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SUCCESSION IN CASE OF DEATH OF PRESIDENT OR SUCCESSION IN CASE OF DEATH OF PRESIDENT OR SUCCESSION IN CASE OF DEATH OF PRESIDENT OR
Presidential Succession Act of 1947, 61 Stat.
380( 62 Stat. 672; 3 U. S. C., sec. 19.)
viding no person ineligible to office of Prest-
dent shall be eligible to office of Vice Presi-
The joint resolution (S. J. Res. 100)) agriculture and one which, I understand, that can be arranged, I shall make every
On request, and by unanimous con-
pendix, as follows:
By Mr. WILEY:
Address delivered by him before the In-
Virginia on July 10.
By Mr. KENNEDY:
ING WITH THE ENEMY ACT, AS Statement prepared by him on the ob-
servance of Lithuanian Independence Day.
By Mr. FLANDERS:
Commencement address entitled "Freedom
Is for the Brave," delivered by Paul G. Hoff-
emy Act, as amended, I desire to notify Address entitled “Can—and Should
the Senate that public hearings will be- Farmers Stand on Their Own Feet?" delivered
Farm Journal, before the Commonwealth
Club of California, at San Francisco, Calif.,
such measures, including Senate bill 34,
on July 3, 1953.
By Mr. GILLETTE:
Article entitled “Why Is United States
Consumer Being Ignored?” published in the
BRICKER AMENDMENT 15-0
The subcommittee consists of myself, been placing in the CONGRESSIONAL
standing legal lights of America's great
My initial reproductions of the full take such a radical change in the funda- pect. And it is, so it seems to me, unwise texts of their messages may be found in mental law of our country.
because, in an effort to avoid dangers which
do not threaten us, it will subject us to
I am taking the liberty of sending copies the Appendix of the RECORD on pages
of this letter to Senators EDWARD J. THYE rather serious disadvantages in the conduct 4114_4115 and 4244_4245. and HUBERT HUMPHREY, of our State.
of our national affairs at a time when our Initially, beginning on June 24, I had
Very truly yours,
foreign relations are extraordinarily difficult, written to deans of America's great law
MAYNARD E. PIRSIG, Dean. and when we must be able to cooperate with schools.
our friends and make common cause against Then on July 2, in order to broaden the
THE UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA, response, I wrote to some of the out
Article II, section 2, and article VI of the
COLLEGE OF LAW, standing professors of law of the univer
Constitution are not the result of chance.
Lincoln, Nebr., July 8, 1953. sities. The Honorable ALEXANDER WILEY,
They represent the considered judgment of I did so with no advance knowledge
the men who drafted and adopted the Con
United States Senate, whatsoever as to where they respective
stitution that foreign affairs are in the first Washington, D. C.
instance the responsibility of the executive ly might stand on the Bricker amend- DEAR SENATOR WILEY: I have your letter
branch, and that the required concurrence ment. of June 26, 1953, asking for my views as to
of two-thirds of the Senate is a sufficient the advisability of adopting Senate Joint I have now received 15 replies, includResolution
check upon the imprudent exercise of that
1 (83d Cong, 1st sess.), ing the replies of 9 deans of American titled "A bill proposing an amendment to
power. Over the years this system has law schools, and 6 professors of consti
worked well. It has often been criticized on the Constitution of the United States relattutional law and international law.
the ground that it made treaties too hard ing to the legal effect of certain treaties and
rather than too easy to enact. Most of the The deans are from the great univer- executive agreements."
present worry seems to stem from Missouri sities of: Wisconsin, Pennsylvania, Vir
It seems to me that the basic issues are
v. Holland (252 U. S. 516 (1920)), which has clear. ginia, Tulane, Northwestern, Harvard,
been so much discussed that I hardly need and Indiana. The latest two are from
First, do the facts show that the present treaty provision in the Constitution has
mention it. The thought seems to be that the deans of the law schools of the Uni
if the President and two-thirds of the Senworked satisfactorily in the past? It may versity of Minnesota and the University be that this is really not an issue at all, for
ate can make a treaty which will shift from of Nebraska.
