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In view of these conditions it is recommended in the report that before any permit shall issue it must be shown that the child for whom the permit is requested has secured work.

The number of children under 16 years of age at work, as reported by the factory inspectors, has decreased each year since 1902, when the number reported was 1,075. In 1903, 972, and in 1904, 770 were reported. The number of employment permits issued in 1905 was 1,725.

A new law, much plainer and more concise in language, became effective in March, 1906. It authorizes certain school officials to issue, under specified conditions, employment permits to children, and makes it the duty of the bureau of labor to enforce the provisions regulating child labor.

The child-labor law and the compulsory education law of the State are reproduced.

NEW HAMPSHIRE.

Sixth Biennial Report of the Bureau of Labor of the State of New Hampshire, 1905-1906. L. H. Carroll, Commissioner. 225, lxx pp.

The following subjects are presented in this report: Directory of manufacturing establishments, 53 pages; leading industries, 4 pages; statistics of manufactures, 40 pages; convict labor, 3 pages; unoccupied manufacturing plants, and water-power privileges, 24 pages; strikes, 7 pages; manual training, 10 pages; labor laws, 29 pages; labor organizations, 27 pages; an appendix, 62 pages.

LEADING INDUSTRIES.-The manufacture of cotton goods is the most important industry in the State. In the 25 establishments reported as engaged in this industry in 1905 employment was given to 9,697 males, to whom was paid $4,049,098 in wages; 9,625 females, to whom was paid $3,246,693 in wages; 409 children under 16 years of age, to whom $77,017 was paid in wages, and 309 salaried clerks whose salaries amounted to $516,052. Invested capital amounted to $31,176,461, and goods to the amount of $29,540,770 were produced. Like statistics are given for each of the other 10 leading industries.

STATISTICS OF MANUFACTURES.-For the year 1905 reports were received from 1,661 establishments engaged in 56 specified industries, and 80 establishments engaged in other industries, not specified. Tables are presented showing by industries and by location the capital invested, value of products, employees by classes, wages and salaries paid, other expenses, and cost of materials. The following summary statement shows aggregate figures for the State:

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CONVICT LABOR.-Under this title a summary of the Twentieth Annual Report of the United States Commissioner of Labor, in so far as it relates to the State of New Hampshire, is given.

UNOCCUPIED MANUFACTURING PLANTS AND WATER-POWER PRIVILEGES. This is a list of the manufacturing plants in the State unoccupied, as well as of water-power privileges, developed and undeveloped, available July 1, 1906; the dimensions and condition of the plants, industry for which each was originally intended, and location of plant.

STRIKES.-Brief accounts are given of 4 labor disputes which occurred in 1906. There were 201 work people involved in these strikes, 47 of whom were not reemployed. The strikes were of short duration.

MANUAL TRAINING.-Under this head several papers by principals of schools and other educators are given, discussing the practical value of manual training in the public schools.

LABOR LAWS.-This section reproduces the various laws of the State affecting labor.

LABOR ORGANIZATIONS.-This is a list of the labor organizations in the State, with date of organization, membership, names of officers, and dates of meetings of each.

THE APPENDIX.-This consists of a presentation of the natural attractions offered by the State as a place for summer residence.

RECENT FOREIGN STATISTICAL PUBLICATIONS.

AUSTRIA.

Arbeitszeit-Verlängerungen (Ueberstunden) im Jahre 1904 in Fabriksmässigen Betrieben. K. K. Arbeitsstatistisches Amt im Handels-Ministerium. 1905. 34 pp.

The general law of Austria restricting the hours of labor of adult males to 11 per day provides for various exceptions, which must, however, receive the approval of the proper authorities, and be published annually for the information of the national legislature. This volume presents a report of the cases in which such excess was worked in 1904 in establishments classed as factories, as contrasted with hand working establishments. The number of instances reported was 1,448, affecting 56,877 employees in 753 establishments. The total number of hours of overtime work was 3,840,223.5.

In 1903 overtime was worked in 1,195 instances, in 627 establishments, and affected 43,120 employees.

