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The following table shows the number of Italian and of Slavic and Hungarian immigrants going to the seven specified States in 1906:

ITALIAN, SLAVIC AND HUNGARIAN, AND TOTAL IMMIGRANTS OF ALL RACES GOING

TO MASSACHUSETTS, CONNECTICUT, NEW JERSEY, NEW YORK, PENNSYLVANIA,
OHIO, AND ILLINOIS, YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1906.
[Compiled from Report of the Commissioner-General of Immigration for the year ended June 30, 1906,

pages 23 to 26.)

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The following table shows the proportion of Italian, of Slavic and Hungarian, and of all other immigrants to the United States in 1906 who went to the seven specified States:

NUMBER AND PER CENT OF ITALIAN, OF SLAVIC AND HUNGARIAN, AND OF ALL
OTHER IMMIGRANTS GOING TO THE SEVEN SPECIFIED STATES, YEAR ENDING
JUNE 30, 1906.

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The following table specifies, by occupations, the number of unskilled immigrants going to each of the seven States in 1906: UNSKILLED IMMIGRANTS OF SPECIFIED OCCUPATIONS GOING TO EACH SPECIFIED

STATE AND ADMITTED TO THE UNITED STATES, YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1906. [Compiled from Report of the Commissioner-General of Immigration for the year ended June 30, 1906,

pages 35 to 39.]

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Farm laborers.
Laborers.
Farmers.
Draymen.
Fishermen.
Servants..

10,217
18,610

790
83

94
11,957

6,276 5,959 262 19

8. 3,873

13,657 54,043 67,802 16,452 21,735
9,929 67, 296 47,033 8,700 17,824
475 3,190 1,982 534 1,426
52 523 135 19

68
23 222

25

3

35 7,794 39,400 17,310 4,355 10,344

190,182
175,351
8,659

899

410 95,033

239,125
226,345
15, 288
1,090

899 115,984

1

Total (a).

41,751 | 16,397 31,930 164,674 134,287 30,063 51,432

470,534

598, 731

a Not including persons described by the Bureau of Immigration as having "no occupation" and "composed almost entirely of women and children,” representing "families.'

That the movement of these immigrants to these particular States was not unintelligent or an evidence of a desire for or a shiftless drift toward slum concentration, but has proceeded on rational lines, is shown by the extraordinary industrial activity, progress, and wealth of these States over all others, and by the fact that in these States the demand for labor was greatest and the wage rates the highest in the United States.

With only 37 per cent of the population of the United States, these seven States in the census year 1900 produced 61 per cent of the manufactured and mining products of the United States. They

employed 3,529,168 individuals in this production, or 59.85 per cent • of the total wage-earners of the United States in those industries.

The value of the agricultural products of the same States was nearly 25 per cent of the total of the United States, amounting to $1,170,114,388 out of a total of $4,717,069,973.

The following table shows the population, value of manufactured, mining, and agricultural products, and number of wage-earners engaged in manufacturing and mining in each of the specified States and in the United States in 1900:

POPULATION, VALUE OF MANUFACTURED, MINING, AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS, AND WAGE-EARNERS ENGAGED IN MANUFACTURING AND MINING IN SEVEN SPECIFIED STATES AND IN THE UNITED STATES, 1900.

(Figures compiled from United States Census Reports.)

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a From Special Reports of the Bureau of the Census : Mines and Quarries, 1902.

That these States should have had 73.2 per cent of the total Italian, Slavic, and Hungarian immigrants in 1900, and in 1906 should have attracted 78.82 per cent of the immigrants of all races and 86.55 per cent of the Italian, Slavic, and Hungarian immigrants is not surprising in view of the industrial conditions in them.

Before the immigrant can realize any return from his labor in the form of American wages, he must incur the following expense or indebtedness, for even if one or all costs are prepaid for him by relative, friend, or other person, he eventually pays them all by deductions from his wages or otherwise.

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1.-Cost of preparation at his home in Europe for the journey.
2.-Cost of transportation from his home to the European seaport.
3.-Cost of emigrant head tax to his Government.
4.-Cost of immigrant head tax to the United States Government.
5.-Cost of steamship transportation, European port to the United States.
6.-Cost of labor agency for securing employment at port of entry, if used.
7.-Cost of transportation, United States port of entry to place of employment.
8.-Cost of living from port of entry to place of destination.

Omitting 1, 2, 6, and 8 in the above items and including only steamship and railroad tickets (head taxes are included in steamship tickets), a conservative estimate of the aggregate cost to the 470,534 common laborers in 1906 who went to the seven specified States was $19,053,324, and an estimate of similar expenditures for the 640,474 Italian, Slavic, and Hungarian immigrants to the seven States is $25,862,317.(a)

With the investment of this amount, together with that of the labor they came to expend, these laborers began their work in the United States as aids in its industrial development.

In the State of Pennsylvania in the census year 1900 there were 199,436 persons of the Slavic races, 47,393 Hungarians, and 66,655 Italians, a total of 313,484 for the three groups. Included in the Slavic group were 50,959 from Russia, mostly Hebrews, Russian Poles being tabulated separately. Of the total of 313,484 of the three races, 90,473, or 29 per cent, were living in Philadelphia and Pittsburg, the two great cities of the State, 63,580 in Philadelphia and 26,893 in Pittsburg, the remaining 71 per cent being distributed among the villages and towns of the State. Included in the total for Philadelphia were 28,951 Russians, principally Hebrews, who, unlike other nationalities included in the Slavic group, do not engage in the heavier manual labor occupations.

