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AVERAGE DAILY WAGES OF MINE WORKERS, AND AVERAGE TIME WORKED PER

WEEK AND PER YEAR, 1902 AND 1903.

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In 1902, of the mine workers reporting, 1,090 owned their homes and 1,533 rented at an average rent per month of $5.40, 1,191 had $103,855 in savings, and 974 carried life insurance to the amount of $346,245. In 1903, of the mine workers reporting, 2,241 owned their homes and 3,538 rented at an average rent per month of $6.47, 2,641 had $349,270 in savings, and 2,002 carried life insurance to the amount of $649,200.

Returns for 1903 were received from 1,535 manufacturing establishments, representing 64 industries, with an invested capital of $112,912,304, using raw materials of the value of $171,930,959, and turning out manufactured products to the value of $300,193,308. There were 115,293 wage-earners employed (101,416 males and 13,877 females), to whom were paid wages aggregating $53,020,776.

The industries employing the largest number of laborers, skilled and unskilled, were as follows: Glass, 14,575 employees, receiving $8,135,494 in wages; iron products, 9,960 employees, receiving $5,817,018; railroad equipments, 5,237 employees, receiving $2,592,844; wagons and carriages, 5,718 employees, receiving $2,501,337, and boilers, tanks, and steam pumps, 4,485 employees, receiving $2,107,648.

The highest price paid for skilled labor was in the manufacture of iron products. Puddlers received from $3.15 to $7 per day, the average being $4.20; heaters received from $4.38 to $10.07, the average being $6.20, and rollers received from $10 to $20 per day, the average being $14.20. There was quite a variance in the hours of labor required in the different establishments. In the manufacture of glass, blowers received from $5 to $9 per day, the average being $7.32; gatherers received from $3.60 to $6 per day, the average being $5.34; flatteners received from $4 to $9 per day, the average being

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$6.50, and cutters received from $4 to $8 per day, the average being $5.38.

A series of tables is presented showing by occupations for each establishment in each industry number of employees by sex, average daily wages, hours of labor per day, wage changes, and days employed during the year.

RAILROAD STATISTICS.-Tables are given, showing for each road operating in the State for the years ending June 30, 1903, and June 30, 1904, the earnings, operating expenses, and maintenance, passengers carried, freight tonnage, average passenger and freight rates, number of officials and employees, salaries and wages, hours of labor per day, days employed per year, and accidents. The accidents in the State for the year ending June 30, 1903, were 384 killed (14 passengers, 132 employees, and 238 others) and 3,232 injured (250 passengers, 2,622 employees, and 360 others); for the year ending June 30, 1904, there were 334 killed (19 passengers, 91 employees, and 224 others) and 3,677 injured (338 passengers, 3,026 employees, and 313 others).

IOWA.

Eleventh Biennial Report of the Bureau of Labor Statistics for the State

of Iowa. 1903, 1904. . Edward D. Brigham, Commissioner.

460 pp.

The following are the subjects presented in this report: Factory inspection, 80 pages; graded wages and salaries, 44 pages; new industries, 27 pages; trade unions, 60 pages; immigration, 51 pages; wage-earners, 33 pages; railroad employees, 16 pages; wage scales and trade agreements, 83 pages; manufactures, 25 pages; labor laws, 26 pages.

GRADED WAGES AND SALARIES.—This is a compilation, embracing 237 establishments in 45 lines of business, showing by occupation and sex the maximum, medium, and minimum wages paid per hour, day, week, month, or year in 27 counties of the State. The number of hours worked per day and per week, together with the wage changes for the year 1904, are also given.

NEW INDUSTRIES.-To this subject there are two parts. The first part shows, by counties, the number and kind of manufacturing industries and business houses (wholesale and retail) established since 1902; also a list of the 25 larger water powers in the State capable of furnishing power for manufacturing purposes, nearly all of which will admit of further development. The second part shows, by counties, the number and kind of new industries, manufacturing and mercantile, desired in each locality, together with the natural or acquired advantages and the inducements offered.

AVERAGE DAILY WAGES OF MINE WORKERS, AND AVERAGE TIME WORKED PER

WEEK AND PER YEAR, 1902 AND 1903.

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In 1902, of the mine workers reporting, 1,090 owned their homes and 1,533 rented at an average rent per month of $5.40, 1,191 had $103,855 in savings, and 974 carried life insurance to the amount of $346,245. In 1903, of the mine workers reporting, 2,241 owned

, their homes and 3,538 rented at an average rent per month of $6.47, 2,641 had $349,270 in savings, and 2,002 carried life insurance to the amount of $649,200.

Returns for 1903 were received from 1,535 manufacturing establishments, representing 64 industries, with an invested capital of $112,912,304, using raw materials of the value of $171,930,959, and turning out manufactured products to the value of $300,193,308. There were 115,293 wage-earners employed (101,416 males and 13,877 females), to whom were paid wages aggregating $53,020,776.

The industries employing the largest number of laborers, skilled and unskilled, were as follows: Glass, 14,575 employees, receiving $8,135,494 in wages; iron products, 9,960 employees, receiving $5,817,018; railroad equipments, 5,237 employees, receiving $2,592,844; wagons and carriages, 5,718 employees, receiving $2,501,337, and boilers, tanks, and steam pumps, 4,485 employees, receiving $2,107,648.

