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exceeding one hundred dollars, or be imprisoned in the county jail not exceeding three months, or both, in the discretion of the court; and upon conviction for a second or any subsequent offense, shall be fined not exceeding two hundred dollars, or be imprisoned in the county jail not exceeding six months.

Employment of children while school is in session. Employment SECTION 417. It shall be unlawful for any person, persons or corpoduring school ration to employ any child under the age of fourteen to labor in any

business whatever during the school hours of any school day of the school term of the public school in the school district where such child is, unless such child shall have attended some public or private day school where instruction was given by a teacher qualified to instruct in those branches required to be taught in the public school of the State of Colorado, or shall have been regularly instructed at home in such branches, by some person qualified to instruct in the same, at least twelve weeks in each year, eight weeks at least of which shall be consecutive, and shall, at the time of such employment, deliver to the employer a certificate in writing, signed by the teacher, certifying to such attendance or instruction; and any person, persons, or corporation who shall employ any child contrary to the provisions of this section shall, upon conviction, be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and fined in a sum not less than twenty-five (25) dollars nor more than fifty (50) dollars, and all fines so collected shall be paid into the county treasury, and placed to the credit of the school district in which the

offense occurs. Enforcement. SEC. 420. It shall be the duty of any school director of the district

to inquire into all cases of neglect of the duty prescribed in this act, and ascertain from the person neglecting, the reason, if any, therefor; and he shall forth with proceed to secure the prosecution of any offense occuring under this act; and any director neglecting to secure such prosecution for such offense, within ten days after a written notice has been served on him by any taxpayer in said district, unless the person so complained of shall be excused by the district board of education for the reasons hereinbefore stated, shall, upon conviction, be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and fined in a sum not less than ten nor more than fifty dollars; and such fine, when collected, shall be paid into the county treasury and placed to the credit of the school district in which the offense occurs. All actions for offenses committed under this act

shall be prosecuted for in the name of the State of Colorado. Night schools. Sec. 422. Two weeks' attendance, at half time or night school, shall

be considered within the meaning of the article equivalent to an attendance of one week at a day school.

Age of employment of telegraph operators on railroads. SECTION 1396a. No railroad company operating a line or lines of railroad within this State shall hire or employ any person or persons as telegraph operators for the purpose of receiving or transmitting telegraph messages or train orders for the movement of trains, unless said person or persons are at least eighteen (18) years of age, and who

have had not less than one year's experience as a telegraph operator, Penalty. SEC. 1396b. Any railroad company, its officers or agents, violating the

provisions of this act, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and shall be fined not less than one hundred dollars ($100) nor more than one thousand dollars ($1,000) for each and every offense.

Hours of labor of women and children-Age limit. Hours of labor SECTION 2801e2. It shall be unlawful for any person, agent, firm, of children.

company, copartnership, or corporation to require any child, either boy or girl, of sixteen years of age or less, to labor or work in any mill, factory, manufacturing establishment, shop or store, or in or about coal or other mines, or any other occupation not herein enumerated which may be deemed unhealthful or dangerous, for a greater number than eight hours in the twenty-four hour day, except in cases where life or property is in imminent danger, or in the week before and following Christmas day: Provided, That any child between the age of fourteen and sixteen years coming within the provisions of this act

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may be exempted from the provisions thereof, if in the opinion of the judge of the county court of the county in which said child resides it would be for its best interests to be so exempted. Application may be made in writing to any county judge by any such child, its parent or guardian, to be granted such exemption, when it shall be the duty of such judge to hear the same and inquire particularly into the nature of the employment sought. No fees shall be charged or collected in any such case.

Sec. 2801f2. All paper mills, cotton mills and factories where wear- Unhealthful ing apparel for men and women is made, ore reduction mills or smelt- occupations. ers, factories, shops of all kinds and stores may be held to be unhealthful and dangerous occupations within the meaning of this act at the discretion of the court.

