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CHARLES J. BELL

President American Security
and Trust Company

1914-1916
ALEXANDER GRAHAM BELL

Inventor of the telephone
J. HOWARD GORE

Prof. Emeritus Mathematics,

The Geo. Washington Univ.
A. W. GREELY
Arctic Explorer, Major Gen'l

U. S. Army
GILBERT H. GROSVENOR

Editor of National Geographic

Magazine
GEORGE OTIS SMITH

Director of U. S. Geological

Survey
O. H. TITTMANN

Formerly Superintendent of

U.S. Coast and Geodetic Sur-

vey
HENRY WHITE

Formerly U. S. Ambassador to

France, Italy, etc.
John M. WILSON

Brigadier General U. S. Army,

Formerly Chief of Engineers

JOHN JOY EDSON

President Washington Loan &

Trust Company
David FAIRCHILD

In Charge of Agricultural Ex-

plorations, Dept. of Agric.
C. HART MERRIAM
Member National Academy of

Sciences
0. P. AUSTIN

Statistician
GEORGE R. PUTNAM

Commissioner U.S. Bureau of

Lighthouses
GEORGE SHIRAS, 3D

Formerly Member U. S. Con-
gress, Faunal Naturalist, and

Wild-Game Photographer
Grant SQUIRES

New York

FRANKLIN K. LANE

Secretary of the Interior
HENRY F. BLOUNT
Vice-President American Se-

curity and Trust Company
C. M. CHESTER

Rear Admiral U. S. Navy,

Formerly Supt. U. S. Naval

Observatory
FREDERICK V. Coville

Formerly President of Wash-

ington Academy of Sciences
John E. PILLSBURY

Rear Admiral U. S. Navy,

Formerly Chief Bureau of

Navigation
RUDOLPH KAUFFMANN

Managing Editor The Evening

Star
T. L. MACDONALD

M. D., F. A. C. S.
S. N. D. NORTH

Formerly Director U. S. Bu-

reau of Census

To carry out the purpose for which it was founded twenty-seven years
ago, namely, “the increase and diffusion of geographic knowledge,”
the National Geographic Society publishes this Magazine. All receipts
from the publication are invested in the Magazine itself or expended
directly to promote geographic knowledge and the study of geography.
Articles or photographs from members of the Society, or other friends,
are desired. For material that the Society can use, adequate remunera-
tion is made. Contributions should be accompanied by an addressed re-
turn envelope and postage, and be addressed:

GILBERT H. GROSVENOR, EDITOR

CONTRIBUTING EDITORS

A. W. GREELY
C. HART MERRIAM
O. H. TITTMANN
ROBERT HOLLISTER CHAPMAN
WALTER T. SWINGLE

ALEXANDER GRAHAM BELL
DAVID FAIRCHILD
HUGH M. SMITH
N. H. DARTON
FRANK M. CHAPMAN

Entered at thie Post-Office at Washington, D, C., as Second-Class Mail Matter
Copyright, 1916, by National Geographic Society, Washington, D. C. All rights reserved

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T THE present juncture, while gave to the beet-sugar industry that im

great issues of world politics hang petus which has resulted in its develop

critically upon the effort of the ment to a point where it yields half of the Entente Powers in the European war to world's supply of sugar (see page 86). force the Central Powers into submission

WAR AND CANNED GOODS by drawing around them the steel ring of war and the cold ring of hunger, it is The Little Corporal saw himself serimore than interesting to take an inven- ously embarrassed in the matter of food tory of the world's market basket, and to supplies for his army. He wanted somepause for a passing moment to see what thing for his men besides things that effect war has had on the world's food were dried or smoked—a desire that was supply in the past, what effect it is having enhanced by his knowledge that millions today, and, if possible, to forecast its ef of dollars in valuable but perishable foods fect upon the future food problems of were wasted because of the lack of adethe earth.

quate means of preserving them. If we go back one hundred years it will He therefore offered a prize of twelve be discovered that France was facing al thousand francs to any one who would most the same problems then that Ger devise a practicable method of preservmany is facing today. England's fleeting such foodstuffs. Such a method was blockaded France's ports then just as they quickly evolved, and out of it has grown blockade Germany's today, and over-sea the world's canning industry—one of the foodstuffs had little chance to reach the important steps that civilization has taken French.

in the direction of insuring mankind How far this went, and how great an against famine (see also page 66). effect it had on conditions in Napoleon's It is not improbable that the present Empire, is revealed by the fact that sugar war will bring to mankind new methods sold for two dollars a pound. And that in the feeding of the race that will prove the world is not sugar-hungry today is as important as those brought out by the due to the steps taken by Napoleon to Napoleonic wars. It has been announced overcome the effect of the blockade on lately that the Germans have devised a sugar. Years before, some Prussian new synthetic method of producing proscientists had been trying to get sugar

tein. It is said that they feed yeast with from the beet, and, under the patronage a combination of sugar and nitrogen from of the King of Prussia, Frederick Wil the air, and thus secure that most imliam III, succeeded in their task.

portant of all of the elements that enter Napoleon borrowed their ideas, set up into the world's diet-protein. Examples beet-sugar factories around Lille, and of protein are the whites of eggs, the

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