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punish individual fraud, and repress systematized commercial robbery.

One great advantage accruing from the establishment of local Small Debt Courts, was the new remedy given to the creditor, who was wont formerly to be robbed with impunity by reason of the hazard he incurred in the expensive processes of the Superior Courts; and another advantage, and one not smaller either in degree or extent, has been derived from the general operation on men’s minds of the fact, that they now could be made to pay what they owed, whether they liked it or no. The morality of small debtors has thus improved. They either do not recklessly incur debts, or they duly discharge them. We are, however, daily meeting with the theories of certain spurious philanthropists, who urge either that imprisonment is a great hardship on fraudulent people (with whom they seem deeply to sympathize), or that it is cheaper not to protect the honest dealer. There are many rogues whom the law will never effectually touch ; but that is no reason why we should permit its being rendered a dead letter when it can operate, by a morbid theory or an absurd jealousy of the power put into the hands of County Court judges.

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IT is stated that Sir J. D. Paul, Bart., and Strahan, have been released from their imprisonment. The crime of which they were found guilty was one worse than most kinds of swindling or theft—except that they did not add personal violence to their robbery. Few midnight robbers we ever heard of merited punishment so severe as these bankers and burglars. It might naturally be expected, therefore, that some would be found who begin to think and say that these miscreants who have ruined families, stolen the savings of the widow, devoured the inheritance of the orphan, and dealt the heaviest of blows to commercial credit, have been too harshly dealt with. If punishment should be measured by the criminality of the act itself, and the protection

essential for society—-then, so far from these respectable felons

having already expiated their crime, they in fact have paid a very small instalment of the appropriate penalty.

THE following announcement on behalf of the Incorporated Law Society has been made with regard to the Lectures for the year 1859-60 :—

The following three courses of lectures will be delivered in the hall of the society on Monday and Friday evenings, in the months of November, December, January, February, and March next, at eight o’clook precisely.

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1. On the history of the'law of real property. 2. On the creation and barring estates tail. 3. On conveyances by parties under disabilities. 4. On fraudulent and voluntary conveyances. 5. On mortgages, legal and equitable. 6. On leasehold estates and the assignments of them. 7. On trustees and the appointment of new trustees. 8. On wills and testamentary appointments. 9. On copyhold tenure. 10. On powers and the exercise of them. 11. On the rights and powers of married women relative to property. q 12. Review of the present state of the law of real property

EQUITY Lncrunns, by Gsonen WIRGMAN HEMMING, EsQ., BARRISTER-AT-LAW.

1. Origin and history of equity jurisprudence.

2. The jurisdiction of the Court of Chancery.

3. The procedure of the Court of Chancery.

4, 5. Specific performance and injunctions.

6, 7, S. Equitable rights of married women.

9. Administrative business of the Court of Chancery.

10. Suits relating to partnerships and companies.

ll, 12. Winding up and bankruptcy of partnerships and companies.

Common LAW AND MERCANTILE LAW Lncrnmas, by FREDK.
Mnmows WHITE, EsQ., BARRISTER-A’I‘—LAW.
On the relation of principal and agent—-What it is :-

Between whom it_may be established. Who may appoint
—who may be appointed agents.

The subject-matter. \Vhat acts may—what may not be

'done by agents.

How the relation may be established. The authority— Express authorities.—Implied authorities.—General and special agencies.—The authority of a wife to bind her husband—The general authority—-of counsel, attorneys, auctioneers, partners, brokers, factors, shipmasters, &c.—— The eifect of ratification.

The legal incidents of the relation. 1. The duties, rights, and liabilities of principal and agent inter se. 2. The liabilities of principals to third persons, arising out of the acts of their agents. 3. The personal liabilities of agents, public and private—-1. To the public-—The criminal law specially affecting agents; 2. To third persons.

The dissolution of the relation. By what means, or under what circumstances, the authority is or may be determined.

[Should time permit, the lecturer will bring under consider-‘

ation the points of practice most frequently arising in the application of the law of principal and agent.]