Sec. 2801g2. No woman of sixteen years of age or more shall be Hours of labor required to work or labor for a greater number than eight hours in of women. the twenty-four hour day, in any mill, factory, manufacturing establishment, shop, or store for any person, agent, firm, company, copartnership or corporation, where such labor, work or occupation, by its nature, requires the woman to stand or be upon her feet, in order to satisfactorily perform her labors, work or duty in such occupation and employment.

Sec. 2801h2. Any person who shall take, receive, hire or employ Age limit any child under the age of fourteen years in any underground works mines, factories, or mine, or in any smelter, mill or factory, shall be guilty of a mis- etc. demeanor, and upon conviction thereof shall be fined not less than fifty dollars, nor more than five hundred dollars, and shall be imprisoned in the county jail not less than thirty days, nor more than three months.

The phrase, "any person,” applies to corporations as well as to individuals, and corporations are liable for the unlawful employment of a child even though the employing official had been instructed not to employ any one under the prohibited age. 75 Pac. Rep. 924.

Sec. 280112. Any person, agent, firm, company, copartnership or Penalty. corporation which shall violate any of the provisions of this act or shall require a greater number of hours of work or labor than herein specified of any child, either boy or girl, of sixteen years of age or less, in any employment or occupation herein enumerated, or any other which shall be deemed by the courts as unhealthful, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and shall be fined in a sum of not less than one hundred dollars ($100) or more than five hundred dollars ($500), or be imprisoned in the county jail for not less than two, or more than four months, or by both such fine and imprisonment, in the discretion of the court, for each offense.

Sec. 2801j2. All district attorneys shall be required to make prose- Enforcecutions for all violations of this act, upon the sworn complaint of any ment. reputable citizen that this act is being violated by any person, firm, company, copartnership or corporation.

Earnings of married women. SECTION 3012. Any married woman may * perform any Earnings seplabor or services, on her sole and separate account, and the earnings arate property. of any married woman, from her * labor or services, shall be her sole and separate property, and may be used and invested by her in her own name; and she may sue and be sued as if sole, in regard to her * labor, services and earnings, and her property acquired by * * services, and the proceeds thereof, may be taken on any execution against her.

Employment of women and children in mines. SECTION 3185.

No

woman or girl of any age, Employment shall be permitted to enter any coal mine to work therein, nor any

prohibited. person under the age of sixteen years, unless he can read and write.

Seats for female employees. SECTION 3604. Every person, corporation or company employing Seats to be profemales in any manufacturing, mechanical or mercantile establish-vided. ments in this State, shall provide suitable seats for the use of the

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females so employed, and shall permit the use of such seats by them when they are not necessarily engaged in the active duties for which

they are employed. Penalty. Sec. 3605. Any person, corporation or company violating any of the

provisions of this act, shall be punished by fine of not less than ten dollars nor more than thirty dollars for each offense.

Employment of children during school term. School attend- SECTION 4047a. In all school districts of this State, all parents,

guardians and other persons having care of children shall instruct them, or cause them to be instructed, in reading, writing, spelling, English grammar, geography and arithmetic. In such districts, every parent, guardian or other person having charge of any child between the

ages of eight (8) and sixteen (16) years, shall send such child to a

public, private or parochial school for the entire school year during Provisos. which the public schools are in session in such districts : Provided,

however, That this act shall not apply to children over fourteen (14) years of age where such child shall have completed the eighth grade, or may be eligible to enter any high school in such district, or where its help is necessary for its own or its parents' support, or where for good cause shown it would be for the best interests of such child to be relieved from the provisions of this act: Provided, further, That if such child is being sufficiently instructed at home by a person qualified, such child shaıl not be subject to the provisions of this act : And provided, further, That if a reputable physician within the district shall certify in writing that the child's bodily or mental condition does not permit its attendance at school, such child shall be exempt during such