The overtime per day in 1904 ranged from one-half hour in 29 instances to nine hours in a single case, while in an instance where night work was employed to drain off underground waters no limit was set. One hour was added to the workday in 347 cases, and two hours in 910. The period during which the overtime work continued ranged from three days or less in 408 cases to thirty-four weeks in a single case. In 721 instances the period was from over three days to three weeks in length. The night work mentioned above continued for ten nights. Not all the permissions to work overtime were actually made use of, the number granted in 1904 being 1,471, while but 1,448 were used.

Permission for overtime work was most often secured for textile establishments, 603 such permits being granted, of which 592 were made use of. The 275 establishments concerned employed 66,404 persons, of whom 22,598 were affected by the overtime work, producing a total of 1,382,030 additional hours of labor. The industry group affording the next highest number is that which includes work in stone, earthenware, clay, and glass, in which 7,956 employees in 66 establishments worked 855,556.5 hours overtime.

FRANCE.

Statistique de l'Industrie Minérale et des Appareils à Vapeur en France et en Algérie pour l'Année 1904. Ministère des Travaux Publics. Direction des Routes, de la Navigation et des Mines. Division des Mines. XII, (108), 202 pp.

In this volume are shown the principal data relating to the mining and metal-working industries and to the employment of steam appa

ratus in France and Algeria during the year 1904. The report consists of two parts, the first being an analysis of numerous graphic charts and tabular statements, and the second being devoted entirely to tables. Each division of the work comprises three chapters, the first chapter dealing with mines and quarries, the second with the metallurgical industries, and the third with steam engines. An appendix contains comparative tables showing the mineral production of the principal countries, together with a list of official publications from which the statistics were taken.

MINES AND QUARRIES.-The data comprised under this head are divided, according to the nature of the material produced, into six groups, as follows: Combustible substances, including peat; iron ore; other metalliferous ores; asphalt, sulphur, etc.; rock and sea salt; quarry products. In addition, data are given concerning miners' relief funds, mine exploitations, revenues from mine exploitation, accidents in mines and quarries, and licensed mineral springs. A brief mention is made of the condition of the mineral industry in the French colonies and in Tunis.

The following table shows the output and value of the principal mineral products, the number of employees, the aggregate days worked, and the aggregate wages paid in French mines during 1904:

OUTPUT AND VALUE OF MINERAL PRODUCTS, NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES, AGGREGATE DAYS WORKED, AND AGGREGATE WAGES PAID IN FRENCH MINES, 1904. [A metric ton=2,204.6 pounds.]

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From the foregoing table it will be seen that the total value of the coal produced in France in 1904 was 88.7 per cent of the combined values of all mineral products. The number of employees in and around coal mines was 88.1 per cent of the total number of all mine employees, and their aggregate earnings amounted to 89.9 per cent of all wages paid mine labor.

In the coal and lignite mines, taken collectively, the average number of days worked per employee was 287 for those below ground and 293 for those above ground. The average for all employees was 288 days. The average daily earnings were 4.93 francs ($0.95) for employees below ground, 3.53 francs ($0.68) for those above ground, and for all employees 4.52 francs ($0.87). In the iron mines the average daily earnings of employees below ground were 5.06 francs ($0.98) as compared with 3.83 francs ($0.74) for those at the surface, while the average for the two classes was 4.69 francs ($0.91). In other metalliferous mines the average earnings were 4.09 francs ($0.79), 3.25 francs ($0.63), and 3.76 francs ($0.73), respectively.

The table which follows shows the number of accidents and the number of persons killed or injured in mines and quarries in 1904:

NUMBER OF ACCIDENTS AND OF PERSONS KILLED OR INJURED IN FRENCH MINES AND QUARRIES DURING 1904.

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a Comprises persons reported as permanently incapacitated and those whose injuries caused a loss of more than 4 days.

Not including surface or open mines.

During the year 1904 there were 225 persons killed in mines, 41 in underground quarries, and 112 in open workings. Of the 25,696 mine employees who were injured during the year, 399 suffered permanent disability, 24,721 were incapacitated for work for a period exceeding four days, and 576 sustained injuries the results of which were not reported. In the quarries the number of persons permanently disabled was 69, the number incapacitated for a period of more than four days was 4,778, and the number suffering injuries whose extent was not reported was 71.

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