the States to the Federal Government power it seems now to be conceded on all sides
which was formerly in the States alone, the Of the total of 15 replies, the amazing that the present treaty provision has worked
President, with the concurrence of the Senscore is: 15 against the Bricker amend- satisfactorily in the past. However, in this
ate, might make some other treaty which ment, none for the Bricker amendment. connection I have the following observation
would restrict the constitutional freedoms of to make. There has grown up some confuObviously, one does not reckon the
the citizen in the United States. This cer. sion as to the distinction between treaties merits of some great issue by numbers. and executive agreements; but I believe that
tainly has not happened yet. I see no signs It is the quality of legal judgment this confusion can be resolved if the execu
of its happening in the future. I expect
that a patriotic President and a vigilant Senwhich basically counts. tive and legislative departments will cooper
ate will continue to guarantee us against But I point out this amazing unanimate toward that end. Certainly the confu
such events as they have in the past. I ity because I think that it is extremely
sion does not justify abolishing the distinc-
expect to see the Supreme Court declare ininteresting and because it speaks ing treaties and executive agreements to
effectual any treaty provision which might volumes. gether. Indeed there is no reason to believe
purport to impair the Bill of Rights. And, After all, we have always held to the that such a classification would solve the
assuming all these safeguards are broken
down, I expect to see the Congress take steps idea that there must be an overwhelm- problem for it may then be that we shall
to change the internal law, as it did in Chae ingly preponderance of evidence and have treaties and executive agreements on
Chan Ping v. United States (130 U. S. 581 legal support in favor of a proposed the one side and mutual understandings that
1 constitutional amendment.
fall short of agreements on the other. Such
Another source of worry is, of course, the We have never believed that amendnations could govern spheres of influence,
Presidential power to enter into executive ments to the Constitution should be and so on and so forth.
agreements without consulting the Senate, made willy-nilly, on a subject in which Second, do the facts show that while the
which came to the public's attention in the opinion is divided or in which opinion treaty provision in the Constitution may
Belmont and Ping cases (301 U. S. 324 weighs against the proposal.
(1937), and 315 U. S. 203 (1942)). Here I That is have worked satisfactorily in the past it will
understand that the concern of the spon. why, fortunately, we have a Constitu
not work satisfactorily in the future? I am
sors of Senate Joint Resolution 1 is the possition limited to only 22 amendments in today we live in a world the states of which
bility that a President might commit the 164 years instead of a Constitution with are loosely bound together under the United
United States to an intemperate and danger1,000 amendments. Nations Charter. There was no such char
ous series of international agreements withI now submit the text of the latest re- ter 10 years ago. However, I do not regard
out the Senate's having any chance to ex
1 plies, and ask unanimous consent that this fact as convincing proof that from now
press itself. on we may expect that the treaty power as
Government without risk is, so far as I they be printed in the RECORD.
presently vested will be abused.
have been able to observe, impossible to There being no objection, the replies this power always has been and always will
achieve. It seems to me that the foreign were ordered to be printed in the RECORD, be liable to abuse even with the proposed affairs of a government the size of the United as follows: amendment.
States cannot be run without the use of UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA,
It is to be regretted that the subject mat- many minor agreements made from time to THE LAW SCHOOL,
ter of the proposed amendment lends itself time by the Executive with foreign chiefs Minneapolis, July 9, 1953. so readily to emotional appeal. Accordingly,
of state. The President's sense of responsiHon. ALEXANDER WILEY,
it is highly important that we take particu-bility imposes a sufficient check upon intemChairman, Committee on Foreign Re
lar care to look at the record and reach a perate use of this power, and the Congress, lations, United States Senate, Senate decision on the facts.
as in the case of treaties, can always have Office Building, Washington, D. C.
the last word on any domestic effect (Chae DEAR SENATOR WILEY: In answer to your
EDMUND O. BELSHEIM, Dean.
Chan Ping, above). letter of June 24 concerning my views on
This whole matter has been so thoroughly the Bricker amendment, may I state that I
discussed by both the proponents and the
LAW SCHOOL OF HARVARD UNIVERSITY, am opposed to its adoption. I regard it as
Cambridge, Mass., July 10, 1953,
opponents of the suggested amendment that a dangerous limitation upon the treaty
a protraction of this letter is only repetitive. Senator ALEXANDER WILEY, making powers and procedure of our Gove Chairman, Committee on Foreign Re.