period of disability from the requirements of this act. It shall be the Permits. duty of the superintendent of the school district, if there be such

superintendent, and, if not, then the county superintendent of schools, to hear and determine all applications of children desiring, for any of the causes mentioned herein to be exempted from the provisions of this act, and if upon such application such superintendent hearing the same shall be of the opinion that such child is for any reason entitled to be exempted as aforesaid, then such superintendent shall issue a written permit to such child, stating therein his reasons for such exemption. An appeal may be taken from the decision of such superintendent so passing upon such application to the county court of the county in which such district lies, upon such child making such application and filing the same with the clerk or judge of said court within ten days after its refusal by such superintendent, for which no fee to exceed the sum of one dollar shall be charged, and the decision of the county court shall be final. An application for release from the provisions of this

act shall not be renewed oftener than once in three months. Employment Sec. 4047b. No child under the age of 14 years shall be employed by during school,

any person, persons, company, or corporations during the school term and while the public schools are in session, unless the parent, guardian or person in charge of such child shall have fully complied with section one of this act. Every such employer shall require proof of such compliance, and shall make and keep a written record of the proof given, which shall be subject to the inspection of the truant officer, superintendent of schools, or any school director of the district. Any employer employing any child contrary to the provisions of this section, shall be fined not less than twenty-five nor more than one hundred dollars.

Sec. 4047c. All minors over the age of 14 years and under the age of 16 years who can not read and write the English language, shall attend school at least one-half day of each day, or attend a public night school, or take regular private instruction from some person qualified, in the opinion of the county superintendent of schools, in which such district or the greater portion of the same lies, until such minor obtains a certificate from such superintendent that he or she can read at sight and write legibly, simple sentences in English. Every employer employing or having in employment any such minor shall exact as a condition of employment the school attendance or instruction required by this section, and shall on request of the truant officer, furnish the

term.

Illiterates.

evidence that such minor is complying with the requirements of this
section. Every employer failing to comply with the requirements of Proviso.
this section as to any minor employed by him or in his employ, shall be
fined not less than twenty-five dollars, and not more than one hundred
dollars: Provided, That any employer with the approval or consent of
the county superintendent of schools may make provision for the private
instruction of minors in his employ.

CONNECTICUT.

GENERAL STATUTES OF 1902.

Certain employments of children forbidden. SECTION 1163. Every person who shall exhibit, use, employ, ap-. Acrobatic and prentice, give away, let out, or otherwise dispose of any child under immoral occupa

tions. the age of twelve years, in or for the vocation, occupation, service, or purpose of rope or wire walking, dancing, skating, bicycling, or peddling, or as a gymnast, contortionist, rider, or acrobat, in any place whatever; or for or in any obscene, indecent, or immoral purpose, exhibition, or practice, whatsoever; or for or in any business, exhibition, or vocation, injurious to the health, or dangerous to the life or limb of such child; or who shall cause, procure, or encourage any such child to engage therein, shall be fined not more than two hundred and fifty dollars, or imprisonment not more than one year, or both. But nothing herein shall prevent the employment of any such child as a singer or musician, in any church or school, or in learning or teaching the science or practice of music.

Employment of children during school time-Illiterates.

False state

SECTION 2119. Every person who shall employ a child under fourteen Employment years of age during the hours while the school which such child should during school

hours. attend is in session, and every person who shall authorize or permit on premises under his control any such child to be so employed, shall be fined not more than twenty dollars for every week in which such child is so employed.

Sec. 2120. Every parent or other person, having control of a child, who shall make any false statement concerning the age of such child ments. with intent to deceive the town clerk or registrar of births, marriages, and deaths of any town, or the teacher of any school, or shall instruct a child to make any such false statement, shall be fined not more than twenty dollars.

Sec. 2121. The school visitors or the town school committee in every Visitors. town shall, once or more in every year, examine into the situation of the children employed in all manufacturing establishments, and ascertain whether all the provisions of this chapter are duly observed, and report all violations thereof to the prosecuting authority.

