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100 miles was $975, the average minimum annual earnings on the same mileage basis at the minimum rate of $2.25 per 100 miles was $744; the average maximum annual earnings of trainmen on the mileage basis of those reporting at the maximum rate of $2.64 per 100 miles was $948, the average minimum annual earnings on the same mileage basis at the minimum rate of $2.24 per 100 miles was $804.

WAGE SCALES AND TRADE AGREEMENTS.—This chapter consists of the reproduction of 40 wage scales and trade agreements between employers and employees in the State in 21 trades or industries.

MANUFACTURES.—The statistics pertaining to the manufacturing industries of the State are reproduced from advance sheets, furnished by the United States Census Bureau, of the census of manufactures, 1905.

LABOR LAWS.—This presentation consists of a compilation of the laws of the State which pertain to labor.

MICHIGAN.

Twenty-third Annual Report of the Bureau of Labor and Industrial

Statistics, including the Thirteenth Annual Report of State Inspection of Factories. 1906. Malcolm J. McLeod, Commissioner. XX,

471 pp.

This report contains 21 chapters, of which Chapters I to IX, 295 pages, are devoted to inspection of factories, stores, hotels, and tenement houses. Labor and industrial statistics are presented in Chapters X to XX under the following titles: Free employment bureaus, 9 pages; classification of labor and wages, 17 pages; beet sugar and

, Portland cement industries, 8 pages; statistics from Michigan industries, 29 pages; strikes and lockouts, 4 pages; automobile industry and ship and boat building, 10 pages; manufacture of paper and statistics of knitting mills, 9 pages; State prisons and reformatories, 10.pages; successful Michigan industries, 8 pages; statistics of newspapers and other publications, 41 pages; coal industry, 10 pages; laws enforced by the department, 18 pages. FREE EMPLOYMENT BUREAUS.

This is a detailed report of the work done in the two bureaus-one at Detroit and one at Grand Rapids—which were opened in 1905.

CLASSIFICATION OF LABOR AND WAGES.—The purpose of this investigation was to determine the number, wages, and hours of labor of all employees, and the average number of days per month and months per year worked in the manufacturing establishments inspected. There were 7,168 establishments canvassed in 1904 and 7,170 in 1905. The aggregate amount of wages paid in 1904 was $110,139,236, in 1905 it was $122,953,324; the average hours worked

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daily were 9.8 in 1904 and 9.9 in 1905; the average days worked per month were 26.1 in 1904 and 26.4 in 1905; the average months worked were 11.2 in 1904 and 11.1 in 1905.

The data collected have been compiled and presented in a detailed table, showing the items by counties. A summary for the entire investigation is also given. The following table shows the number of employees of each class and the average daily wages paid in 1904 and 1905 in the establishments canvassed:

EMPLOYEES OF EACH CLASS AND AVERAGE DAILY WAGES IN MANUFACTURING

ESTABLISHMENTS, 1904 AND 1905.
[Figures are for 7,168 establishments in 1904 and 7,170 in 1905.)

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BEET SUGAR AND PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRIES.- In the beet sugar industry 16 factories were in operation in the year 1905. During the year one new factory was built and 5 increased their capacity.

The acreage devoted to beet raising in 1905 was 79,457 and in 1904 the acreage was 58,213, being an increase of 21,244 acres. There were 503 skilled laborers and 3,265 other laborers employed in the factories, with an average daily wage of $2.91 for the former and $1.82 for the latter.

In the cement industry 13 of the 17 plants in the State were in operation at the time of the canvass. The daily capacity of the 15 plants reporting was 19,200 barrels. The output for 12 plants reporting for the year 1904 was 2,167,868 barrels, and for the year 1905 the output for the same number of plants was 2,832,000 barrels. There were 408 skilled laborers, at an average daily wage of $2.94, and 975 other persons, at an average daily wage of $1.89, on the pay rolls. The average daily wages of all employees were $2.20. The annual pay roll amounted to $1,142,549.

