Chairman of the Civil Aeronautics subsidies. uproot and destroy any seed of compe- Board, acknowledged the authenticity of
The American people are being bilked. tition in the civil aviation field. As I the documents which proclaimed the The North American Line, given the counderstand it, the chairman of the Sen- Board's plan to eliminate the nonsched operation of the Civil Aernautics Board, ate Small Business Committee, the Senuled operations by erecting economic re
could fly many people at greatly reduced tor from Minnesota [Mr. THYE), trans- gulations, adherence to which spells rates, fly them safely, and make a profit, mitted to the Civil Aeronautics Board, on bankruptcy, and violation of which spells
bankruptcy, and violation of which spells without a subsidy handout. The airJune 9, an urgent request that it post- prosecution.
lines do not like that suggestion. It pone its enforcement actions against the
The Board's regulations have been so
would be a bad example. It would enlarge irregular carriers until such time arbitrary and divisive that carriers have croach upon the retention of the subsidy as the Senate Small Business Committee been compelled to violate them in order handout. has been able to prepare its report and to stay in business. One may term this
Mr. President, I am perfectly willing give to Congress and to the Civil Aerotype of noncompliance "compulsory vio
to have the Government grant reasonnautics Board a constructive solution. lation." The Senate Small Business
able subsidies for carrying mail; but I The Board evidently responded to the Committee Report of 1951 condemned
am just a little tired of hearing all the Senator's suggestion not with words, but the CAB's record in enforcement cases
political baloney about creeping socialwith a resounding slap. On the 16th of against the nonscheduled operations as ism when we are seeking to help the June, the Board issued an order refus being "confused and devious.” The re
farmers of America, and to protect the ing to dismiss or postpone its move to port further stated that the committee revoke the operating authority of the
consumers of electric power from a gal"finds itself in strong disagreement with North American aircoach system-the the Board's admitted policy of banish
loping monopoly, but do not hear a word model independent operator in the coun
about socialism when the shipping intering all large irregulars on the grounds try. In its statement the Board said that
ests, and railroad interests and aircraft that they are ‘willful violators' of a reguit “would proceed with the enforcement lation that seems clearly unreasonable.”
interests plunge deeply, year after year, of existing requirements in the usual Repeatedly, the North American group
into the pockets of the American taxmanner." In other words, the Board petitioned the Board for hearings on
payer to take what I am satisfied any proposes to follow its pattern of sup- the regulations in question, and repeat- investigation would show to be an unpressing and exterminating every enter- edly such hearings have been refused. reasonable amount of the people's money, prise which dares to offer common-car- Recently the company filed a petition in the form of subsidy.
That is why I say, Mr. President, to into it not only from the standpoint of them the television media at an expense the Civil Aeronautics Board, "If you are its use as an educational medium, but cost they can afford to pay. bent upon liquidating the nonscheds, we should look into it also from the That problem is also somewhat related take a look at the whole subsidy program standpoint of protecting pure politics. If to the main subject matter I am disof the aircraft industry."
we do not do something about that aspect cussing today in connection with the air All similar companies who dare to of television, exercising as it does now a rights of the nonscheds. Let it be clearly overthrow the encrusted and archaic powerful campaign force, which, no understood that I hold no brief for any doctrines of air monopoly are not in the doubt, will be greater in the future, air company, scheduled or nonscheduled, favor of the CAB. I do not think that candidates for office are going to be at which does not conform to the strictest the large "grandfather” carriers are the mercy of powerful economic forces of safety practices. But the bugaboo worried in the slightest over what they which control politics. Conditions have
Conditions have raised by the scheduled lines against the call diversion of traffic to the independ- reached such a point now that poor men nonscheduled lines is a psychological arents. They have recently enjoyed their can hardly afford to run for office. There gument which they have a hard time most successful 2 years—thanks to hav are many who feel, although I have not establishing. I refer to the question of ing been driven into the aircoach busi- completely come to share this point of air safety. There is no reason in the ness by the example of the independents. view as yet, that television is now the world why nonscheduled airlines cannot They really cannot meet the peak de- most important factor in a campaign. meet every safety requirement of schedmands of the traveling public. So it is Whether or not it is, I think we can take uled airlines. But once the safety factor not fear of losing business which moti- judicial notice of the fact that it is a very is taken care of, I am not in favor of vates their frenzied antagonism to the important factor.
