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15. Home puet fere arest en sa meson, Item.-Use est qe chescun home puet faire arest en sa meson pur sa rente ou ferme detenue, et retener la destresse tankil soit parpaiés, mes il ne menera pas la destresse hors de la franchise, et si il face, soit attaché al sute de partie, et mys à prison tankil

à avera fait gré à la comune pur

le trespas

fait vers la franchise et celui à kil ath trespacé.

16. Estrange en leu suspicionus. Item.-Use est qe si home estrange demurge en la vile en leu susspecionous, les jurés od le bailif demanderont son oste, si il le voile enperere que celui susspecionous se portera com lews home; et sil ce grante soit sufferte sa demure ou autrement voide il la vile deyuz iij jours. Et en cas de celui susspecionous die qil est home de bone fame et de bone condicion, ait il jour resonable à qere de son pais letre de bone conversacion south seal autentyk ou south xii seals de les plus vailous de la vile dount il est; et donk demurge en vile com home de bone fame et de bone condicion et autrement nyent.

17. De gage mys. Item. - Use est qe si gage soit mys à franch home ou à receant deynz la vile daqiter à certain jour et riens nest fait, il qath le gage en garde, après le dit jour pasé, vendra en court devant bailif et barons, et demandera agard de court kai il fyra od une tiel gage qil ath en sa garde, la quele devereit aver esté aquités à jour qe pasé est. Les barons dorrent pur lour agard quil face garner la partie à ses custages que mist le dit gage, quil vienge par entre ses viij iours daquiter son gage, ou il sera amené en pleyn court devant le dit bailif et barons et prise par porteis? et

1 We have not been able to find a satisfactory translation for the word porteis. In the English version of the Romney Custumal, given in Lyon's History of Dover Castle, the word which should correspond to this is left out. In old French, porteis, according to Roquefort, means portatif, portable; whence came the word porteous, portowis, portuis, portas, or porthose—an old term for the priest's breviary, or portable prayer-book. In Scotland, the same word was lord of fee for the lands and tenements which are within the franchise; but there shall be paid only a rent-seck at the terms when the same is due.

1

before the bailiff and barons in full court, and then appraised by - and the defendant shall have the whole day to redeem his pledge ; and, in case that he come not at the said day, let it be delivered to the party plaintiff for his debt. And, if the price of the said pledge amounts to more than the debt due to him, let the plaintiff find pledges to the bailiff and barons to cause the surplus of the price to be delivered to the defendant at whatsoever time he chooses to claim it, and in that case no amercement lies.

18. Recognizance in Court. Item. It is used, that if A. de B. come into court before the bailiff and barons, and acknowledges that he is bound to C. de F. in £10, more or less, to be paid on a certain day, or to keep such a covenant, or whatsoever kind of recognizance it may be, the court shall cause the recognizance to be entered in their rolls, he paying the clerk for his trouble. And, albeit. that the said A. de B. at another time wishes to deny it, the said recognizance shall be held against him. And, if he be a stranger who makes such à recognizance in the court, and hath not wherewith to make satisfaction in the town, the jurats, at the suit of the party, shall write to whomsoever is bailiff, or some good man of the town or city in which he resides, or where he is justiceable, and shall attest the said recognizance.

19. No fealty in the town. Item. It is used, that no fealty, relief, nor other suit, be made

a

to any

applied to “the list of the persons indicted to appear before the Justiciary Aire, given by the justice clerk to the coroner, that he might attach them, in order to their appearance.” (Jamieson-Scottish Dictionary, s. v. Porteous ; and see also the Supplement to that work.) Porteous, therefore, in its most general sense, seems to be an abbreviated roll, list, or index, taking its name from its portable character. Does porteis, in our Custumal, mean a list of prices—what we should at the present day call a “Price Current ?”

mise à vente; et sil ne vienge par entre le dit jour, ou à le dit jour son gage daquiter, soit à dit jour le gage amené devant bailif et barons en pleyn court, et ilak par porteis prise, et le defendant avera tote jour son gage daquiter; et en cas qil ne vienge à dit jour seit deliveré al partie plentif pur sa dette. Et si le pris de dit gage amounte outre la dette à lui due, trove le plentif plegges as bailif et barons à fere delivère de le surplus de pris à le defendaunt à quele houre qil ceo voile pursure. Et en ceo caas ne gist nule amerciement.

