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moral and social aspect, he justly observes, especially in the detail relating to the various classes of actions of slander, libel, criminal conversation, breaches of contract or general divorce, insolvency, &c.

Before we examine the returns themselves, we must draw attention to one remark which Mr. Redgrave makes in his introductory and explanatory report. He says—“Many difficulties stand in the way of the perfect and comprehensive arrangement of this branch of the statistics of justice, so as to bring together, in simple and harmonious forms, for the purpose of statistical analysis, the records of such a large and varied amount of procedure. To point out the bearing and nature of their different proceedings, and to show clearly their results, would require more than a mere general knowledge of the jurisdiction and practice of every court, and of every branch of the law. And though a long connection with the criminal and police business of the country, has warranted me in prefixing a yearly analysis of the proceedings of the criminal and police business of the country, as introductory to Part I. of these Statistics, I have felt but little confidence in carrying out my instructions, to prepare an introductory analysis, of the same nature, of the proceedings of the common-law and equity courts.” If this be so, and if it be of the greatest utility to produce as perfect an analysis as is possible, it is obvious that with Mr. Redgrave ought to have been associated some one whose qualifications and experience would have been of service to that gentleman, in preparing what he has pointed out would be a more perfect and useful report. Surely it would be worth while, before the next returns are made, to supply him adequately with such auxiliaries as he may require. Nevertheless, the resumé of the chief results of the returns to which Mr. Redgrave has confined himself are full of information, and we will proceed to consider a few of the most important points he has presented to

The business of the courts in 1858 will best be understood in the tabular form, as below :

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us.

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PROCESS
ISSUED.

In
Bancom

Single
Judge.

PROCESS
ISSUED.

In
Banco.

Single
Judge.

PROCESS
ISSUED.

In
Banco.

Single
Judge.

PROCESS
ISSUED.

In
Banco.

Single
Judge.

103,478

...

39,476

21,149

42,843

...

588

190

...

139

...

... ...

...

259

... ...

... ...

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9,919

...

... ... ...

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26,130

...

8,429

5,413

...

12.288

...

...

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NATURE OF THE PROCEEDINGS.

Writs of Summons Issued

Writs of Capias

Appearances Entered
Judgments (Return for C. P. in-

complete)
Executions

Motions for New Trials

Other Special Motions

Hand Motions

On Side Bar Rules

2,631

Causes referred to Masters.

Total Amount of Fees

...........

£64,539, 17s. 5d.

£24,821, 6s. Od.

£13,013, 11s. 6d.

£26,704, 19s. 11d.

It will astonish the layman more than the lawyer to see how small is the proportion of litigation prosecuted to the point of trial, to that which is threatened or commenced. About 75 per cent. of the claims in all the common-law courts, made by issuing writs, never reach the next step of entering appearances.

We know in practice how this arises. Either the defendant pays, compromises, or submits, or has judgment against him by default; or the plaintiff for prudential reasons withdraws his claim. In the Queen's Bench, 1 only in 65, and in the Exchequer, 1 in 49, came to trial. The proportion of the executions to suits commenced is 1 in 4.

Another curious fact is the disproportioned distribution of the business between the three courts. Why attorneys, except from old and unreasoning habit, should throng the Court of Exchequer, and abstain from the Common Pleas, is incomprehensible. The latter court has long been presided over by judges of the highest reputation; and the lack of pressure of business there, one would have supposed, would have been an inducement for practitioners to resort thither. The fact, however, appears to be, that it has only about half as much business as falls to either of the other courts.

That 413 causes should have been referred to the masters is also a notable fact, but one not to be contemplated with unmixed approbation. For, in the first place, we have heard complaints of the too great zeal exhibited both on the bench, and ready acquiescence on the part of the bar, to send down causes for the masters to try which might more legitimately have been disposed of in open court; and next, it is notorious that the masters have been overburdened with these references, which are superadded to their proper official duties. The consequence is, that there are perpetual postponements and prolonged intervals between the meetings ; great expenses are incurred, considerable inconveniences endured, and the result frequently not accepted with satisfaction. We do not speak on behalf of the junior bar, who no doubt regard these arbitrations as an unnecessary withdrawal from themselves of a remunerative occupation; for, in our judgment, they have themselves to thai.k for any preference shown herein

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for the master's office. In the latter, the fees are reasonable; whereas the customary scale of counsel's fees on arbitrations are excessive and unjustifiable. The heavy additional fees demanded by counsel for each sitting, frequently of short duration, and the frightful amount of costs which the losing side has often to pay, has rendered the practice of referring cases to gentlemen of the bar very unpopular. The plea which is set up by counsel, that in undertaking an arbitration, or in appearing before an arbitrator, they are leaving their ordinary duties, and should therefore receive special remuneration, is as rotten as any ancient vacation plea; for they have been retained to conduct the cause, and, if their time is not occupied in court, their client has a claim to it out of court; and moreover the references are, in practice, held at times most convenient to counsel. The arbitrator, of course, must be adequately remunerated, and any additional labour or expense of time imposed upon counsel, arising from the peculiar nature of the suit or course of proceeding, should be provided for; but the practice of making a "good thing” out of arbitrations cannot be too loudly condemned.

The report contains some interesting details as to the business transacted in judges' chambers, which is important both in amount and character. We find that last year there were issued from the three courts upwards of forty thousand summonses, in which counsel on each side attended in about two thousand seven hundred instances. The learned judges have had, in the course of their duty at chambers, to peruse about thirty thousand affidavits, and some four thousand exhibits. There was, however, only one bill of exceptions to be signed, and one writ of error.

The statistics will, in future, include the number, nature, and result of the suits entered for trial. The return at present, as to the result of the suits which proceeded to trial, and the state of the business before the courts," is meagre, and the figures do

come out” quite right, according to our calculation. The circuit statistics are interesting to the young counsel seeking a circuit, and in that felicitous condition of having no

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more connection or interest in one than another. The number of cases tried at Nisi Prius, were on the Home Circuit

200 Midland

99 Norfolk

49
Oxford

109
Northern
Lancaster

179 318
Durham

31 Western

114 S. Wales

38 N. Wales

35

1081

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As to the causes of action in the above suits, we see that the most prolific origin of litigation was, on account of “goods sold and delivered," (135.) Next comes ejectment, (131.) Then special contracts, (123.) Trespass on lands, &c., (90;) and notes and bills, (63.) For breach of promise of marriage, there were eleven actions brought; for seduction, 7; libel, 13; slander, 32; and assault, 30.

The proceedings of the Court of Error exhibit the following phenomena: Notices and Writs of Error

37 Set down for argument

26 Writs affirmed

14 Writs reversed

6 Remanets

8 As to appeals from the Court in Banco

The notices of appeals lodged were
Set down for argument

16
Affirmed

8
Reversed
Romanets

7 There are only two facts which we shall single out of the statistics relating to County Courts, for the purpose of impressing them upon

the reader's mind :-
Total amount for which Judgments were obtained £965,533
Total amount of Fees

219,931 This shows a most monstrous and cruel impost, on which comment is needless.

48

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