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A MEXICAN OUTDOOR BAKERY
Although the tortilla reigns in Mexico, revolution or no revolution, bread baked in outdoor ovens is its principal rival for popular favor.
The oven is first heated by a roaring fire. After it is thoroughly hot, the fire is withdrawn, and the unbaked dough put in its place. The heat
of the brick bakes the bread.

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Photograph by Frank H. Bothell RUTH BYBEE'S EXHIBIT AT THE STATE EXTR, UTAH This little girl made every article in the exhibit and dressed the doll for good measure. Her Battenburg lace, her hand-painted china, no less than her jellies, jams, and pickles, show how good training may make a girl independent (see text, page 101).

And so,

will content ourselves with the Brazilian Yet all these neglect the matter of product.

transportation. Our food comes to us on THE WORLD OUR SERVANT

the heads of Indians, on the backs of when we come to reckon up

donkeys, drawn in carts by huge water those who have helped produce the raw

buffaloes, aboard the "ship of the desert," materials of which our foods are made, on wheelbarrows propelled by Chinese we find the clouted African savage and coolies. Steamships, railroad trains, auto the American stock grower; the South trucks, and delivery cars have all played American Indian and the California their part in the great work of catering truck farmer; the Javanese coffee picker to discriminating appetites. and the Virginia dairyman; the turbaned Truly the man who dines well ought to Arabian and the New York orchardist; be a deep student of geography, for all the Chinese coolie and the Dakota wheat races, all nationalities, all types of peofarmer; the Mexican peon and the Ches- ple, all points of the compass, all latiapeake Bay fisherman: the Porto Rican tudes—continent, island, river, and seaplanter and the Hawaiian sugar grower; all must come to him as he looks over the the Spanish olive packer and the Alaskan bill of fare and tries to find those things Eskimo fisherman.

that delight his palate.

25 CTS A COPY

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PUBLISHED BY THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY HUBBARD MEMORIAL HALL

WASHINGTON, D.C.

$2.50 A YEAR

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CHARLES J. BELL

President American Security
and Trust Company

1914-1916 ALEXANDER GRAHAM BELL

Inventor of the telephone J. HOWARD GORE

Prof. Emeritus Mathematics,

The Geo. Washington Univ.
A. W. GREELY
Arctic Explorer, Major Gen’l

U.S. Army
GILBERT H. GROSVENOR

Editor of National Geographic

Magazine
GEORGE OTIS SMITH

Director of U. S. Geological

Survey
O. H. TITTMANN

Formerly Superintendent of
U.S. Coast and Geodetic Sur-

vey
HENRY WHITE
Formerly U, S. Ambassador to

France, Italy, etc. JOHN M. WILSON

Brigadier General U. S. Army,

Formerly Chief of Engineers

JOHN JOY EDSON

President Washington Loan &

Trust Company
DAVID FAIRCHILD

In Charge of Agricultural Ex

plorations, Dept. of Agric. C. Hart MERRIAM

Member National Academy of

Sciences
O. P. AUSTIN

Statistician
GEORGE R. PUTNAM

Commissioner U.S. Bureau of

Lighthouses
GEORGE SHIRAS, 3D

Formerly Member U. S. Con-
gress, Faunal Naturalist, and

Wild-Game Photographer
GRANT SQUIRES

New York

FRANKLIN K. LANE

Secretary of the Interior
HENRY F. BLOUNT
Vice-President American Se-

curity and Trust Company C. M. CHESTER

Rear Admiral U. S. Navy,

Formerly Supt. U. S. Naval

Observatory FREDERICK V. COVILLE

Formerly President of Wash

ington Academy of Sciences JOHN E. PILLSBURY

Rear Admiral U. S. Navy,

Formerly Chief Bureau of

Navigation
RUDOLPH KAUFFMANN
Managing Editor The Evening

Star
T. L. MACDONALD

M. D., F. A. C. S.
S. N. D. NORTH

Formerly Director U. S. Bu-
reau of Census

To carry out the purpose for which it was founded twenty-seven years ago, namely, “the increase and diffusion of geographic knowledge,” the National Geographic Society publishes this Magazine. All receipts from the publication are invested in the Magazine itself or expended directly to promote geographic knowledge and the study of geography. Articles or photographs from members of the Society, or other friends, are desired. For material that the Society can use, adequate remuneration is made. Contributions should be accompanied by an addressed return envelope and postage, and be addressed:

GILBERT H. GROSVENOR, EDITOR

CONTRIBUTING EDITORS

A. W. GREELY
C. HART MERRIAM
Ο. Η. TITTMANN
ROBERT HOLLISTER CHAPMAN
WALTER T. SWINGLE

ALEXANDER GRAHAM BELL
DAVID FAIRCHILD
HUGH M. SMITH
N. H. DARTON
FRANK M. CHAPMAN

Eutered at the Post-Office at Washington, D. C., as Second-Class Mail Matter
Copyright, 1916, by National Geographic Society, Washington, D. C. All rights reserved

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F RECENT years scientific writ- yesterday-when measured by the hoary ers have for convenience sake antiquity into which we grope when we

distinguished as prehistory that attempt to retrace the prehistory of man, part of man's long history on this earth the history of his development from an which precedes the period for which we apelike creature struggling with his felpossess written records, or at least rec low-brutes, to the being with at least ords that may be treated as in some sort longings and hopes that are half divine. their equivalent.

All our knowledge of man's slow progThis prehistory of man is, of course, ress during the immense stretch of time immensely longer than what can, by any covering this development has been obstretch of language, be called his true his tained during the last two generations; tory. At present our historical records it is still of a sketchy and fragmentary begin in Egypt and Mesopotamia, using kind, and we cannot hope that it will the latter word to include the entire coun ever be complete; but already we know try adjacent to the Tigris and Euphrates; enough to indicate the rough outlines of and the first dim indications of anything some of the most important of the develthat can properly be called history do not opmental stages, and as regards certain go back seven thousand years, while it is of the later stages to fill in various details. not until some five thousand years ago

TIJ REPTILES DISAPPEAR IND MAMMALS that we begin to be on continuously firm historical ground.

RULI TIIE EARTH At that time Europe was still in the In geological or paleontological parprehistoric stage, and its inhabitants knew lance, the Age of Mammals is known as practically nothing of either metals or the Tertiary period. At the beginning of writing, being in the neolithic or polished this period the gigantic creatures with stone cultural stage. In America history which the Age of Reptiles, the secondary cannot be said to have begun much before period of the earth's history, culminated, the advent of the white man, although had all died out. there are extraordinary architectural re The mammals, which for ages had exmains of old and strange civilizations in isted as small, warn-blooded beasts of Mexico, Central America, and Peru. low type, now had the field much to them

“Old,” however, is a relative term. selves. They developed along many difThe earliest monuments beside the lower ferent lines, including that of the priNile and lower Euphrates, like the ear mates, from which came the monkeys, liest monuments on the gh plateaus or the anthropoid apes, and finally the halfin the dense tropical forests of the new human predecessors of man himself. At world, are purely modern-are things of about the time when these last appeared

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