cutting up the skies over America into independents. They are bothered and It is important from the standpoint of pieces of economic pie and handing them bewildered by the fact that upstarts, the political freedom of the American out to so-called grandfather companies, young pilots who actually flew planes people that they be not shut off from free because I take the position that, in a very in the service of their country during campaigns. When I use the word "free" real sense, the sky is not ours out of the war, should come into their private in that sentence, Mr. President, I mean
which to make economic pie. The sky domain-the sky over America—and free in the sense that candidates for office ought to be subject to availability for have the audacity to make a success out will have the media of the sky through use by individuals, companies, and the of air transportation without one cent of which they can speak to the people with. Government, in whatever manner is necGovernment subsidy. And when I say out first losing their political freedom. essary to promote the general welfare. without one cent of Government sub
Mr. President, if I were to write a I feel that in making these criticisms sidy, I include without any subsidy chapter on American politics as it is of the Civil Aeronautics Board and of its sugar-coated as mail pay whereby the practiced today, and be limited to one policies and procedures, I am making an certificated carriers are still nourished chapter, I think I would select the sub argument focusing attention on the need at the public trough, although the record ject “Campaign Contributions and Do
of protecting the general welfare, which, would indicate that they received noth- nations and Political Slavery,” because
in my judgment, the present policies of ing from the Treasury except a com men are not going to remain for long free
the Board are not doing. pensatory settlement for services ren to exercise an honest independence of
A hundred years ago, when the battle dered. The fact is that the compensa- judgment in American political life if we
of the railroads was taking place, it was tory mail pay is approximately double do not maintain open for them a free
easy for the public to see what was going the rate charged for carrying regular medium. That is why I believe the
on. The township sites of vast and rich commercial freight for identical han- people have the right to look to their
properties which were turned over to the dling and is as neat a giveaway as ever elected representatives to adopt pre
railroads could be seen by everyone. It was disguised as a legitimate payment. cautionary procedures now to assure that
took a relatively short time before the Some weeks ago the distinguished television will be used as a force for polit- public became indignant and aroused. junior Senator from Illinois quoted the ical enlightenment during a campaign, The battle of the public versus the railold English epigram: rather than as a clever device for censor
road monopolies helped to create the The law is hard on man or woman ship or the dissemination of one-sided
populist movement, the progressive Who steals a goose from off the common, political information during a campaign, movement, the nonpartisan movement, But turns the larger rascal loose because of the fact that poor men run
the farmers' labor movement, and the Who steals the common from the goose. ning for office will not have the funds great liberal farm organizations which This little jingle dates back to the 18th with which to put on a television cam
swept the prairies and engulfed the West century, at the time when there was paign.
a generation ago. the bitter battle in England over the
That is why, in my opinion, serious
But the business of taking the air is a enclosure of the common pasture. consideration should be given, and at a
much subtler and neater trick. The Mr. President, I submit that the com very early date, to the whole subject of
public cannot see a certificate of conmon pasture in the 20th century is the the public's responsibility in financing venience and necessity, an exclusive sky. This is the area in which radio, political campaigns, at least from the television, and aviation are just begin- standpoint of television time, because route in airspace, or a chosen instruning to break through the barriers of the every Senator, whether we agree with ment. The air is being cut up and car
ried away in the portfolios of lawyers, unknown. The new frontier of our age
the man running for office or not, has a lies in the sky. Yet I am shocked and vital interest in the position which candi- lobbyists, and pliant politicians who deal
in such intangibles as franchises in the astonished to discover that we have dates for office take on the issues. already enclosed this frontier, wrapped We shall do great damage to repre. sky. Enclosing the air over America for it up, sealed it, and delivered it to a few sentative government if we permit the private monopoly is the neatest trick of companies in complete violation of the general domain of the sky to be taken the 20th century. original intention of the Civil Aero over by selfish economic groups to the Because of the very invisible nature nautics Act and certainly in direct op exclusion of the public generally. Once of the air, we must have a regulatory position to any fair estimate of the public the licenses are granted, once the chan
agency which is independent of the ininterest.
