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Photograplı from Osborn's “Men of The Old Stone Age” MAN OF JAVA, A PREHUMAN CREATURE WHO LIVED PROBABLY 500,000


the Tertiary, or so-called Age of Mam- upward: lakes filled and vanished; pemals, came to a close with what is known riods of great cold were followed by as the Pliocene period.

periods of varmth. The earth then already bore substantial Because of these changes the waves of resemblance to what it is today, although life flowed hither and thither. During its with a warmer climate, and the mammal early stages this age could appropriately ian life, although infinitely richer than at be called the Age of the Horse, the Lion, present, included creatures substantially and the Elephant, for these three beasts kin to most of those now existing. Lay in many forms abounded on every contimen must remember that these different nent of the globe except Australia. ages or periods merged gradually into one But man was slowly developing from another, and that the names we give them the half-human to the wholly human are merely necessary terms of conve throughout this immense period of time, nience.

and at its close the Age of Man may The Pleistocene Age followed the Plio- fairly be said to have begun. It is sometimes called the Quater

THE RECORDS SHOW THAT MAN HAS LIVED nary. Throughout its duration the world

IN FRANCE FOR AT LEAST went through many physical changes. Continents rose and fell, became con

100,000 YEARS nected and again disconnected; mountain It is in France that the most complete chains were worn down and others thrust records of prehistoric man are found


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SCANDINAVIAN PENINSULA WERE A PART OF THE MAINLAND Europe was then in the period of maximum continental elevation, in which the coast-lines were widely extended, connecting Africa and Europe in a single vast peninsula and affording free migration routes for animal and human races north and south, as well as east and west.

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records which show a continuous human the relatively short ages known as those
occupation of the region for at least a of New Stone, or polished stone, of
hundred thousand years; and French Bronze, and of Iron.
archæologists have taken the lead in
deciphering these records.

The coun

TIIT MOST IMPORT LNT BOOK ON THE F10tries of Europe immediately surrounding

LUTION OF VIS SINCE DIRINY'S France also yield invaluable records; and

"DESCENT OF JLL". in consequence our knowledge of the prehistory of man is almost, but not quite, with the hoary antiquity of man as he

The best book dealing in concise form confined to his development in Europe. All the earlier divisions of this prehis

was up to the end of paleolithic times has tory, stretching over an immeasurable just appeared and is by one of our felloirperiod of time, are included in the cul

countrymen. The author is Henry Fair

field Osborn, of the American Museum ture stage known as paleolithic, so called because during these many hundreds of

of Natural History. centuries the successive races of men

Dr. Osborn's book covers in masterly used only chipped stone tools and imple- manner the Old Stone Age of Europe. ments. Following this immensely long It therefore covers substantially all that Old Stone Age came in quick succession we now know of the development of hiu


From a drawing by Charles R. Knight TIE IRISII ELK OF PLEISTOCENT EUROPE This magnificent deer (found fossil in the Irish peat-bogs) was not a true elk, but an enormous fallow deer (recent examples of which still exist in Europe). The spread of the antlers was very great, as much as 10 feet in some cases. The animal stood 7 feet at the shoulder, and the head and feet were small in proportion to the general bulk. The females had no antlers. This deer first appeared in western Europe during the first inter-Glacial age, before the advent of man in western Europe.

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manity* from the days of the ape-man evolution of our own species that has of Java, through the hundreds of thou- appeared since Darwin's “Descent of sands of years during which the chinless Man." pre-men dwelt in Europe, to the time Many works of high merit have dealt when men of substantially the present with phases of what is here covered, and type hunted the mammoth and the bison some suggestive books of larger scope north and south of the Pyrenees, and have been written. The whole subject drew and painted the great beasts on the has now been covered by a writer whose walls of their home caverns.

exhaustive and many-sided knowledge, This is the crucial period in the evolu- whose long scientific training, whose nattion of man from a strong and cunning ural insight, and whose singularly just brute into a being having dominion over and fair temper enable him to give us the all brutes and kinship with worlds lying first full, clear, and critical presentation outside and beyond our own. In Vi and interpretation of all that has been Osborn's book this period is for the first discovered and soundly determined since time covered as a whole and treated as Darwin wrote that one of his masterfully as our present knowledge permits. pieces which especially dealt with man. It is the most important work on the This is a strong statement.

Yet it is

verified by an examination of the multi* "Men of the Old Stone Age: Their En

tudinous works treating of the matter. vironment, Life, aud Art," by Henry Fairfield Osborn. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. There are books of the highest value

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The ice fields and glaciers, shown in white on this map, then reached their greatest extension, and eastern Europe was depressed to such an extent that the Black and Caspian and Aral seas formed one continuous body of water. After the ice retreated the Heidelberg man appeared, an immigrant from Asia, probably 250,000 years ago (see page 119).

dealing with the archaeological side, such French, English, and German writers.
as that of Dechelette, recently killed in All of these are indispensable to the
battle (for, incidentally, the French ar scholar; but each covers only one facet
chæologists do not permit their studies of of the crystal.
the dead to shrivel their patriotic devo Finally, there are books dealing with
tion to living duty), and the magnificent the general subject—excellent books-
volumes of Cartaillac, Brenil, and Ober but none of them possessing all the quali-
maier, which we owe to the generous ties which are essential to the full under-
scientific enthusiasm of the Prince of standing of the problem. Lord Ivebury's

“Prehistoric Times” was written when it There are other books on the geologi was still necessary to argue with those cal side of the period, such as the notable who disbelieved in the antiquity of man, volumes of Chamberlin and Geikie, which their reasons being substantially similar could have been written only by special to those of the other conservatives who ized experts. There are many studies a couple of centuries earlier treated as of human remains and of the remains impious the statement that the earth went of the accompanying beast faunas by round the sun.



RIIINOCEROS TICHIORIINUS, PLEISTOCENE The woolly rhinoceros (Pleistocene), a European form found frozen in Siberian ice fields. This singular creature, like the mammotli, was covered with long reddish wool, which served as an effective protection against the bitter cold of its native home (see page 119).

In Osborn's book for the first time Slowly the land rose and fell. It was everything is put together - geology,

together — geology, connected and disconnected by narrow paleography, the known climatic changes, land bridges with Africa. When the land the plant life, including the succession ancroached on the sea the British Islands and migrations of the various floras; the became part of France and Flanders, and animal life, including the succession and the Rhine and the Seine were huge rivers, migration of the various great mammal compared to which the present-day Rhine ian faunas; and finally what is known of and Seine look like brooks. The Baltic ancient man himself in these surround became a fresh-water lake. Then, again, ings.

the ocean recovered its own and extended

far beyond its present limits. These WIEN TIIE BRITISII ISLES WERE PART OF

changes were not cataclysms; probably FRANCE AND THE BILTICI FRESH

changes as great are at this moment going HVITER LAKE

on in the world. But to human percepDuring the immense period of time tions such earth movements are so gradwhen the Old Stone man dwelt in west ual as to be impossible of notice by any ern Europe it was, as now, a peninsula individual or generation. of the huge Eurasiatic landmass. \gain

UNLINE ISIL IND TIN AMERICIS, EUROPE and again it was partially covered by

DID NOT ORIGIN.ITE DEISTS OR MEN ice-sheets from different centers of dispersal, chiefly the Alps and the region These climatic and geographic oscillathat includes what is now the Baltic tions perhaps explain the apparent fact Peninsula.

that Europe was not a center of origin

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