I spelled out at some length my reasons for ernment at a time when the critical inter
lations, United States Senate, Washe
opposing a previous version of Senate Joint national situation requires that the United
Resolution 1 in an article called "Restricting
ington, D. C. States be able to act promptly, effectively, DEAR SENATOR WILEY: Thank you for your
the treaty power,” published in 65 Harvard and with responsibility, and without addi
Law Review in June 1952, of which I enletter of July 2, 1953. tional fetters than already exist.
I am pleased to have an opportunity to
close a reprint. I do not consider it wise The present requirement that treaties be express myself about the proposed constitu
to limit the powers of the Executive which ratified by a two-thirds vote of the United tional amendment represented by Senate
were deliberately entrusted to that branch States Senate provides the necessary safe- Joint Resolution 1 (83d Cong., 1st sess.).
so many years ago. I do not expect to see a guard against abuse of the treatymaking - This amendment, in its present form as in
President make rash international commitpower. In the absence of clear and specific its preceding forms, seems to me unnecessary
ments, If he does, I expect to see the Senate instances to the contrary, which thus far the and unwise. It is unnecessary because it at- refuse to concur. Even if the Senate conproponents have not produced, it seems to tempts to guard, by constitutional amend. curs, should the treaty turn out unfortume to be unwise and dangerous to under-, ment, against disasters which I do not ex
ment, against disasters which I do not ex- nately, I expect to see the Congress take appropriate legislative action. A similar con- fore, the subject matter is one with which he me to comment on the report of the Senate gressional safeguard applies to executive is familiar. He has shown me his letter to Committee on the Judiciary on Senate Joint agreements. The Supreme Court affords still you and I concur in what he has said.
Resolution 1. further protection. I think that these safe- The proposal appears to be clearly at odds With virtually no qualifications I heartily guards are amply sufficient. I trust that the with an effective governmental structure in endorse the position taken by those who Congress will not propose the amendment in the field of foreign relations. I would think expressed the minority views on the commit. question.
it very poor policy to limit the President's tee. It would be superfluous for me to reThank you very much for your courtesy powers in that field.
state opinions which have been effectively in permitting me to express my views on this Sincerely yours,
devoloped and cogently stated in the minormatter.
BERNARD C. GAVIT. ity report. What seems to me to be in. Sincerely yours,
volved in this issue is not a problem of ARTHUR E. SUTHERLAND. SOUTHERN METHODIST UNIVERSITY,
constitutional law; clearly the presently pre
Dallas, Tex., July 9, 1953. vailing decisions in the Supreme Court of INDIANA UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF LAW, Hon. ALEXANDER WILEY,
the United States give firm support to the Bloomington, Ind., July 8, 1953.
Chairman, Committee оп Foreign position of the minority of the committee. Senator ALEXANDER WILEY,
Relations, United States Senate, The fear of the majority of the committee, Chairman Committee on Foreign
Washington, D. C.
in my judgment, is not that the ConstituRelations, United States Senate,
DEAR SENATOR WILEY: I wish to acknowl. tion of the United States will be misinWashington, D. C.
edge receipt of your letter of July 2, 1953, terpreted by the judiciary but that the ConDEAR SENATOR WILEY: Prof. Bernard C. requesting my opinion on the so-called stitution as it has been interpreted and enGavit showed me your letter of July 2, 1953, Bricker resolution proposing an amendment forced since 1789 will, without amendment, to him and has allowed me to examine Sen- to the Constitution of the United States. continue to be enforced. What the majority ate Report No. 412 (June 15, 1953). I am May I state at the outset that I am un- demand is not conservatism but a radical presuming on your request for views of per- alterably opposed to amending the treaty departure from American tradition. Behind sons with legal backgrounds to express my clause of our Constitution. Amending the this demand lies, of course, the impulse own.
Constitution is a serious business and cer- to cut the Nation off from the world in It is clear that much thoughtful study has tainly should not be undertaken lightly or which it exists. The proposed amendment gone into the preparation of both Senator without good cause. When in the course of is built on the naive hope that if we can BUTLER'S report, and the statement of the human events amendments to it appear to set legal barriers against the community minority views. In my opinion, the minor- become necessary they cannot be clearly or around us that community will disappear ity view is sound, and I urge you to con- wisely resolved with the contemporary set- and sovereignty will become domesticated tinue your opposition to the so-called ting of a few months or, perhaps, even a few and housebroken. Coupled with this radical Bricker amendment.
