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the corn fodder in this case to be of as good quality as that cut before frost. I do not see any great difference myself. As soon as cut up (with common corn knife) it is set upright in large shocks or stooks, which are tied with a band of some kind in order that the wind may not blow the stalks off. Each farmer cuts up as much corn for fodder as he thinks he will want for feeding, corn fodder being rarely sold; the rest of his corn is left in the field till dry, and then, commonly in December, the ears are gathered in wagons and hauled home into the crib. Some farmers then drive their cattle in the fields for the purpose of letting them glean whatever food there is left for them, consisting of a few ears and nubbins that may have been left over, the dry leaves and smaller parts of the stalks, or raiher the tops. The dead cornstalks left are broken down some cold day in winter, when the ground is bare, by dragging a heavy pole, to which a pair of horses are hitched by long chains, cross-ways over the rows. Before plowing (corn stubble is commonly plowed but once before planting) some rake the stalks together and burn them; some plow them under.
For wheat, the ground, if oat or wheat stubble, is plowed shallow as soon as the crop is hauled off, and then again early in September, rather deep, say 7 or 8 inches or deeper if the strength of the team permits it. Then the field is harrowed and the seed drilled in at the rate of one and one-fourth to one and three-fourth bushels per acre. I have not observed any considerable difference in the several drills I have used or seen. They all do their work about equally well. Last fall, when the soil was so dry and cloddy, some rolled their land after harrowing and before drill. ing. The rollers used here are common wooden ones, single or double. The tarrow used by some is the old triangular one ; others have quadrangular ones—ine hind part a little wider than the fore part, with cross bars. They possess a greater num. ber of teeth and make the ground finer. Wheat is ripe here commonly towards the end of June or first of July. Many—and I believe they are right-prefer cutting their wheat before it is dead ripe, i. e. before the grain is hardened and while the straw is still a little green, it will be of better quality. Also for oats, the straw of which makes it better fodder for cattle or horses. Onts are ripr from one to two weeks after wheat, the latest about the middle of July. Some of my neighbors, though very few, use headers. They do more work than reapers, but there is greater risk of loss in case of sudden showers while the stacks are building-barns or sheds for grain not being much in use yet. Sometimes there is also considerable loss if the stacks are not well finished or covered, if wet weather sets in before they are threshed. On the field there is also more wheat lost if it is of unequal height or some of it lodged. They need the same number of hands as reapers. Many farmers here use Kirby's reaper and are well satisfied with it; it is also a good mower. Others prefer McCormick's.
As soon as the wheat or oats are bound they are set up in round shocks of from 15 to 20 bundles or sheaves, and covered with two other ones as caps. These are commonly placed crosswise on the shocks, breaking them in the middle and spreading out the buts and ears well, so that the shock be well covered and the wind can not catch them so easily and blow them off. These shocks are left in the field for a few days until the farmer finds time to haul them to the stack yard, where they are put in the common way in round, square, oblong, or oval stacks, laying the outer rows of sheaves slanting, so that they will shed off the rain to the outside.
The largest average yield of wheat is from 20 to 25, rarely 30, bushels, and oats from 40 to 50. The insects which injure the grain are the chinch bug and the
Hessian fly. The former does not hurt wheat much because when the insect appears in great numbers wheat is commonly nearly ripe and out of its reach ; but in oats, and still more in corn, it often causes considerable loss, sucking up the sap of the stalk, and making the plants die before they have perfected their grain. There is no remedy known here for them, except when corn is near a wheat field infested with bugs, to sow a strip of land between the two fields in oats, which will attract and stop them at least for a time. The Hessian fly seldom does much harm, except in wheat sown too early. If sown about the last week in September it will escape the fly.
J. Y. Bothwell. I prefer what is called the Strawberry corn. Plow deep as possible in April and May. Plant a bushel on six acres. Use Brown's Illinois corn planter. Cultivate with double shovel plow and Stafford's sulky plow. Plow three or four times. Wheat: Mediterranean is the surest crop. Break land in June for wheat, as above. Do dot pe-break. About the last of August, or sooner if the season is wet and the land gets "oul," I give it a thorough harrowing with a joint harrow, with teeth two and onefourth inches apart, made of steel and sharp. Commence seeding the first week in September, previous to which give a thorough harrowing. Use a drill. Drill both ways, the first time drill the way I plowed. One-half busbel per acre. Roll the ground with a large frame roller, then drill the other way. Three-fourths bushel per acre. Let this be the last thing, except cleaning out the furrows between the lands. I use the Buckeye reaper for cutting wheat, and cut when it is in stiff dough. Shock in the field, let it stand a few days, then baul and stack where I want the straw for stock to go to in the winter.
