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month. The average weekly wages, including board, of women employed in farmers' families were $2.48 per week in 1901, $2.64 per week in 1902, $2.88 per week in 1903, $3.08 per week in 1904, and $3.21 per week in 1905.

In 1903 there were 171 coal mines operated in the State, which produced 1,762,178 tons of coal, giving employment to 2,182 workmen, to whom were paid wages to the amount of $1,538,390. In 1904 there were 160 mines operated, which produced 1,563,274 tons of coal, giving employment to 2,215 workmen. In 1905 there were 151 mines operated, which produced 1,600,528 tons of coal, giving employment to 2,092 workmen. The average daily wages of miners in 1905 were $3.58; of inside laborers, $2.75; of outside laborers, $2.56.

The amount and value of gold, silver, lead, and copper produced in the State from 1877 to 1905 are also shown.

Statistics relating to the mercantile institutions of the State are presented for the years 1902 to 1905. They are presented by counties and also by kind of business for the four principal counties and the two principal cities. The number of establishments reporting, kind of ownership, capital invested, volume of business (wholesale and retail), percentage of sales inside and of sales outside the State, number of employees, totai and average weekly wages, and daily hours of labor are shown. The table following summarizes the principal statistics:

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Returns from the various manufacturing industries of the State are given, showing number of establishments reporting, capital invested, value of materials and products, number of employees, total wages paid, days in operation, daily hours of labor, percentage of product sold within the State, percentage of product sold without the State, etc. The table following presents for the year 1905 statistics relating to establishments, capital, product, employees, wages, and time.

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For the year ending June 30, 1906, there was employed in the public schools of the State a total of 1,892 teachers-567 males and 1,325 females. Exclusive of

Exclusive of those employed in the five principal cities, the average monthly salary of teachers was $69.17 for males and $48.50 for females. In Salt Lake City the average monthly salary of male teachers was $122 and of female teachers $66.01; in Ogden the average monthly salary was $89.41 for males and $47.96 for females.



199 PP.

Monographies Industrielles. (Aperçu Economique, Technologique et Commercial.) XIV. Industries du Papier.

Industries du Papier. Fabrication et Mise en Oeuvre du Papier et du Carton. Ministère de l'Industrie et du Travail, Office du Travail et Inspection de l'Industrie. 1906.

This volume is one of a series of monographs being prepared by the Belgian labor office on conditions existing in selected industries or groups of industries, considered from the economic, technical, and commercial standpoints. The present work relates to the paper industry, the first part relating to the conversion of the raw materials into paper and pasteboard and the second part to the working up of the same into finished products.

An introductory chapter is devoted to a statistical account of the industry, based on the industrial census of 1896 and showing the number of establishments, employees, hours of labor, and other facts relative to the different branches of paper manufacture in Belgium at that period.

The first part of the report describes the materials used, the various mechanical processes employed, and the different classes of finished products and contains a statement of the total production, exports, imports, and market value of paper and pasteboard during certain years, and a directory of establishments.

The second part of the report devotes a chapter to each of the following classes of paper products: Coated or saturated paper and pasteboard, paper and pasteboard ornamented in colors, writing paper and paper for cigarettes, paper and pasteboard for packing purposes, cardboard and articles made of paper, and fancy articles of paper. The description of each class of products is accompanied by an account of the materials used, the methods employed in manufacture, and the commercial value and destination of the output. A directory of manufacturing establishments is also given for each class of products. The volume contains numerous illustrations.



Die Regelung der Notstandsarbeiten in deutschen Städten. Bearbeitet

im Kaiserlichen Statistischen Amt, Abteilung für Arbeiterstatistik. Berlin, 1905. viii, 181 pp.

The purpose of this study, made by the Imperial statistical office, is to show the methods used at the present time by the principal German cities which have instituted relief or emergency work for the purpose of alleviating distress caused by inability to secure employment. On January 15, 1903, schedules were sent to 57 cities, containing inquiries as to the kinds of work selected for the unemployed, the conditions imposed on those accepting such work, the hours of labor, the wages paid, the wage system used, and the relative cost of work when carried on by the usual methods, as compared with the cost of the same work when done with the object of providing a means of livelihood for persons unable to secure employment. The information presented in the report is compiled from the data contained in the replies to these schedules of inquiries.

DEFINITION OF RELIEF WORK.—The term "relief work” (Notstandsarbeit) as used in this report is defined as meaning special work undertaken by the public authorities for the purpose of providing a source of income for able-bodied persons unable to secure employment in the usual channels. The inauguration of relief work assumes that a condition of unemployment exists which is unusual as regards (1) the number of persons out of work, (2) the length of time it has continued, and (3) its general character.

PERSONS AIDED.-Relief work in this sense is never instituted to provide for persons whose distress was caused by (1)strikes or lockouts or (2) the overcrowding of certain occupations or industries. Assistance in such cases must come from the regular charity departments of the municipalities. In some of the cities investigated persons accepting aid from the regular charity departments were not permitted to be assisted by the relief works. However, in most of the cities reporting, a close relation exists between the administration of the relief work and the municipal charity department. In particular, the investigation of the record of the applicant for work is generally done by the latter.

GENERAL REGULATIONS.—It was found that 9 of the 57 cities investigated have issued general regulations directing that relief work shall always be instituted whenever certain conditions exist, and specifying the methods which shall be followed in the administration of the work. This systematic treatment of the subject is regarded by the writer of the report as an indication of the tendency to make relief work a permanent feature of municipal administration.


CLASS OF WORK PROVIDED.—The kinds of work which the municipal authorities are able to offer the unemployed are naturally limited in variety. The investigation showed that the operations undertaken were "earthwork" (i. e., street construction, sewer construction, etc.), street cleaning, snow removal, demolition of old buildings, planting trees in the municipal forest reserves, chopping wood, and breaking stone. Those given employment on the relief works, therefore, must do unskilled laborers' work; but an effort was made to avoid assigning men to any work which might diminish their technical skill or injure their health. Most of the work which the municipal authorities are able to offer has the disadvantage of being difficult to execute in the winter season. The cleaning of streets and the removal of snow do not belong to this class, of course, and are consequently viewed with especial favor in some cities.

RESTRICTIONS AS TO THE PERSONS AIDED.—Though not always specified in the printed regulations, it is clearly understood that the relief work is provided only for those willing and able to work but unable to secure employment. Distress arising from a strike or lockout, leaving a position voluntarily, refusing an offer of employment, and inability to prove that he was regularly employed during the preceding summer are some of the causes which prevent an applicant from being granted employment on relief work. The problem of aiding workers of the seasonal industries, such as the building trades, is solved in various ways, but in the cities investigated there was a tendency to exclude such persons unless special circumstances accompanied the case. Another restriction in many of the cities excluded persons who are not married or who have no one dependent on them for support.

TIME LIMITS ON THE RELIEF WORK.-Practically all the cities limited such operations to the winter months. In the majority of the cities the work began on or shortly before the 1st of December and continued for periods varying from eight to twenty-six weeks.

ORGANIZATION.—Complete information on this phase of the subject was not secured, but it may be said that the work is usually administered by the officials of the city government rather than by special commissions. In 10 of the cities reporting the municipal charity departments were in charge of the work, while in 4 cities the municipal employment agencies performed that office. In 2 cities the management of the work was placed in the hands of contractors. Frankfort-on-the-Main was the only city reporting which appointed a special commission to administer the relief work.

WAGES.—It is evident that the compensation paid to the worker must be fixed at such a rate that he can earn an amount sufficient to support himself and his dependents, as otherwise the charity department would have to supply the deficiency. On the other hand,

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