years, for the Constitution is not an instru- alarm that traditional powers of the NaI can add little to the discussion in sup- ment solely for the 1950's, but must act as tion will be exercised in their traditional port of the minority view. In going through guiding light for many generations to come. fashion is the revolutionary dread that execSenate Report No. 412, I found no reference Hence, to limit the consideration of the utive and judicial powers will continue to to the views expressed in meetings of the amendment to but one Senate committee- be used as they have been used throughout American Society of International Law. On particularly in view of its international im- the course of American history. In brief April 24, 1952, Prof. Manley O. Hudson, plications—appears to a person unschooled what the proponents of constitutional of Harvard University, formerly a judge of in a sacred reverence for mechanical rules amendment are seeking is the abandonment the Permanent Court of International Jus- of parliamentarianism as if certain con- of our constitutional system. The motives tice, and then the president of the American gressional leaders prefer to believe no doubts behind the effort are doubtless mixed, but Society of International Law, expressed his can be cast upon their own infallibility and
essentially they are based in the fear that opposition to the principles embodied in the manifest a strange desire for haste on a mat- the world is too much with us and that present version of the Bricker amendment ter which should only be decided after ma
the President and the Supreme Court are in arguments which appear sound to me. ture consideration based on exhaustive and no longer to be trusted with those powers His discussion may be found at pages 5-11 intensive inquiry.
which they have always exercised in dealing inclusive of the proceedings of the American The sole reason that I have been able to
with the Nation's international relations. Society of International Law at its 46th an- discover which has prompted the introduc- It goes without saying that I am ardently nual meeting (April 24–26, 1952). In par- tion of this amendment is fear-fear of an hopeful that the conservation position of ticular, the difficulties encountered by Can- imagined peril-a fear which has permeated the minority of the committee will ultiada, where the legal situation is substan- as a malicious fever throughout our whole
mately prevail. tially what it would be in the United States body politic. In place of a prideful trust in
Respectfully yours, if the Bricker amendment were adopted, our traditions, our governmental leaders ap
MARK DEW. HOWE, should discourage the supporters of the pro- pear bewitched by a mistrustful anxiety that
Professor of Law. posed amendment.
our institutions will fall because of the inThe weakest point in the arguments fluence of foreign ideologies. The effect of Mr. BRICKER. Mr. President, will against the Bricker amendment is the state- this growing distrust on our American faith the Senator yield? ment that, as the Constitution of the United in our Constitution is moving the Nation to- Mr. WILEY. I yield. States now stands, a treaty which is in con- ward the abandonment of many of our Mr. BRICKER. Mr. President, the flict with its provisions cannot be legally traditional practices once considered basic.
Senator from Wisconsin has placed in effective. If this is true the argument is History has ample examples of the tragic replausible that no harm could be done by sults which occur when a nation takes hasty
the RECORD some responses from variputting this in writing in the Constitution, steps engendered by an atmosphere of fear
ous law deans to his letter addressed to and the more so in this case, where the presand distrust. When our Nation seeks secu
them. Has the Senator offered for the ent constitutional position is admittedly rity by repression, we are taking long steps RECORD his letter to the law deans? based on dicta in Supreme Court decisions. down the road which will lead to the stifling Mr. WILEY. I shall be very happy to But the balance of the proposed amend- of our democratic heritage.
do so. All I did was to send them a copy ment is unsound, as destroying the inde- From a legal point of view, I am naturally of the instrument and asked them to pendent authority of the President to enter in accord with the minority opinion, and into executive agreements, and requiring ex- have nothing further to add to their' legal send me their opinions. press approval by Congress before any treaty arguments at this time. But I repeat, over
Mr. BRICKER. The letters which the becomes effective internally. I trust that and above these legal arguments, I am still Senator from Wisconsin placed in the your opposition to the proposed amendment against all changes in our Constitution RECORD were in response to a letter which will result in its defeat.
which are bred in an atmosphere of haste he sent to them, as I understand. I am a lifelong Republican, so that my based on fear and mistrust. Our constitu- Mr. WILEY. It was a form letter that opinion on this proposal is not motivated tional tradition is too glorious to be thrust
was sent to all of them. by party politics.
aside and repressed by a handful of men who I am sending a copy of this letter to each have far to go to attain the mental stature
Mr. BRICKER. Yes. of the Senators from Indiana. and attributes of statesmanship of its
Mr. WILEY. I shall be glad to place Sincerely yours, author.
it in the RECORD also.