T. Engelmann.-Inasmuch as corn is not raised for market, but for home consumption only, not much care is taken in the selection of seed corn; yet the pure white corn is most generally planted, although the yellow is considered to yield a heavier crop.
Spring wheat is not raised in this neighborhood; experiments made some years ago turned out failures.
The fall wheat most generally sown is May wheat, or Genesee May wheat, wbite wheat, and Biediterranean, commonly called Bull wheat. The wheat barvest commences about the middle of June; the grain is cut with the reaper or self-raker; headers bave been tried but failed to give satisfaction, and are discarded. The grain is stacked or put up in ricks in the field or yard, and threshed by horse or steam power. Barns of sufficient Capacity are not in use.
As soon as the crop is removed from the field the stubble is broken and the ground is again plowed, harrowed and rolled, before it is re-seeded-which is always done with the drill-in wheat. In former years this was done in September; of late, since the Hessian fly has made its appearance, it is done later in the season--in the latter part of October and beginning of November. The best yield of wheat is about 33 bushels to the acrt ; average yield about 22 bushels. Rust and Hessian fly are the drawbacks on the cultivation of wheat; early sowing is considered the best preventive of the former, and late sowing the best remedy against the latter. A dilemma!
G. C. Eisenmeyer.-Not much can be said on corn. It requires good rich land and very good tillage; the large white corn is here generally cultivated. We have a little red corn which ripens in 90 days and makes excellent fodder.
Wheat is the great staple, and so far has proved very rernunerative, especially during the last few years. Tennessee May wheat, Tappahannock, and Mediterranean, are the kinds which are generally cultivated. The two first named on rich land, the latter on thin and poor land. The time of sov
is from the 15th of September to the 15th October It is invariably sowed with drills, of which there are a great many different kinds, all equally good. It is supposed, and advocated by some, that barrowing wheat in the spring is an advantage to it, but I never see it practiced. The horse hoe for cultivating wheat is not known
or used here. Manny's, McCormick's and Geis & Brosius' reapers are in general use. Headers are not much used here, and perhaps will never be a popular machine. The largest yield of wheat is 40 to 45 bushels per acre; the average yield 15 to 20 bushels. Wheat is generally cut here between the 15th of June and 4th of July. It is tied in small bundles, set on end in shocks of from 20 to 25 bundles, and stacked or hauled into barns as soon as cured, which is in 8 or 10 days.
Iosects are the Hessian fly, grasshoppers and chinch bugs. We know of no remedy as yet, neither are they very injurious.
7. Root CROPS.-Best varieties of Irish and sweet potatoes, turnips, beets and carrots: time and method of preparing ground: mode of planting, method and means of cultivation: largest nd average yield: methods of digging and keeping: cost and value as compared with grain crops for feeding: insects and diseases ?
E. Moss.-Irish potatoes, turnips, beets, carrots, with manuring, raised in moderate quantities.
M. A. McConnell.- We grow all Irish potatoes. The best is the cracker and peach blows. We think rutabagas, carrots and sugar beets the best for stock, especially for sheep and milch cows. The yield is generally good, and the expense is very small.
H. Pierce. -Early York and peach blow potatoes are the best. Have not tried early Goodrich or Harrison. Yellow and red Nansemond sweet potatoes. White flat Dutch turnip. Sugar and blood beets. No carrots raised in quantity I believe. Potatoes are planted in hills. Do best in fall-plowed land. cross-plowed in spring and barrowed deep. Cultivate with horse. Use common plow the last two times, and hill up well as early as possible. Plow out and dig with fork. Ten-lined bug was very bad in 1865, not so bad in 1866, and nearly gone in 1867.
J. Tefft.-Of Irish potatoes, the peach blow is considered best with us. Taking one year with another they succeed well on new land, or land that has not been long under the plow without rest. Plow deep; plant in bills; cultivate with small plow and hoe.
S. Ryan.—The best variety of potatoes is the long, flat pinkeye. The surest crop is from the Michigan peach blow. The vines are so tough the bugs cannot kill them, and so large and numerous they endure drouth well.