STATISTICS FROM MICHIGAN INDUSTRIES.—This chapter consists of a series of tables compiled from data collected cooperatively by the United States Bureau of the Census and the State bureau of labor and industrial statistics, showing number of manufacturing establishments in the State, capital invested, cost of materials used, value of product, number of employees by sex and age groups, average yearly earnings, etc.

The following table shows for 24 leading industries the number of establishments engaged in each industry, capital invested, miscellaneous expenses, materials used, employees, wages, etc.:

STATISTICS OF MANUFACTURES IN 24 INDUSTRIES, 1904.

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$533 480

470

473

563 575 494 553 382

508 441

Agricultural implements.
Beet sugar.
Bread and bakery prod-

ucts..
Carriages and wagons.
Shop and railroad con-

struction.
Railroad cars.
Milk products.
Chemicals.
Druggists' preparations
Flour and grist mill prod-

ucts.
Food preparations..
Foundry and inachine

shop products.
Furniture.
Iron and steel
Leather.
Malt liquors..
Timber products.
Planing-mill products..
Paper and pulp.
Printing establishments..
Salt.
Slaughtering and meat

packing
Copper.
Tobacco, cigars, etc.

42 $14,342, 106 $1,902, 405 $3,497,210 $8,719,719 3,164 $1,685,677

19 12,989,630 706,628 3,749,879 5,378,004 1,211 581,074 614 2,829,028 650,917 3,835,187 7,115,648 2,194 1.031,807 216 13,610,900 2,412,845 10,448,161 20,097,704 7,423 3,514,328 34 2,462,881 82,129 2,599,383 5,369,391 4,435 2,496,947

4 7,783,077 602,778 9,517,495 13,467,751 3,831 2,200,977 371

1,888,385 152,557 7,027,263 8,208,706 875 432,302 23 16,130,766 1,211,867 4,753, 478 9,695, 422 3,624 2,004,239 20 7,650, 256 833,737 3,343,163 8,797,911 2,168 829, 221 405 7,654,270 541,168 23,414, 207 26,512,027 1,508 766,690 55 3,445,786 2,256,990 2,255,8161 6,753,699 1,041 459,526 419 24,290,075 3,349,148 12,907,799 31, 506,195 16,958 9,175, 471 134 15,797,769 1,820,345 7,622, 470 18,421,735 13,200 5,938,312 15 5,795,551 360,941 4,821,011 7,140,652 1,939 1,018,699 25 6,860, 797 449,649 7,271,023 9,310,349 1,747 $65,673

8,951,185 2,695,727 1,694,245 6,999, 251 1,271 864,115
766 38,507,207 3,110,717 16,629,312 40,569,335 27,460 13,057,977
246 8,770,537 682,724 9,293,689 14,375, 467 5,225 2,368,030

30 8,397,576 498,032 4,581,471 7,340,631 3,052 1,306,112
663 4,725,303 1,063,610 1,664,372 6,930,000 3,148 1,583,891
41 3,538,149 259,855 1,190,951 2,404,717 1,388 626,026
8 1,252,767 137,889 4,406,112 4,901,435 420 217,342

3 2,378,315 407,119 18,807,701 21, 222,217 615 454.943
696 2,462,314 1,516,429 3,067,010 7,995,230 5,491 2,160,501

86

541 448 525 496 680 476 453 428 503 451

517 740 393

A special statistical presentation is made for the 10 principal cities, showing the increase in manufactures as compared with the year 1900. Of the whole number of establishments canvassed in the 10 cities, 1,224 were conducted by individuals, 567 by firms, and 927 by corporations. The following table presents the principal facts as to establishments operated by individuals, firms, and corporations:

STATISTICS OF ESTABLISHMENTS OPERATED BY INDIVIDU'ALS, FIRMS, AND

CORPORATIONS IN 10 CITIES, 1904.

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STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS.—This is a report of the court of mediation and arbitration. During the year only 4 strikes and i lockout were reported, and not more than 800 men were involved.