Mr. WILEY subsequently said: Mr.
President, a few moments ago I was reINDIANA UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF LAW,
Associate Professor of Law. quested by the distinguished junior SenBloomington, Ind., July 9, 1953.
ator from Ohio [Mr. BRICKER] to have Hon. ALEXANDER WILEY,
LAW SCHOOL OF HARVARD UNIVERSITY,
printed in the RECORD a copy of a letter United States Senate,
Cambridge, Mass., July 10, 1953.
which was sent to the deans of the vari-
ous law schools of the country. The
Chairman, Senate Committee on ForMY DEAR SENATOR WILEY: I have asked
eign Relations, United States Sen
letter was sent under the direction of Prof. Austin V. Clifford to write you in re
ate, Washington, D. C.
the Senate Committee on Foreign Relasponse to your letter of July 2, as he teaches MY DEAR SENATOR WILEY: I greatly appre- ' tions. In fact, I had not seen it until international law at this school and, there- ciate the opportunity which you have given just a moment ago. But it is a very good letter. I ask unanimous consent upon contributions actually received from [From the New York Times of July 6, 1953) that it be printed in the RECORD. in con- other countries. If the supplemental appro
THE CHILDREN'S FUND nection with the various opinions which priation is contributed, the United States share will be less than 3312 percent of the
It will take men of determination and sin. I today placed in the RECORD. There being no objection, the letter countries, as provided in the authorizing total, including contributions by recipient cerity to save the Children's Fund of the
United Nations from disaster. On June 5 the was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, legislation.
Bureau of the Budget directed the House as follows:
Appropriations Committee to reconsider the Mr. President, I offer now certain fine appropriation of $9,800,000 to the fund-an JUNE 24, 1953.
letters which I have received from Mr. appropriation pledged last year by the TruThe Honorable DALE COFFMAN,
man administration, supported by the EisenDean, School of Law, University of
Eugene McCarthy, chairman of the naCalifornia, Los Angeles, Calif.
hower administration, and yet to be acted on tional board of the Young Men's Christian Association, and from Mr. Wesley
by Congress. DEAR DEAN COFFMAN: As you know, the
Representative JOHN TABER, Senate Committee on the Judiciary recently Rennie, a member of the executive com
chairman of the committee which is holding
the bill, has indicated he intends now to have reported Senate Joint Resolution 1 (83d mittee of the national board of the hearings on it "about July 10.” But the Cong., 1st sess.), a modification of the so
YMCA, and incidentally who is also ex- fears of the fund's friends are that in the called Bricker resolution, to the Senate and
ecutive director for the Committee for last rush of work the fund will be forgotten. recommended its adoption. Four members filed minority views disagreeing with the maEconomic Development.
What is at stake if we do not come through jority report of the committee. The resolu- Finally, I include the text of a New
with this small contribution (in reality, the
residue of last year's pledge) ? tion, as reported, is titled "A bill proposing York Times editorial on this issue. an amendment to the Constitution of the
This is at stake: This appropriation of I ask unanimous consent that all of
$9,800,000, which in large part has already United States relating to the legal effect of
these items be printed at this point in certain treaties and executive agreements."
been matched by other governments, reprethe body of the RECORD. It is possible that this resolution will be
sents aid to approximately 19,600,000 chilconsidered by the Senate within the next few There being no objection, the matters dren and pregnant and nursing mothers in weeks, and I am most anxious that the Mem- were ordered to be printed in the RECORD, lapse of ongoing programs for malaria con
a score of countries. It will mean the colbers of the Senate have before them the as follows: views of representatives of our great legal
trol, preventive tuberculosis measures, and
NATIONAL COUNCIL OF THE institutions as to whether the United States
maternal child-welfare centers throughout Constitution should be amended as proYOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATIONS,
Latin America; in short, the collapse of all posed. I should appreciate it, therefore, if
New York, N. Y., July 3, 1953. preventive medical work. Throughout Asia I might have as soon as possible your views The Honorable ALEXANDER WILEY,
1,000 child-welfare centers are at stake, and as to the advisability of this action at this
Chairman, Foreign Relations Committee,
some 43 projects, ranging from a yaws camtime.
United States Senate,
paign to milk conservation programs, face The pending resolution is not before the
Washington, D. C.