APPOINTMENTS, &c.

p UPON the death of the late J. Addison, Esq., Robert Segar, Esq., of the Lancaster Chancery Court, and Recorder of Wigan, igvas appointed Judge of the County Court for the Preston district (Circuit No. 4.); and upon the death of the late Mr. Serjeant Clarke, A. M. Skinner, Esq., of the Oxford Circuit, Q.C., and Recorder of Windsor, was appointed Judge of the County Court for the towns of Oldbury, Walsall, and Wolverhampton (Circuit No. 25).

' Stamford Rafiies, Esq., of the Northern Circuit, has been appointed to the Judgeship of the Court of Record for the Hundred of Salford, vacated by Mr. Segar.

Theliecordership of Hythe, vacated by the death of the late Mr. Gipps, was conferred on Mr. R. J. Biron of the Home Circuit; and the Recorderships of Walsall, Newark, Lincoln, and Northampton, formerly held by the late Mr. Serjeant Clarke, have been respectively conferred on Mr. W. J. Neele of the Oxford Circuit, and Mr. Fitzjames Stephen, the Hon. G. C. Vernon, and Mr. J. Hibberd Brewer, all of the hlidland Circuit.

T. H. Ingham, Esq., the Judge of the County Court, Circuit No. 3, has been appointed Recorder of Clitheroe, in the rooin of the late J. Addison, Esq., deceased. '

Henry Pyne, Esq., of the Tithe Office, Whitehall, Barristerat-Law, has been appointed Assistant Commissioner, by the Copyhold Inclosure and Tithe Commissioners.

G. P. Atthill, Esq., has been appointed Chief-Justice of the Island of St. Lucia; and James John Hickson, Esq., has been appointed Police Magistrate for the Island of Grenada.

In Ireland, the Judgeship in Bankruptcy, vacated by the death of the Hon. P. Plunkett, has been conferred on David Lynch,

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21st. KNIGHT, HENRY, Esq., Solicitor.

25th. OLAPHAM, WILLIAM H., Esq., Solicitor, aged 58.

31st. CLARKE, NATHANIEL R., Esq., Serjeant-at-Law, Judge of the County Courts of Wolverhampton, Oldbury, and Walsall ; and Recorder of Lincoln, Newark, Northampton, and Walsall. Aged 75.

A ugust.

19th. Evans, ROBERT, Esq., Solicitor, aged 34. 22nd. Baown, CHARLES J ., Esq., Solicitor, aged 61. 23rd. CLoucH, WILLIAM, Esq., Solicitor, aged 50.

,, WILHAMS, HENRY, Esq., Solicitor. Roscon, W. C., Barrister.

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September.

5th. M00313, REGNIER W., Esq., Barrister, aged 41. ,, FLOYD, Cooxsorr S., Esq., Solicitor, aged 48. 7th. Concruzvn, J ons F., Esq., Solicitor.

,, KINDER, W. S., Esq., Solicitor, aged 37.

8th. DIGNAM, THOMAS, Esq., Solicitor, aged 60.

9th. HYDE, CHARLES, Esq., Solicitor, aged 64. 10th. Wanrorm, ARTHUR, Esq., Solicitor, aged 53. 13th. ALEXANDER, E. N., Esq., Solicitor. 14th. VALLANCE, Tnorms, Esq., Barrister, aged 23. 15th. \VII.BIt.uIAM, Enwsnn, Esq., Q.C., aged 74. 18th. LANGHAM, T. P., Esq., Solicitor, aged 41.

,, GAWTRESS, WILLIADI S., Esq., Barrister, aged 41. 19th. Borsn, Aucusros F., Esq., Barrister, aged 36. 24th. MARTIN, Rrcnsan C., Esq., Barrister, aged 50. 25th. Sroenou, J OHN, Esq., Solicitor, aged 53. 30th. DOWLING, Rrormnn B., Esq., Barrister.

VOL. VIII. NO. XV.

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