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they contain too serious a lesson for us to be warranted in letting them pass by disregarded. Between the legislation of England and of France, it is a question of centralization and non-centralization (i.e., local freedom). We represent the latter principle in its extremest development; the French represent the former in its narrowest sense. We are still animated by the spirit of Germanism, which upholds tradition, consecrates custom, takes the judicial forces of the nation from the body of the nation itself, and aims at the maximum of self-legislation ; the French are slaves to the spirit of ancient Rome, which theorizes and despises tradition, takes the judicial forces of the country from a separate source, and brings them to bear inimically upon society, and aims at the maximum of passive obedience to a body of functionaries appointed by the state. The two systems have produced, and are daily producing, consequences from which it is easy to discern which conduces most to the public weal; but we have met with no technical work in which the original causes of the present insufficiency of French legislation are so impartially pointed out as in M. du Boys' “History of the Criminal Law of Modern Nations."

ART. VI.-CURIOSITIES OF LAW. 2. AN ENGLISH BOROUGH IN THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY.

CUSTUMAL OF ROMNEY.

(Continued from Vol. VII. p. 300.) 20. Stranger's scot. Item.-It is used, that if a strange man be resident in the town, he shall pay to the commonalty, at each scot assessed in the town, the double of that which the freeman pays.

21. A man may buy his freedom. Item.--It is used, that if a strange man of good fame and conversation be resident in the town, and desirous of being a freeman of the town, the jurats may grant him the freedom, he paying to the commonalty as they may agree in their assembly; and, as soon as they are agreed, he shall be charged upon a book to maintain the freedom with his goods and chattels, and to be faithful and loyal, and to keep counsel and be obedient, and to do in all points as another freeman towards the commonalty ; and that he have a house of his own, appraised at forty shillings in the town by the year, by which he may be held to justice under pain of forfeiture of his freedom; and, when he is sworn in court, the common clerk shall enter his name in the common paper to witness the said grant. And all his children, freebegotten after the said day of grant, may claim and enjoy the freedom. But if he have any children or child before the said day of grant, or that he beget children not muliers, they shall not have the freedom by the same grant, but it shall be by a new grant, as is said above. And it is to wit that the jurats cannot grant the freedom to any stranger, unless he be resident within the freedom.

22. Letter of freedom. Item.-It is used to grant a letter of freedom, of not more than two years' date, of which the cause is contained in the letter that follows, in this form_“To all faithful subjects of the

20. Estronge à escot. Item.-Use est que si home estrange soit demuront deyns la vile, il paiera à la comune à chescun escot assise deyn la vile le duble

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frank home paie.

21. Home puet achater sa franchise. Item.-Use est que si estrange home de bone fame et conversacioun soit demuront deyns la vile et desiront estre frank home de la vile, les jurés pount granter lui la franchise paiount à la comune com ils pount acorder en lour assemblé; et quele houre quils sount acordés, il sera chargé sur un livre à mayntenir la franchise ove ces biens et chateux, et estre feal et leal et tenir le conseil et estre obeisaunt, et fere en tots poynts com un autre frank home à la comune, et qil ait un propre meson pris de XL.s deyns la vile par entre laan, par kai il puse estre justisé, sous payne de forfeture de sa franchise. Et quant il est en court juré, le clerk comune entra soun nome en la papir comune pur tesmoygner le dit grant. Et totes ces enfants franchement procreés après le dit jour de grant pount clamer et enjoyer la franchise. Mes sil ait ascun enfants ou enfant avant le dit jour de grant, ou kil procree enfants nient mulieres, ils naveront poynt la franchise par mesme le grant, si il ne soit de novel grant com est susdit. Et fait à saver que les jurés ne pount granter la franchise à nul estrange sil ne soit receant deyns la franchise.

22. Letre del franchise. Item.--Use est à granter letre de la franchise de nyent plus loyns date

que

de deux aans dount la cause est contenu en la letre que suet-hâc formâ—Universis illustris domini É. R.

noble lord Edward King of England, to whose knowledge the present letters shall come, the barons of the same lord the king, of the port of Romney, wish health in the Lord. Be it known to your body universal, that N., the bearer of these presents, is our perpetual fellow-baron and compeer of our liberty, and bearing lot and paying scot with us, and in all things bearing his burdens. And therefore, when the same N. shall come among you with his ship and his merchandise, if it so likes him, he pleased to admit him, giving no hinderance to him or his ship, and permitting none to be given, but allow the same N. to buy, sell, and freely to exercise his bargains and business which he may have to do among you, since it has been granted us by our lords the kings of England, from time whereof memory rünneth not, that we should be free and ought so to be through the whole of England and Ireland, and wheresoever else we go, within the dominion of the said lord the king, from all toll, custom, and demand. In witness whereof, we have caused these letters-patent to be made into the aforesaid N., sealed with our common seal, to continue for two years next following from the day of the execution of these presents; and at the end of the said two years, the same to be brought back to our commonalty, because it lately happened that one of our compeers, having a letter of perpetual freedom, was robbed upon the sea of the aforesaid letter, whereby the stealer of the said letter made himself free wherever he went to the damage of the lord the king, and the manifest hurt of our liberty, Given at

on the day, year,” &c. 23. Of the king's purveyor. Item. It is used, that if the purveyor of our lord the king, come with a commission from our said lord to procure victuals and carriage in the town, he shall not be received nor suffered to do his business ; nor shall the bailiff or barons pay any manner of attention to him, until he shall have brought a letter of intendance from our guardian, or except his commission speak expressly as well within the franchise of the cinque ports as without. And, moreover, he shall have no manner of victuals nor

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Anglie fidelibus, ad quorum noticiam presentes litere pervenerint, Barones ejusdem domini R. de portu de Romney, salutem in Domino. Noverit universitas vestra quod N. lator presentium perpetuus combaro noster est et compar de nostrâ libertate, et una nobiscum lottans et scottans, et in omnibus onera portans. Et ideo cum idem N. cum navi suâ et mercandisis suis inter vos pervenerit, ipsum si placet, admittere velitis nullam sibi molestiam vel ejus navi inferentes vel inferri permittentes, sed eundem N. emere, vendere, et libere mercimonia sua et negocia que inter vos habuerit agenda exercere permittatis ; quum concessum est nobis a dominis Regibus nostris Anglie, a tempore quo non exstat memoria quod liberi simus et esse debemus per totam Angliar et Hiberniam et alibi ubicunque loco pervenerimus, in dicti domini Regis potestate, de omni theolonio, consuetudine et demandâ. In cujus rei testimonium has literas nostras sigillo nostro comuni sigillatas predicto N. fieri fecimus patentes, duraturas per duos annos proximè sequentibus post diem confectionis presentium, et in fine dictorum duorum annorum eas comunitati nostre referendas, eâ occasione dudum accidit quod quidam noster comparium habens literam perpetuam, de predictâ literâ in mari fuerat spoliatus, per quantum predicte litere raptor liberum se fecit utcunque pervenit, ad dampnum domini Regis et libertatis nostre lesionem manifestam. Data apuddie, anno etc.

23. De purveiour le Roi. Item._Use est que si purveiour notre Seignur le Roy viegne ove comission notre dit Seignur, à prendre vitailes et cariage deyns la vile, ne deit il estre receu ne suffré faire son office, ne ñule manere entendence ne deit bailif ne les barons à lui faire tankil avera porté bref dentendence de notre gardeyn, ou que soun commission parle expressement auxi bien deyns la franchise des Cink Ports com dehors. Et ankore navera il nule manere vitailes ne cariage sils ne soiount prisés par bons gents, et liveré

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