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ten and a half hours--not to speak of the skill and stability said to be recently exhibited in the erection of their public buildings, yet it is obvious that, as local jurymen, they do not excel. In small communities generally, where every one knows his neighbour's affairs, and where its educated members do not interfere with, but leave to those of both contracted minds and means, such duties as have to be performed in small boroughs, all kinds of absurdity and jobbing are continually to be observed. The political morality of boroughs is being exposed by the election commissions. Their social condition may also require some consideration. Perhaps the Social Science Association will be able to enter upon this subject on a future occasion.

COMMITMENTS IN COUNTY COURTS. THE daily newspapers have recently been reporting and criticising certain proceedings in a metropolitan County Court, of a very painful description, and which we trust did not take place as alleged. We shall not further refer to them, but we cannot forbear drawing attention to the invincible stupidity of a certain portion of the public, who cannot distinguish between the justice and necessity of punishing a fraudulent person, and the injustice and impolicy of imprisoning an unfortunate debtor, who would pay

what he owes if he could do so. The onus of explaining why a debtor does not discharge his debt lies surely upon himself. If he can shew that by no fault of his own he is deprived of the means of satisfying his creditor, it is unreasonable that the law should inflict its penalties upon him. If on the other hand it appear, that the debtor contracted his engagement without the probable means and intention of honestly keeping his engagement, or that having the means he dishonestly evades or repudiates payment, it must be agreed, we should have thought, by every man of common sense, common morality, and common knowledge of mankind, that it is incumbent

upon the law to enforce, by the most stringent exercise of its com· pulsory power, such payment, and in all legitimate methods to

punish individual fraud, and repress systematized commercial robbery.

One great advantage accruing from the establishment of local Small Debt Courts, was the new remedy given to the creditor, who was wont formerly to be robbed with impunity by reason of the hazard he incurred in the expensive processes of the Superior Courts; and another advantage, and one not smaller either in degree or extent, has been derived from the general operation on men's minds of the fact, that they now could be made to pay what they owed, whether they liked it or no. The morality of small debtors has thus improved. They either do not recklessly incur debts, or they duly discharge them. We are, however, daily meeting with the theories of certain spurious philanthropists, who urge either that imprisonment is a great hardship on fraudulent people (with whom they seem deeply to sympathize), or that it is cheaper not to protect the honest dealer. There are many rogues whom the law will never effectually touch; but that is no reason why we should permit its being rendered a dead letter when it can operate, by a morbid theory or an absurd jealousy of the power put into the hands of County Court judges.

It is stated that Sir J. D. Paul, Bart., and Strahan, have been released from their imprisonment. The crime of which they were found guilty was one worse than most kinds of swindling or theft-except that they did not add personal violence to their robbery. Few midnight robbers we ever heard of merited punishment so severe as these bankers and burglars. It might naturally be expected, therefore, that some would be found who begin to think and say that these miscreants who have ruined families, stolen the savings of the widow, devoured the inheritance of the orphan, and dealt the heaviest of blows to commercial credit, have been too harshly dealt with. If punishment should be measured by the criminality of the act itself, and the protection essential for society—then, so far from these respectable felons having already expiated their crime, they in fact have paid a very small instalment of the appropriate penalty.

The following announcement on behalf of the Incorporated Law Society has been made with regard to the Lectures for the year

1859-60 :

The following three courses of lectures will be delivered in the hall of the society on Monday and Friday evenings, in the months of November, December, January, February, and March next, at eight o'clock precisely. CONVEYANCING LECTURES, by FREDERICK JOHN TURNER, Esq.,

BARRISTER-AT-LAW.
1. On the history of the law of real property.
2. On the creation and barring estates tail.
3. On conveyances by parties under disabilities.
4. On fraudulent and voluntary conveyances.
5. On mortgages, legal and equitable.
6. On leasehold estates and the assignments of them.
7. On trustees and the appointment of new trustees.
8. On wills and testamentary appointments.
9. On copyhold tenure.
10. On powers and the exercise of them.

11. On the rights and powers of married women relative to property.

12. Review of the present state of the law of real property

EQUITY LECTURES, by GEORGE WIRGMAN HEMMING, Esq.,

BARRISTER-AT-LAW. 1. Origin and history of equity jurisprudence. 2. The jurisdiction of the Court of Chancery. 3. The procedure of the Court of Chancery. 4, 5. Specific performance and injunctions. 6, 7, 8. Equitable rights of married women. 9. Administrative business of the Court of Chancery. 10. Suits relating to partnerships and companies. 11, 12. Winding up and bankruptcy of partnerships and

companies.

COMMON LAW AND MERCANTILE LAW LECTURES, by FREDK.

MEADOWS WHITE, Esq., BARRISTER-AT-LAW. On the relation of principal and agent—What it is :Between whom it may be established. Who may appoint

--who may be appointed agents. The subject-matter. What acts may—what may not be

done by agents. How the relation may be established. The authority

Express authorities.-Implied authorities. General and special agencies.—The authority of a wife to bind her husband—The general authority—of counsel, attorneys, auctioneers, partners, brokers, factors, shipmasters, &c.

The effect of ratification. The legal incidents of the relation. 1. The duties, rights, and liabilities of principal and agent inter se.

2. The liabilities of principals to third persons, arising out of the acts of their agents. 3. The personal liabilities of agents, public and private—1. To the public—The criminal law specially affecting agents ; 2. To third

persons. The dissolution of the relation. By what means, or under

what circunstances, the authority is or may be deter

mined.

[Should time permit, the lecturer will bring under consideration the points of practice most frequently arising in the application of the law of principal and agent.]

APPOINTMENTS, &c.

UPON the death of the late J. Addison, Esq., Robert Segar, Esq., of the Lancaster Chancery Court, and Recorder of Wigan, was appointed Judge of the County Court for the Preston district (Circuit No. 4.); and upon the death of the late Mr. Serjeant Clarke, A. M. Skinner, Esq., of the Oxford Circuit, Q.C., and Recorder of Windsor, was appointed Judge of the County Court for the towns of Oldbury, Walsall, and Wolverhampton (Circuit No. 25).

Stamford Raffles, Esq., of the Northern Circuit, has been appointed to the Judgeship of the Court of Record for the Hundred of Salford, vacated by Mr. Segar.

The Recordership of Hythe, vacated by the death of the late Mr. Gipps, was conferred on Mr. R. J. Biron of the Home Circuit; and the Recorderships of Walsall, Newark, Lincoln, and Northampton, formerly held by the late Mr. Serjeant Clarke, have been respectively conferred on Mr. W. J. Neele of the Oxford Circuit, and Mr. Fitzjames Stephen, the Hon. G. C. Vernon, and Mr. J. Hibberd Brewer, all of the Midland Circuit.

T. H. Ingham, Esq., the Judge of the County Court, Circuit No. 3, has been appointed Recorder of Clitheroe, in the room of the late J. Addison, Esq., deceased.

Henry Pyne, Esq., of the Tithe Office, Whitehall, Barristerat-Law, has been appointed Assistant Commissioner, by the Copyhold Inclosure and Tithe Commissioners.

G. P. Atthill, Esq., has been appointed Chief-Justice of the Island of St. Lucia; and James John Hickson, Esq., has been appointed Police Magistrate for the Island of Grenada.

In Ireland, the Judgeship in Bankruptcy, vacated by the death of the Hon. P. Plunkett, has been conferred on David Lynch, Esq., Q.C.

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