!1 Committee on Foreign Relations, of which I MY DEAR SENATOR WILEY: At a meeting of
Men of good will, inside Congress and out, am chairman. In view of the heavy impact the executive committee of the national
should not allow this to happen. The apof the possible adoption of the proposed board of the Young Men's Christian Associa
propriation has been whittled down to satisfy amendment upon the conduct of the foreign tions last week, attended by members from
the most conservative tastes. It is to be policy of the United States in these critical
assumed that everyone in Congress knows most parts of the country, we had a brief times, however, it seems essential to me that
the amazing contribution that the Children's discussion on the program and financial we plumb the depths of our legal learning
Fund has made to the world's children. Let needs of the United Nations International and experience to determine whether the
them get on with the job, with our blessing United States Senate should adopt this pro
Children's Emergency Fund. Various mem- and our contribution.
bers of our board and of our executive staff posal. I enclose a copy of the report of the Judi
have the kind of continuing contacts that ciary Committee together with the minority help us to know about the work of the fund AID BY TRADE-PAPER BY E. J. BELL views.
in various parts of the world. Thank you for your assistance in this Because we were unanimous in our feeling
Mr. MORSE. Mr. President, I ask matter.
that this United Nations enterprise merits unanimous consent to have printed in Sincerely yours, the fullest possible support by the Govern
the body of the RECORD, at this point in ALEXANDER WILEY, Chairman.
ment of the United States I was requested my remarks, a paper entitled “Aid by
to express this conviction to you and your Trade," prepared by E. J. Bell, adminisCHILDREIT'S FUND APPROPRIA
colleagues on behalf of the members of our trator of the Oregon Wheat Commission executive committee.
of Pendleton, Oreg., for presentation at TIONS
Continuing financial support of the fund the Northwest Institute of International Mr. WILEY. Mr. President, the pages by the United States seems to us to be highly Relations, Reed College campus, Portof the CONGRESSIONAL RECORD have re- desirable.
land, Oreg., June 24, 1953. corded my deep and continuing interest
There being no objection, the paper in the United Nations International
EUGENE R. MCCARTHY,
was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, Children's Emergency Fund.
Chairman, National Board.
as follows: It is a source of regret to me that the
AID BY TRADE Senate-House conference committee on
COMMITTEE FOR ECONOMIC the mutual aid bill adopted the pro
(By E. J. Bell, administrator, Oregon Wheat DEVELOPMENT,
Commission, Pendleton, Oreg.) vision of the House bill appropriating
New York, N. Y., July 8, 1953. $9 million for UNICEF, rather than the
Since our topic for this morning's session Hon. ALEXANDER WILEY,
is Key Policies of the Eisenhower Adminappropriation of $13 million for UNICEF,
Chairman, Foreign Relations Committee, istration. I thought it would be helpful for which was adopted by the Senate.
United States Senate,
us to review a few of the significant stateIt is my earnest hope that at least the
Washington, D. C.
ments which have been made by President limited figure will be preserved in en- DEAR SIR: I wish to associate myself with Eisenhower and members of his team since tirety in the 1954 appropriation bill Eugene R. McCarthy, chairman, national they took office on January 20. which is now being prepared by the Sen- board, YMCA, in the sentiments expressed in
First, there is the state of the Union mesate Appropriations Committee. his letter of July 3. It happens that I am a
sage delivered by the President to Congress member of the executive committee of the It is my further hope that the Appro
on February 2. In discussing foreign policy, priations Committee will see fit to appronational board of YMCA's, and am serving
he made the following as his sixth point: also as chairman of the committee on public portance of profitable and equitable world
“Our foreign policy will recognize the impriate the full back funds—the $9.8 million for UNICEF for the calendar year affairs of that organization. We are firmly
trade. 1953. That figure had been urged by the convinced of the value of the United Nations
"A substantial beginning can and should previous administration.
International Children's Emergency Fund be made by our friends themselves. Europe, Recently, under date of June 5, Mr. and we feel that continued financial support
for example, is now marked by checkered Roland R. Hughes, Assistant Director of
of the fund should be given by the United areas of labor surplus and labor shortage,
States. the Bureau of the Budget, wrote to Con
of agricultural areas needing machines and
We shall appreciate very much whatever industrial areas needing food. Here and gressman JOHN TABER, the distinguished you can do to bring about favorable con- elsewhere we can hope that our friends will chairman of the House Appropriations sideration by Congress.
take the initiative in creating broader markCommittee:
ets and more dependable currencies, to allow The estimate for contributions to United
WESLEY F. RENNIE,
greater exchange of goods and services among Nations Children's Emergency Fund is based
Executive Director. themselves.