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AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY AND SHIP AND BOAT BUILDING.--There were 3,936 persons employed in the manufacture of automobiles in the 34 establishments canvassed. Of the persons employed 41 were superintendents, receiving an average annual salary of $1,613.89; there were 240 office clerks employed, whose average daily wages were $2.22; 164 foremen were paid wages averaging $3.37 daily; of the laborers, 2,782 were classed as skilled and received an average daily wage of $2.45, while the daily wages of the 709 common laborers were $1.74.

A compilation of the data collected for 45 boat and ship building establishments shows the following items: Capital invested, $4,418,250; steel vessels built during the year, 18, aggregating in value $5,065,000; 1,414 other steel boats and 11,259 wooden vessels built during the year, with an aggregate value of $1,360,270; boats of all kinds under construction, 8,269, having an estimated value of $4,808,395; persons employed, 5,989; weekly pay roll, $73,649.85; average daily wages of all employees, $2.05.

MANUFACTURE OF PAPER AND STATISTICS OF KNITTING MILLS.At the time of the canvass of the paper industry there were 31 mills in operation, with an invested capital of $6,819,695. In a summary the following items appear: Total annual capacity, 263,530 tons. Employment was furnished 3,614 persons, classified as follows: 35 superintendents, 81 foremen, 97 male and 25 female clerks in offices, 2,782 other male and 594 other female employees; amount of daily pay roll, $6,138.42. The daily wages of male employees varied from $3.21 to $1.29, of the female employees from $1.30 to $0.87; the average hours worked by the day shift were 10.7, and by the night shift 12.6. There were 20 knitting mills in operation at the time of the can

A summary table shows the number operated by individuals, firms, and corporations, kind of power used, class of goods produced, materials used, value of product, etc. Of the 2,612 employees 38 were boys and 148 were girls under 16 years of age.

STATE'S PRISONS AND REFORMATORIES.-Under this title appear the reports of the wardens and superintendents of these institutions. Tables are given showing the number of officials and salary of each, number of inmates, number of inmates employed at contract labor, rate per day of contract labor, hours of labor, number of inmates employed in systems of labor other than contract, production, etc.

SUCCESSFUL MICHIGAN INDUSTRIES.- Under this head various industrial firms are mentioned, with descriptions of the establishments, number of persons employed, aggregate pay roll, etc. In noticing some of the establishments considerable attention has been given to recently inaugurated industrial betterments.

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NEWSPAPERS AND OTHER PUBLICATIONS.—This is a tabular statement, showing by counties and cities the number of papers or periodicals published, date of establishment, how often published, number of typesetting machines in use, number of employees, and average daily wages. There were in the State 779 publications, with an invested capital amounting to $4,152,400; the number of employees was 4,919, of whom 2,279 were employed on daily papers and 2,640 on other publications. The average daily pay roll amounted to $11,135, and the average daily wages of all employees were $2.26. Of the total number of employees 146 were under 16 years of age.

COAL INDUSTRY.—The monthly average of coal mines in operation during the year was 28. The following table is a condensed summary of the report:

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In 25 mines 43 accidents were reported. Of these 8 were fatal, 12 serious, 18 severe, and 5 slight.

LAW ENFORCED BY THE DEPARTMENT.—This chapter reproduces the labor laws of the State.

MINNESOTA.

Special Report of the Bureau of Labor on Child Labor in Minnesota, 1905.

W. H. Williams, Commissioner. 8 pp.

This report deals exclusively with the purpose, interpretation, operation, and enforcement of the provisions of the Minnesota child-labor law. Owing to its many inconsistencies and contradictions the law has been difficult of interpretation, and in several instances but slight attention seems to have been paid to its provisions. In many of the municipalities, in which no permits had

. been issued, the factory inspectors reported finding children under 16 years engaged in prohibited work. There seems also to have been considerable irregularity in the matter of issuing child-employment permits. In other cases it was found that permits were granted on very trivial reasons. Another point noticed is the wide divergence between the number of permits issued and the number of children found at work. In the larger cities the number of permits issued far exceeded the number of children at work in factories, etc.

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