C. E. Barney.—Lay potatoes on well-prepared ground early in the spring, cover them with 10 inches old straw, pitch off the straw after the vines are dead, and pick up the potatoes.
Do not know enough about roots as compared with corn, for feed, to venture an opinion. Shall try turnips for sheep as a sanitary measure.
A. Rankin.—The white peach blow potato is considered the best here. Plow deep, harrow well, and plant from the first to the fifteenth of May.
The long orange carrot is the best for a field crop; they are a sure crop here. I am the only one in the country that raises them as a field. I think every farmer ought to raise them, as I consider them the best possible feed, when used with outs, in the early spring, particularly for cows and all young stock. They can be raised for about 10 cents per bushel; yield 400 bushels per acre. Preparation of ground, same as for potatoes.
Average yield of potatoes, 150 bushels per acre. I raised last year 241 busbels per acre, at a cost of $41 per acre. The presence of bugs added largely to the cost of production, but they never have injured my crop, nor do I think they ever will while I hare my health. I shall plant quite a variety this spring. Potatoes and carrots should be kept perfectly clean. I dig both with the potato fork.
G. W. Minier.-Peach bloom and early Goodrich, best of Irish potatoes, and Nansemond for the sweet. Other root crops raised but sparsely. Sometimes get large crops of potatoes. Average yield about 100 bushels. More valuable than any grain crop. Not 80 valuable as corn for feeding. The Colorado potato bug is our great enemy. I think he has come to stay. He is now snug in the ground, ready to come. Set the boys to pick
them off. One little fellow told me it was no use; he said they ate up an acre before breakfast, and then got on the fence and asked every passer by if he had any potatoes. Don't Fouch for the lad's story.
J. R. Tull.--I have had considerable experience with potatoes, especially sweet ones; wbich I find the most profitable root crop that I can raise. My average yield per acre is about 200 busbels; the market value of which is from $1 50 to $2 per bushel in the fall, at digging time, and in the spring from $3 to $5 per bushel, for seed. The small potatoes, not saleable in the fall for family use, are what I reserve for seed. This makes the land clear me, over all expenses, more than $100 per acre. I find the yellow and red Nansemood the best varieties for this latitude. They are of easy cultivation, requiring little more labor than Irish potatoes.
The land wants to be plowed deep, early in the spring as possible, then let it lay until the plants are ready for setting ogt; before putting them out, give it a second plowing and polverize it well; then with two horses and large plow throw two or three furrows together for a ridge to set the plants on; making the ridges four feet apart from top to top. Do not make a large ridge, nor a broad one, but rather sharp ; about 6 or 8 inches Bat on top. Set the plants out in the afternoon, pouring a little water round each one. Throw a little dry soil over when the water is soaked away. Set the plants 16 inches apart on the ridges.
The ground being clean when the plants are set out, twice working will generally be suficient; but if not, they must be kept clean until the ground is sufficiently covered with the rines to prevent any weeds or grass from growing. The main difficulty with the sweet potato is keeping them through the winter, which cannot be done in this climate without a building made for the purpose, where the temperature can be kept at about 55 degrees Fahrenheit. The difficulty in procuring seed and plants discourages many from engaging in the culture of the sweet potato.
Of Irish potatoes, the Neshannock, pinkeye, Baltimore blue, peach blow, and a few others, have been grown. The last mentioned has given the best results, wbile the Seshannock and others of the older sorts seem to be deteriorating. The very new sorts I have not tested. Of sweet potatoes, the yellow Nansemond takes the lead; though last year the red Bermuda was tried with good success. It will ripen a month earlier than the Nansemond, and is prized as an early sort.
The Colorado bug made its appearance here in 1864, and was very destructive. Since that year it has annually made its mark in the potato fields, but is gradually becoming less troublesome-partly owing, perhaps, to its insect enemies, and partly to the fact that its habits have become better understood.