"Action along these lines can create an pared to practice both what we preach and and politically, would be vastly less satiseconomic environment that will invite vital what we expect of others. Only thus can factory than it is now. We might indeed help from us. Such help includes:
we convince the free world that expanded even be fighting world war III at this time "First. Revising our customs regulations trade and lessened restrictions are vital ele- had we withheld this assistance to Europe to remove procedural obstacles to profitablements in our common defense of freedom and elsewhere. trade. I further recommend that the Con- and our common struggle for world peace.” "Nevertheless, it is a huge amount repregress take the Reciprocal Trade Agreements Again, on April 16 when he addressed the senting as it does about $230 for every man, Act under immediate study and extend it by American Society of Newspaper Editors, the woman and child living in the United States appropriate legislation. This objective must President said:
today. If it had not been necessary, our not ignore legitimate safeguarding of do
“The peace we seek, founded upon decent taxes would certainly have been lower than mestic industries, agriculture, and labor trust and cooperative effort among nations, they were." standards. In all Executive study and rec
can be fortified, not by weapons of war but I believe I have said enough to indicate ommendations on this problem, labor and
by wheat and by cotton, by milk and by wool, that the Eisenhower administration is very management and farmers alike will be ear
by meat and by timber and by rice. These definitely on record favoring the reduction nestly consulted.
in tariffs and other restrictions against the "Second. Doing whatever our Government' are words that translate into every language
on earth. These are needs that challenge importation of goods and services into the can properly do to encourage the flow of this world in arms."
United States so that other countries can private American investment abroad. This
Meanwhile, members of the President's earn the dollars which they need instead of involves, as a serious and explicit purpose of Cabinet have made some very forceful and obtaining those dollars in the form of grants our foreign policy, the encouragement of a
significant statements pointing out the which come from the taxpayers of the United hospitable climate for such investment in foreign nations.
necessity for the United States to promote States. “Third. Availing ourselves of facilities
free exchange of goods and services through- As I read these statements and other mateoverseas for the economical production of
out the world as a basis for economic stability rial which is being presented at this time, manufactured articles, which are needed for
and world peace. The Secretary of Agricul- I am prompted to raise two questions for mutual defense and which are not seriously
ture appeared before the Senate Committee your consideration: First, will the American competitive with our own normal peacetime
on Agriculture and Forestry on April 9 and people permit the Eisenhower administration
emphasized the general advantages of spe- to put these policies into effect? Second, production. "Fourth. Receiving from the rest of the
cialization and trade. He pointed out the if the United States removed all tariffs and world, in equitable exchange for what we
importance of agricultural exports of wheat, other restrictions against imports, would supply, greater amounts of important raw
rice, cotton, tobacco, fruits, fats and oils, other nations be able to sell enough goods materials which we do not ourselves possess
and the necessity of providing means where- and services into the dollar area to close the in adequate quantities."
by our customers abroad can earn the dollars dollar gap? On April 7 the President recommended to
with which to pay for the things the United There are many instances which indicate Congress that the Reciprocal Trade AgreeStates has to sell.
that the people of the United States have ments Act be renewed for 1 year. In this
The Assistant Secretary of Commerce for not as yet fully accepted the principles of message the President emphasized that:
International Affairs, Mr. Samuel W. Ander- free enterprise as related to international "Our trade policy is only one part, al
son, has made a number of speeches in dif- trade. Manufacturers of many items and though a vital part, of a larger problem. ferent parts of the country in which he has many agricultural groups still resist vigor
ously any importation of competing prodThis problem embraces the need to develop, presented some very definite factual evidence through cooperative action among the free
of the importance of trade to the United ucts. I am not prepared to say that this is nations, a strong and self-supporting eco
States. Mr. Anderson has compiled the fol- unwise from the standpoint of the groups nomic system capable of providing both the lowing figures which are quite significant: affected. I merely point out that while it
is one thing to talk in generalities about military strength to deter aggression and During the 7 years——1946 through 1952, total the rising productivity that can improve
exports of goods and services from the United enabling our friends abroad to earn dollars, living standards."