In 1906, 97,495 of the immigrant Slavic group (including 16,685 IIebrews), 13,222 IIungarians, and 54,405 Italians, a total of 165,122 for the three groups, went to the State of Pennsylvania, with proportionate numbers for the intervening years since 1900.

That this State should be the destination of such large numbers and that 71 per cent of them were distributed through the villages and towns outside of the two great cities of the State is explained by the State's industrial resources and conditions.

Pennsylvania ranks first in value of mining products, which in 1902 was $236,871,417 out of a total of $796,826,417 for all the States and Territories. In manufactured products Pennsylvania was second with a value of $1,834,790,860 of a total of $13,010,036,514 for all States and

a In estimating the cost of steamship transportation $36 was taken as the average steerage rate from European ports. The cost of railroad transportation was based on the railroad fare to a central point in each of the States specified.

Territories in 1900. In number of wageworkers in both mining and manufactured products Pennsylvania ranked first. In bituminous coal mining and coke production it ranks first, and in anthracite mining it stands alone. Its iron and steel industries rank next to mining

The nationality of the anthracite mine workers was secured in detail for the year 1905 by the bureau of industrial statistics of the State of Pennsylvania.

In a total of 92,485 men employed by 116 companies out of a total of 140 the numbers were as follows:

NUMBER AND PER CENT OF EACH NATIONALITY WORKING FOR 116 ANTHRACITE

COMPANIES OF PENNSYLVANIA IN 1905.

(Compiled from the Report of the Secretary of Internal Affairs of Pennsylvania for 1905: Part III,

Industrial Statistics, pages 458 and 459.)

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In the bituminous coal-mining region of Pennsylvania 398 companies employing 55,583 men reported nationality in full detail as follows:

NUMBER AND PER CENT OF EACH NATIONALITY WORKING FOR 398 BITUMINOUS

COMPANIES OF PENNSYLVANIA IN 1905.

(Compiled from the Report of the Secretary of Internal Affairs of Pennsylvania for 1935: Part III,

Industrial Statistics, page 475.1

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It will thus be seen that the Slavic, Hungarian, and Italian races are numerically predominant in both the anthracite and bituminous coal fields of Pennsylvania.

The Slavic races are also numerically strong in the iron and steel industries of Pennsylvania, while in the cotton, woolen, and textile industries their representation is small.

One hundred and one iron and steel plants, employing 42,004 men of a total of 113,295 employees in the entire industry, report in 1905 that 20.9 per cent of their employees were Slavs, IIingarians, and Italians.

а

a

Forty-two pig-iron plants, employing 8,665 men of a total of 16,747 in the entire industry, report that 6.4 per cent were Italians and 40.3 per cent were Slavs and Hungarians.

Combining the employees in the anthracite, bituminous, pig iron, and iron and steel industries of Pennsylvania for 1905, the figures indicate that 41 per cent of all employees were of the Italian, Slavic, and Hungarian races, the Italians being, however, but 6 per cent of the total. In the woolen, cotton, and textile industries of Pennsylvania the Italians, Slavs, and Hungarians numbered but 1,211 in a total of 36,815 employees in 1905, or only 3.3 per cent of all.

The thoroughness of Italian distribution in industrial occupations in another State is shown in a very complete manner.

The bureau of statistics of Massachusetts, in its thirty-fourth annual report, published in March, 1904, reported the result of an exhaustive inquiry into the subject of “Race in Industry” in that State. It was found that the 10,956 Italians in Massachusetts, of whom 92.33 per cent were males and 7.67 per cent females, were represented in each of the 13 classes of production in the State and in 89 subdivisions of these classes. Of these Italians 34.33 per cent were in 58 different manufacturing industries; 34.52 per cent in 3 classes of production as laborers; 13.73 per cent engaged in 5 subdivisions of trade; 7.58 per cent in personal service; 2.06 per cent in 9 subdivisions of the professions; 1.88 per cent in 2 branches of domestic service; 1.83 per cent in 3 branches of transportation; 1.82 per cent in mining; 0.34 per cent in 3 branches of governmental service; 0.31 per cent engaged in agriculture; 0.15 per cent in the fisheries; 0.44 per cent apprentices, and 1.01 per cent children at work.

DISTRIBUTION OF LABORERS BY THE EMPLOYMENT AND

PADRONE AGENCIES OF NEW YORK CITY.

A law regulating the keeping of employment agencies in cities was enacted by the legislature of the State of New York on April 27, 1904, and amended April 27, 1906.

It provided that where fees are charged for procuring employment, such agencies are required to procure a license from the commissioner of licenses and to be under his supervision.

To conduct such an agency without a license subjects the offender to a fine or imprisonment or both. A bond is also required of each agency, and a laborer or other person who has been deceived by the employment agency or padrone, or from whom money has been extorted by such agency, may maintain an action upon the bond if a judgment of a court remains unsatisfied.

The law governing the agencies permits them to charge unskilled workers a fee of 10 per cent of the first month's wages, so that a

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