Sec. 2147. No person over fourteen and under sixteen years of age, Illiterates. who can not read and write, shall be employed in any town where public evening schools are established unless he can produce every school month of twenty days a certificate from the teacher of an evening school showing that he has attended such school eighteen consecutive evenings in the current school month, and is a regular attendant. Every person who shall employ a child contrary to the provisions of this section shall be fined not more than fifty dollars, and the State board of education shall enforce the provisions of this section as provided in section 4707.

Employment of children on elevators. SECTION 2614. No person, partnership, or corporation shall permit Emplo y ment

of children under or employ a person under the age of sixteen years to have the care, 16. custody, operation, or management of an elevator. Every person, partnership, or corporation violating any provision of this section shall forfeit not more than twenty-five dollars for each offense.

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Seats for females.

Certificates.

Employment of minors in barrooms, etc. Employment SECTION 2682. No person having a license under the provisions prohibited.

of this title shall employ any minor as bartender, porter, or in any other capacity, in any saloon where spirituous and intoxicating liquors are kept for sale, and upon such employment the county commissioners shall revoke the license of such person.

Earnings of married women. Earnings sepa- SECTION 4545.

The separate earnings of the wife shall be rate property.

her sole property.

Employment of women and children-Age limit. SECTION 4703. Every person, partnership, or corporation, employing females in any mercantile, mechanical, or manufacturing establishment shall furnish and provide suitable seats for the use of all females so employed, and shall permit the use of such seats by said females when they are not necessarily engaged in the active duties for which they are employed. Every person, partnership, or corporation violat

ing any provision of this section shall be fined not more than fifty dollars. Age limit. Sec. 4704. No child under fourteen years of age shall be em

ployed in any mechanical, mercantile, or manufacturing establishment.

SEC. 4705 (as amended by chapter 115, Acts of 1905). Every person or corporation employing a child under sixteen years of age in any mechanical, mercantile, or manufacturing establishment shall obtain a certificate showing that the child is over fourteen years of age. Such çertificate shall be signed by the registrar of births, marriages, and deaths or by the town clerk of the town where the child was born, or by a teacher of the school which the child last attended, or by the person having custody of the register of said school. If a child was not born in the United States, the State board of education may investigate and, if it appears that said child is over fourteen years of age, may grant a certificate accordingly, and this certificate may be accepted as evidence of age. The parent or guardian of any child shall state, under oath, to the secretary, or agent of the State board of education, the date of birth of the child, and shall present any family record, passport, or other documentary evidence which said board may require, showing the age of the child. The said secretary or agents may administer the oath required by this section. Every employer or other person having control of any establishment or premises where children under sixteen years of age are employed, who shall neglect to have and keep on file the certificates described in this section, or to show the same, with a list of the names of such children so employed, to the secretary or an agent of the State board of education, or to an agent of the board of school visitors, town school committee, or board of education, as the case may be, of the town in which the establishment or premises are located, when demanded during the usual business hours, shall be fined not more than one

hundred dollars. Penalty SEC. 4706. Every person acting for himself, or as agent of a mechan

ical, mercantile, or manufacturing establishment, who shall employ, authorize, or permit to be employed in such establishment any child, in violation of any provision of section 4704 or 4705, shall be fined not more than sixty dollars, and every week of such illegal employment shall be a distinct offense: Provided, That no person shall be punished under this section for the employment of any child, when at the time of such employment the employer shall obtain, and thereafter during such employment keep on file, the certificate provided for in section 4705.

Sec. 4707. It shall be the duty of the State board of education, and the school visitors, boards of education, and town school committees to enforce sections 4704, 4705, and 4706; and for that purpose the State board of education may appoint agents, under its supervision and control, for terms of not more than one year, who shall be paid not to exceed five dollars a day for time actually employed and necessary

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Enforcement.

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