States amounted to $123 billion. Dur. it is quite another thing for a citizen of In this message he went on to say: ing this same period, the United States im- Oregon, for example, to suggest that we per
mit them to earn those dollars by the impor"The building of a productive and strong ported goods and services from other sources economic system within the free world
in the world in the amount of $78 billion. tation of wool, meat, nuts, and dairy prodone in which each country may better sus
This represented a deficit of $45 billion in ucts. It is easy enough for a farmer in the tain itself through its own efforts—will re
that 7-year period. This is the amount by West to suggest importation of manufactured quire action by other governments, as well
which sales by other countries to the United articles, but it is quite another thing for
States failed to pay for the goods and services a Congressman from a New England manuas by the United States,
over a wide range they bought from us. In order to fill this dol- facturing district to support such a policy. of economic activities. These must include:
lar gap, our friends abroad used up about $2 I recently read a rather significant letter Adoption of sound internal policies, creation
billion of their own reserves. They were to the editor of the New York Times from of conditions fostering international investment, assistance to underdeveloped areas, non-Government sources including loans able to obtain an addition $11 billion from Marx Lewis, general secretary-treasurer,
United Hatters, Cap, and Millinery Workers progress toward freedom of international
from the World Bank, International Mone- International Union. payments and convertibility of currencies
In this letter Mr. tary Fund and private loans and investments. Lewis refers to the editorial policy of the and trade arrangements aimed at the wid
The remaining gap is still substantial. In- New York Times as repeating the "tradiest possible multilateral trade.
cluding certain unreconcilable errors in tional arguments of those who have swal表 "In working toward these goals, our own
figures, it represents approximately $36 bil- lowed-hook, line, and sinker—the slogan of trade policy as well as that of other coun
lion of United States Government assistance, 'trade, not aid'.” He speaks of the hazards tries should contribute to the highest possi- mostly in the form of unrequited grants-in- to American manufacturers and to the milble level of trade on a basis that is profitable
aid. This includes the original interim aid lions of workers in the smaller industries. and equitable for all. The world must
program prior to the Marshall plan, about $12 He states that the smaller industries would achieve an expanding trade, balanced at
billions during the Marshall plan period, and, be willing to bear their full share of whathigh levels, which will permit each nation
in the last few years, our still extensive aid ever burden or sacrifice might be involved to make its full contribution to the progress
programs. Mr. Anderson goes on to make in promoting international trade. But he of the free world's economy and to share
the following statement with reference to goes on to say that the United States has fully the benefits of this progress.”
this $36 billion which the United States done more to reduce tariff barriers than the On April 11, the President made the fol- gave to other countries during the 7 years countries which are clamoring “trade, not lowing statement in a letter which he ad1946 through 1952:
aid.” And, finally, he states that if we would dressed to Mrs. John G. Lee, President of "The $36 billion which we, in effect, gave reduce our duties to insignificance, it would the League of Women Voters of the United
to our friends abroad was, I know you will not narrow substantially the present dollar States: agree, a very worthwhile investment and, as
gap. "In our own country we have practiced Mr. Paul Hoffman is accustomed to say, it It is evident, therefore, that many probthe doctrine of expanding production and represents about the cheapest bargain this trade through the free enterprise system. country ever bought. I think there is little
lems will arise if the administration vigorAs we are manifestly interested in main
ously pursues a policy of general tariff redoubt that it gave to the world freedom taining markets for our goods, so we must
duction. from a Communist-dominated France and work steadfastly at the task of widening the Italy as a minimum, and gave to our Western
While we are talking about the problems opportunities of foreign nations to earn the European friends the essential opportunity
of affected industries, I should like to refer dollars to pay for those goods. We are the to rebuild their economies and their produc
to the report to the President by the Public world's greatest creditor nation. Debtor na- tion, which is 30 percent to 40 percent higher
Advisory Board for Mutual Security. The tions can pay us only if they can sell to us. than it was before World War II. Without title of this report is "A Trade and Tariff They can sell to us only if we buy from this assistance from the United States, I Policy in the National Interest.” A number them. By recognizing these basic facts, we personally would guess that the international of recommendations are made which I shall can clearly demonstrate that we are pre- position of our country, both economically.
position of our country, both economically not repeat at this time, but I should like to