nels have been marked, once the deci- dustry it is charged with regulating, Mr. President, having mentioned tele- sions for channelizing the air become which has no bonds, harnesses, or lead vision in the series of business groups established and legal rights are vested, strings to the industry, a body which is that are seeking to enclose the air, as it is much more difficult to adopt the
never submissive, obedient, or servile to the old Common of England was enclosed regulations which should be adopted. I
any group or any special interest in avia. or attempted to be enclosed, because of am convinced, Mr. President, that this is
tion. Yet the Civil Aeronautics Board a selfish view, let me by way of digres one of the most serious problems facing
is a classic example of a regulatory sion for a moment say that in my judge the American people, so far as free elec
agency moving along a course directly ment, Congress had better proceed with- tions are concerned. There will be no
in line with the interests of large cerout delay to a charitable examination of free elections in America, if we ever the whole question of protecting educa come to the time when poor men run
tificated carriers. By its servility, the tional television. We had better look ning for office do not have available to CAB has shown that it is the chosen
instrument of the ATA, the Air Trans With the other hand the Civil Aero I would also have them keep in mind port Association, the trade association of nautics Board is taking those precau- the fact that they are charged with a the monopoly-minded carriers.
tions which will keep the scheduled fares quasi-judicial responsibility, because The Board's handling of the independ at the highest rates possible.
they are also judicial tribunals in a very ent nonsubsidized segment of the indus With both hands the Civil Aeronau- real sense. They have a solemn obligatry appears to be but one manifestation tics Board seems engaged in keeping civil tion to see to it, first, that their proce. of bad regulation on the part of this aviation in the grasp of the chosen few. dures are fair. I directed my attention administrative agency. I have had called We are well on our way to complete mo to the unfair procedures of the Federal to my attention recently the opinion of nopoly of the air.
Power Commission on Saturday, and I the Board in a case known as the Gen
Here we have such an outstanding pri- direct my attention today to what I eral Passenger Fare Investigation. This
vate enterprise as the North American think has been a very unfair procedure. case was started early in 1952 on the
Aircoach system. Did the Civil Aero
Did the Civil Aero- by the Civil Aeronautics Board in hanbasis of tariffs filed by the domestic
nautics Board foresee the possibility of dling the problem of the nonscheduled trunkline mail carriers. These tariffs,
$99 transcontinental service back in airlines. in a period of high prosperity and high- 1945, or was it the management of the Their responsibility, in the second est profits in the airlines industry, pro North American Aircoach system which place, is to see to it that they so conposed two types of passenger fare in inaugurated this type of transconti. duct their investigations and hearings creases. They proposed, first, a dollar
nental service? Was it the Civil Aero- that the adversaries and parties litigant increase in every passenger fare; and, nautics Board that thought through and to those hearings are able to make the second, they proposed to eliminate the
suggested high density seating, or was it record on the merits of the position 5-percent discount on round trips.
the present management of the North which they take on the issues involved. To get some idea of the amount of
American aircoach group that instituted Lastly, these administrative tribunals money involved, I might point out that
this innovation? Was it the Civil Aero- have the obligation of keeping in mind the dollar increase alone would result nautics Board which suggested and en
the fact that they sit there not as the in an increase of revenues, accompanied
couraged the experiment in backward servants of the litigants, but as judges by no additional expense whatsoever.
seating arrangements which have just between the litigants. They sit there In fact, with the immediate approval of been inaugurated on the North American as the servants of the American people, the Board, which was had without any
carriers as a measure of safety, comfort, in keeping with the laws which created hearing or investigation, it did so result.
and improved visibility? No; it was not them. That means that they have the A total of $16 million for the trunkline
the Civil Aeronautics Board which en obligation of so administering those laws carriers was extracted from the public
couraged this significant experiment. as to promote the general welfare. by this device. Fortunately, the Board Nor was it the Civil Aeronautics Board Therefore, as the representative of the members split in such a way on the elimi
which ever did anything to facilitate the Independent Party today in the Senate, nation of the 5-percent discount that it
air-bus idea. This plan, now being de- I serve notice not only on these two did not go into immediate effect, but
veloped by North American, will enable administrative tribunals, but on all adinstead was set for hearing.