I Sodowsky.—The best variety of Irish potato for general use is the peach blow. For early potatoes I would plant the early York. It yields a good crop and comes early. We have had plenty by the middle of Jure for three years past, which is as long as I have tried them,
G. W. Vaughan.-The Neshannock is preferred for an early Irish potato; the peach blow for a late, and the large red for a sweet potato. Ground for potatoes should be well manured and plowed deep. The Irish should be planted in hills, or drilled in rows; the sweet in bills, mounds, or in ridges 12 to 15 inches apart. Turnips should be sown in July or August. The ground should be plowed in the spring and again when the seed is 5090. Beets and carrots are little raised bere, only for table use. I tend Irish potatoes with boe and double shovel plow; sweet potatoes with hoe. The potato bug often destroys the tops of the plants, injuring them badly. I know no way of destroying them. They are sometimes driven from the vines by brushes, commencing at one side of the patch and following each row up and down until they leave. Potatoes keep best where there are no cellars, in old chip piles, or covered with earth and then with stable or barn yard manure.
J. G. Swann. -Neshannock and peach blow in drills 18 inches apart. Two hoeings and one plowing. Sweet potatoes, large ridges 18 inches apart. Hoeing and plowing. Largest yield of sweet potatoes, 100 bushels; of Irish potatoes, 200 bushels. With plow and harrow. In long rows, covered well.
E. A. Riehl.-Best sorts of Irish potatoes are early Goodrich, Harrison and peach blow; the latter rotting badly and almost discarded. Plow deep. Plant as early as possible in spring, in rows three and one-half feet, and 18 inches in the rows. Cultivate with cultivator and shovel plow. Sweet potatoes: Yellow Nansemond and Bermuda, best in order named; have had Brazilian one year and do not like it. Nansemond best in quality and earliest ripe. Bermuda is at leas; twice as productive, producing nearly all large potatoes, and of medium quality. Plants grown in hot-beds in spring, and planted 14 inches apart on ridges. The ridges made by borse power with a machine made for this purpose (cut and design in Nos. 10 and 2, Farmer's Advertiser), cultivate well and har. vest just before frost. Find it most profitable to store and keep over winter, selling them during winter and spring, for from $2 50 to $5 per bushel ; and the small ones for seed bring from $8 to $15 per bushel in the spring. To keep them successfully they must be ripe, dug in dry weather, handled as carefully as eggs, so as not to bruise them, packed in small quantities in dry sand, and kept at a uniform temperature of from 45 to 60 degrees Fahrenheit.
J. Balsiger.-I possess very little experience in root crops, excepting the common potato. I have tried some beets and carrots on a very small scale. In seasons not too dry they did tolerably well, but it takes much time to keep them clear of weeds when small. Cattle like them, and I am led to think that they make excellent feed for them, particularly for milch cows. My intention is not to give up these trials; and I will report in future time on them, if I am able. Sweet potatoes did not do well with me, and I have given up their culture. Irish potatoes bring better crops on well prepared and deeply plowed land, and well cultivated. We also found covering the land after they are planted, at least six inches deep with straw, a very good method. In ordinary seasons they will bring good crops in that way, and they need not be cultivated. But I prefer to plow the land three or four times; the last to a depth of 12 to 15 inches, planting them deep, without any straw, but cultivating them well, and keeping the ground clear by hoe and shovel plow. 1
I had, last season a very good crop on a small piece of ground which I had prepared from 15 to 18 inches deep for planting grape vines, the great drouth notwithstanding. Others covered with straw, on land of the same quality, and plowed at least eight inches deep, brought not so good a crop. The best time for planting is very early in spring, in March if possible, and then about first of June. If there is an early frost in fall the latter may perhaps not get ripe; but if there is no early frost, they bring me commonly a very good crop of good potatoes. They are dug with hoe, spades, or forks; plowed up a great many are lost. They are kept in the cellar, or, where there is no cellar, left in the field on a dry spot, well covered up with straw and earth, at least 18 inches deep. A good average crop is 20 bushels from one of seed. I have raised 39 bushels from one. The best varieties for quantity and quality are the peach blow and the early Goodrich, and the Cusco for quantity only—its quality being inferior to the others. The pinkeye rusty.coat-a Goodrich seedling—is also a good kind, bringing good crops.
We have nearly every year in our plantations the common potato bugs (cantharides), and now, for a year or two, the Colorado potato bug. The former can be driven off by striking the vines with brush; for the latter I tried several means without avail, except hand-picking
T. Engelmann.---Root crops are not raised for marketing. Every farmer plants a patch of potatoes for his own use. In the spring, generally in April or beginning of May, the ground is plowed and barrowed, and the potatoes are planted in shallow furrows, about 18 inches apart each way, and covered about 2 or 3 inches deep with soil, and then about