18. Reconusance en court. Item.-Use est que si A. de B. vienge en court devant bailif et barons et reconuse quil est tenu à C. de F. en x l. plus ou meyns à paier à certeyn jour, ou à tener un tiel covenant ou quel manere reconysance quil soit, la court fera entrer en lour roles la reconusance paiont à le clerk soun travail. Et tut seit que le dit A. de B. autrefoitz le voit dedire, la dite reconysance lui sera encountre. Et si il soit home estrange que face tiel reconnysance en la court, et nath per kay estere justifié en la vile, les jurés à la sute de partie deyvent escrire à kiconque bailif ou bone gent de la vile ou cité quil est demurant, ou justizable, et tesmoigner la dite reconysance.

19. Nul féauté en ville. Item.—Use est que nule féauté, relef, ne autre sute soit fait à nul seigneur de fee pur les teres et tenemens que sount deyns la franchise; mes paier tant soulement rente sek à tearmes dues

à eux.

[To be Continued.]

ART. IV.-TRIAL BY JURY.

"L

1. The Dark Side of Trial by Jury. By JOSEPH BROWN, Esq.,

of the Middle Temple. London: Maxwell, 1859. 2. Unanimity in Trial by Jury Defended. By G. ROCHFORT

CLARKE, Esq., of the Inner Temple. London: Stevens and
Norton, 1859.
ET us, then, magnify trial by jury! No man can say too

much in its favour!” Such is the gushing and enthusiastic exclamation of Mr. Rochfort Clarke. “I arraign trial by jury at the bar of public opinion. I accuse it of incapacity, of ignorance, of partiality, of cumbersomeness, of barbarism.” So writes Mr. Joseph Brown, at page seven of his pamphlet. Now each of these gentlemen practises at the common law bar-each has had long experience as a special pleader, and they both belong to the same circuit. They have had, therefore, and still enjoy, similar opportunities of forming a deliberate and careful judgment concerning the tribunal, the merits of which they have discussed in the pamphlets above mentioned. The result is, one learned lawyer pronounces an unmeasured eulogy on it in all its aspects and relations; the other condemns it absolutely as a monstrous folly, and a mischievous relic of barbarism.

When, of two intelligent, experienced, and honest men, the one can see nothing but good in an institution with which they are both familiar, and the other nothing but evil, the phenomenon is worth observing for its own sake. It serves, moreover, to illustrate the general character of that class of conflicts of opinion which concern social institutions, and on which the weight of authority and dogma is always brought to bear, and sometimes assumed to be conclusive.

The questions relating to the tribunal of trial by jury are about to undergo, as it seems to us, the process now termed “ ventilation;" and there will be exhibited, therefore, to the

public the spectacle of a certain number of learned (and still more of unlearned) men supporting opposite sides, drawing adverse conclusions from the same premises, or discarding one class of facts whilst they exaggerate the importance of others ; and the discussion will naturally excite the usual amount of prejudice and bias on the one side, and temerity and experimental essay on the other. The excuse for this treatment of political and social topics, when under public discussion, appears to be that, in point of fact, no step in life, and no measure relating to human affairs, can be taken to which some objection cannot be raised, or the possibility of evil consequences ensuing not be foreseen. Rash innovation, again, produces persistent obstinacy; a bad reason for a good measure generates indifferent arguments for maintaining an imperfect system. Moreover, the logical weighing of advantages and disadvantages, the impartial watching of the balance of reason, even when self-interest does not come into play, is the result of an uncommon exercise of the rarest of all faculties—a sound judgment. As a general rule, differences of opinion create parties; and when once men have become partisans, persuasion is of course out of the question. Invective takes the place of reason-stubbornness is resorted to as a defence-blindness, hardness of heart, and all uncharitableness, flourish ; and the partisan then becomes a slave to a dogma, and a mere repetition machine of routine plausibilities. If the dispute on the jury system proceeds in a normal fashion, we believe Mr. G. Rochfort Clarke will be found soon prepared to die happy, upon his being convicted of a capital crime by a jury of twelve men; whilst Mr. Joseph Brown would surrender, in the pious ecstasy of martyrdom, the bar, and all its present profits and promises for the future, on the condi·tion of an educated, trained, and model bench of judices sentencing him to penal servitude for the term of his natural life. The disciples also of those excellent lawyers (independently of being their juniors, and willing to undertake the professional labours which would devolve upon the rest of the profession if the criminal law were put in force as above

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