The highest price paid for skilled labor was in the manufacture of iron products. Puddlers received from $3.15 to $7 per day, the average being $4.20; heaters received from $4.38 to $10.07, the average being $6.20, and rollers received from $10 to $20 per day, the average being $14.20. There was quite a variance in the hours of labor required in the different establishments. In the manufacture of glass, blowers received from $5 to $9 per day, the average being $7.32; gatherers received from $3.60 to $6 per day, the average being $5.34; flatteners received from $4 to $9 per day, the average being

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$6.50, and cutters received from $4 to $8 per day, the average being $5.38.

A series of tables is presented showing by occupations for each establishment in each industry number of employees by sex, average daily wages, hours of labor per day, wage changes, and days employed during the year.

RAILROAD STATISTICS.—Tables are given, showing for each road operating in the State for the years ending June 30, 1903, and June 30, 1904, the earnings, operating expenses, and maintenance, passengers carried, freight tonnage, average passenger and freight rates, number of officials and employees, salaries and wages, hours of labor per day, days employed per year, and accidents. The accidents in

. the State for the year ending June 30, 1903, were 384 killed (14 passengers, 132 employees, and 238 others) and 3,232 injured (250 passengers, 2,622 employees, and 360 others); for the year ending June 30, 1904, there were 334 killed (19 passengers, 91 employees, and 224 others) and 3,677 injured (338 passengers, 3,026 employees, and 313 others).

IOWA.

Eleventh Biennial Report of the Bureau of Labor Statistics for the State

of Iowa. 1903, 1904. Edward D. Brigham, Commissioner.

460 pp.

The following are the subjects presented in this report: Factory inspection, 80 pages; graded wages and salaries, 44 pages; new industries, 27 pages; trade unions, 60 pages; immigration, 51 pages; wage-earners, 33 pages; railroad employees, 16 pages; wage scales and trade agreements, 83 pages; manufactures, 25 pages; labor laws, 26 pages.

GRADED WAGES AND SALARIES.—This is a compilation, embracing 237 establishments in 45 lines of business, showing by occupation and sex the maximum, medium, and minimum wages paid per hour, day, week, month, or year in 27 counties of the State. The number of hours worked per day and per week, together with the wage changes for the year 1904, are also given.

NEW INDUSTRIES.—To this subject there are two parts. The first part shows, by counties, the number and kind of manufacturing industries and business houses (wholesale and retail) established since 1902; also a list of the 25 larger water powers in the State capable of furnishing power for manufacturing purposes, nearly all of which will admit of further development. The second part shows, by counties, the number and kind of new industries, manufacturing and mercantile, desired in each locality, together with the natural or acquired advantages and the inducements offered.

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TRADE UNIONS.—Returns were received from 688 labor unions in the State giving number of members in each union, per capita monthly dues, amounts paid out for sick and funeral benefits, maximum and minimum wages, with the variations in both since 1902, number of strikes that have occurred since December 31, 1900, and whether the unions demand the employment of union men only. Of the total unions, 671 reported a membership of 41,397. As compared with the report for 1901–2, a slight falling off in the number of local unions and in the total membership is shown; but in the average membership per union there is an increase, it being 61.7 as compared with 56.7 for the earlier period. The members were distributed among 58 trades or industries in 129 cities and towns of the State. The chapter closes with statements from various unions of the advantages secured through organization without resorting to strikes.

WAGE-EARNERS.-Data furnished by 333 individual wage-earners of the State engaged in 69 occupations relating to hours of labor per day, wages, annual earnings, savings, conditions of employment, insurance, ownership of home, etc., are presented in this chapter. The total wages earned during 1904 by 236 wage-earners who reported was $184,634, or an average of $782.35 for each. Savings for the two years (1903 and 1904) amounted to $41,930 by the 216 persons who reported, or an average of $194.12 for each. Life insurance averaging $2,250 per individual was carried by 214 wage-earners, and 141 carried fire insurance on their homes to the extent of $135,250, or an average of $959.22 for each. Home owners numbered 124, of whom 72 valued their property at $147,050, or an average of $2,042.36, all being unencumbered, while 52 reported an equity of $48,275 in property valued at $95,900.

RAILROAD EMPLOYEES.—This is an investigation of the conditions surrounding the employment of railroad men in the transportation branch of the service and a record of the accidents to railroad employees within the State during the period from September 1, 1903, to January 1, 1905. Returns from the railroad employees show that the average run per month was 3,322 miles for conductors, 3,283 miles for engineers, 2,755 miles for firemen, and 2,992 miles for trainmen. On the above mileage basis the average maximum annual earnings of conductors reporting at the maximum rate of $3.45 per 100 miles was $1,375, the average minimum annual earnings on the same mileage basis at the minimum rate of $3 per 100 miles was $1,196; the average maximum annual earnings of engineers on the mileage basis of those reporting at the maximum rate of $4.80 per 100 miles was $1,891, the average minimum annual earnings on the same mileage basis at the minimum rate of $3.70 per 100 miles was $1,458; the average maximum annual earnings of firemen on the mileage basis of those reporting at the maximum rate of $2.95 per

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