passengers to fly at 3 cents a mile, exactly ministrative tribunals, of my growing As a justification of their proposed in half the current 6 cents a mile of the concern under this administration with crease in fares, the carriers and at least certificated carriers.
respect to certain policies by those adone member of the Board made speeches,
When North American sought to order ministrative tribunals which apparently published articles, and generally publi- two new DC-6B's from Douglas, and put
are becoming too prototype for the safety cized dire financial forecasts for the enthis type of equipment into the air
of the general welfare, as they proceed tire industry—this in spite of the fact
coach service—an innovation heartily in many instances under the new apthat, as events have proved, and as one
approved by the military as a valuable pointees which this administration has Board member, Joseph P. Adams, de
addition to our airlift capacity-did the added to them. I would have them keep clared at the time, profits would ineviCAB cheer this and help it? The CAB
in mind the fact that they are not the tably increase with inevitable tremen
was the only Government agency to instrumentalities of American business. dous growth in air transportation. At
stand in the way and kill the priority They are the instrumentalities of the about the time when the matter was
for this order, and it was only through American people to promote the general coming up for hearing this year, every
the cooperation of responsible agencies welfare; and whenever I find any adtrunkline mail carrier filed a petition in the Government, such as the CAA,
ministrative tribunal, whether it be the with the Board to dismiss the proceed
that the equipment was finally placed Federal Power Commission, or in this ing, because by that time airline profits on order.
instance the Civil Aeronautics Board, were so high that it was obvious that if there should be a general fare investiga
We search in vain for any example which starts following the course of acwhere the Civil Aeronautics Board has
tion which those two tribunals have altion it could only result in a reduction in fares.
shown any leadership in improving and ready started to follow under this ad
It developing this Nation's aviation.
ministration, I propose to take to the As has been published in the newspahas been quipped, in some justice, I be
floor of the Senate and use this desk pers, the newest member of the Board, lieve, that the CAB is the greatest drag
and this rostrum to warn the American Harmar Denny, apparently unaware of on aviation since gravity.
people of a resulting infringement upon the influences of the industry, decided that the fare investigation should go
It is not pleasant to stand on the floor
their rights. of the Senate in two succeeding sessions
I close today with the warning that if forward in spite of the fact that it would of the Senate and make the severe criti
the Civil Aeronautics Board does not likely result in a reduction of fares for cisms which I have made, first of the
change its course of action there is great these carriers. Within 10 days thereWithin 10 days there. Federal Power Commission on Saturday,
danger that the sky is to be handed out after, this member reversed himself, he and of the Civil Aeronautics Board on
to the "grandfather carriers" in the being the member who could swing the Board one way or the other because of a Monday. Those criticisms are the re
form of pieces of economic pie. 3-to-2 split. This member disclosed to a sult of a very careful investigation which
As a warning I would also have the reporter that he had changed his mind
Federal Communications Commission I have made of the procedures of those after a discussion with the general countwo administrative tribunals. As
keep in mind the fact that some of us
a sel of the Air Transport Association. In lawyer I do not intend to stand by in
are watching it, too, with regard to the the this fashion the industry managed to kill
Senate and see administrative
policies it follows in the distribution of
television rights. We suggest that the an investigation into the general level of tribunals proceed with a policy and a
Federal Communications Commission passenger fares, an investigation which procedural course of action which in my
recognize that its responsibility is to see could only result in a reduction of those judgment cannot be reconciled with the
to it that channels are reserved for the fares to the benefit of air transportation general welfare.
educational purposes of television, SO generally, to the benefit of the taxpayers,
I would have these administrative
that television may become one of the and to the benefit of the traveling public. tribunals keep in mind the fact that they greatest institutions of higher learning
With one hand the Civil Aeronautics are not only arms of the executive and education in our country, uncenBoard seems to be executing those car branch of Government, but also arms of sored and uncontrolled by any combinariers who originated low fare air coach. the legislative branch of Government. tion of business or economic forces.