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catum eorum, super forisfacturam x li.” And also, he shall make satisfaction to him upon whom he made the wrongful execution. 15.—A man may make seizure in his house.

I tem.——It is used that each man may make seizure in his house for his rent or farm withheld, and retain the distress until he be paid ; but he shall not carry the distress out of the franchise, and if he do so, let him be attached at the suit of the party, and put in prison until he shall have made satisfaction to the commonalty for the trespass done to the franchise, and him against whom he hath trespassed.

16.—Strangers in a suspicious place.

Item.---It is used that if a strange man dwell in the town in a. suspicious place, the jurats and the bailifl' shall demand of his host if he will engage that this suspicious person shall bear himself as a lawful man ; and if he grant this, then let his residence be allowed, or otherwise let him leave the town in three days. And, in case that this suspicious person say that he is a man of good fame, and of good condition, let him have a reasonable day to get from his country a letter of good conversation under an authentic seal, or under twelve seals of the most responsible men of the town from whence he is ; and then let him dwell in the town as a man of good fame and of good condition, and otherwise not.

17.—Of pledge given.

Item.—It is used, that if a pledge be given to a free man or a dweller in the town, to be redeemed at a certain day, and nothing be done ; he that hath the pledge in keeping after the said day is passed, shall come into court before the bailiff and barons, and shall demand the award of the court as to what he shall do with such a pledge, which he hath in his keeping, the which ought to have been redeemed at a day that ispast. The barons shall give as their award, that he cause the party to be warned (at his cost who gave the pledge), that he come within his eight days to redeem his pledge, or it will be brought into full court before the said bailiff and barons, and appraised by , and put up to sale ; and, if he come not within the said day, or at the said day, to

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-redeem his pledge, at the said day let the pledge be brought

15. Home puet fere arest en sa meson.

I tem.—Use est qe chescun home puet faire arest en sa meson pur sa. rente ou ferme detenue, et retener la. destresse tankil soit parpaiés, mes il ne menera. pas la destresse hors de la franchise, et si il face, soit attaché al sute de partie, et mys à prison tankil avera. fait gré à la comune pur le trespas fait vers la. franchise et celui à kil ath trespacê.

16. Estrange en leu suspicionus.

I tem.—Use est qe si home estrange demurge en la vile en leu susspecionous, les jurés ocl le bailif demanderont son oste, si il le voile enperere que celui susspecionous se portera. com lews home ; et sil ce grante soit sufïerte sa demure ou autrement voide il la vile deynz iij jours. Et en cas qe celui susspecionous die qil est home de bone fame et de bone condicion, ait il jour resonable à qere de son pais letre de bone conversacion south seal autentyk ou south xii seals de les plus vailous de la. vile dount il est; et donk demurge en vile com home de bone fame et de bone coudicion et autrement nyent.

17. De gage mys.

I tem-Use est qe si gage soit mys à {ranch home ou ï receant deynz la vile daqiter à. certain jour et riens nest fait, il qath le gage en garde, après le dit jour pasé, vendra en court devant bailif et barons, et demandera agard de court kai il fyra. od une tiel gage qil ath en sa garde, la quele devereit aver esté aquités à. jour qe pasé est. Les barons dorrent pur lour agard quil face garner la. partie à. ses custages que mist le dit gage, quil vienge par entre ses viij iours daquiter son gage, ou il sera. amené en

pleyn court devant le dit bailif et barons et prise par porteis 1 et before the bailiff and barons in full court, and then appraised by , and the defendant shall have the whole day to redeem his pledge; and, in case that he come not at the said day, let it be delivered to the party plaintiff for his debt. And, if the price of the said pledge amounts to more than the debt due to him, let the plaintiff find pledges to the bailiff and barons to cause the surplus of the price to be delivered to the defendant at whatsoever time he chooses to claim it, and in that case no

1 We have not been able to find a satisfactory translation for the word portais. In the English version of the Romney Custumal, given in Lyon's History of Dover Castle, the word which should correspond to this is left. out. In old French, portais, according to Roquefort, means portatif; portable ; whence came the word porieous, portowis, pertuis, portns, or porthose-an old tenu for the priest.’s breviary, or portable prayer-book. In Scotland, the same word was

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amercement lies.
18. Recognizance in Court.

lte-m.—It is used, that if A. de B. come into court before the bailiff and barons, and acknowledges that he is bound to C. de F. in £10, more or less, to be paid on a certain day, or to keep such a covenant, or whatsoever kind of recognizance it may be, the court shall cause the recognizance to be entered in their rolls, he paying the clerk for his trouble. And, albeit. that the said A. dc B. at another time wishes to deny it, the said recognizance shall be held against him. And, if he be a stranger who makes such a recognizance in the court, and hath not wherewith to make satisfaction in the town, the jurats, at the suit of the party, shall write to whomsoever is bailiff, or some good man of the town or city in which he resides, or where he is justiceable, and shall attest the said recognizance.

19. No fealty in the town.

Item.—-It is used, that no fealty, relief, nor other suit, be made to any lord of fee for the lands and tenements which are within the franchise; but there shall be paid only a rent-seek at the terms when the same is due. applied to “the list of the persons indicted to appear before the J usticiary Aire, given by the justice- clerk to the coroner, that he might attach them, in order to their appearance.” (Jamieson—Scottish Dictionary, s. v. Porteous; and see also the Supplement to that work.) Porteous, therefore, in its most general sense, seems to be an abbreviated roll, list, or index, taking its name

from its portable character. Does porteis, in our Custumal, mean a list of prices—-what we should at the present day call a “ Price Current 2 ”

mise à vente; et sil ne vienge par entre le dit jour, ou à le dit jour son gage daquiter, soit à. dit jour le gage amené devant bailif et barons en pleyn court, et ilak par porteis prise, et le defendant avera. tote jour son gage daquiter; et en cas qi} ne vienge ‘a ditjour seit deliveré al partie plentif pur sa. dette. Et si le pris de dit gage amounte outre la dette à lui due, trove le plentif plegges as bailif et barons à fere delivère de le surplus de pris à. le defen

daunt à queIe houre qil ceo voile pursure. Et en ceo caas ne gist nule amerciement.

18. Reconusance en court. _

I tem.-—Use est que si A. de B. vienge en court devant bailif et barons et reconuse quil est tenu à, C. de F. en x l. plus ou meyns à paier à certeyn jour, ou à, tener un tiel covenant ou quel manere reconysance quil soit, la. court fera entrer en lour roles la reconusance paient à, le clerk soun travail. Et tut seit que le dit A. de B. autrefoitz le Voit dedire, la dite reconysance lui sera. encountre. Et si il soit home estrange que face tiel reconnysance en 1a. court, et nath per kay estere justifié en la vile, les jurés à la sute de partie deyvent escrire à kiconque bailif ou bone gent de la. vile ou cité quil est demurant, ou justizable, et tesmoigner la dite reconysance.

19. N ul féauté en ville.

Ite1n.—Use est que nule féauté, relef, ne autre sute soit fait à nul seigneur de fee pur les teree et tenemens que sount deyns la franchise ; mes paier tant seulement rente sek à tearmes dues à. eux. '

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ART. IV.——TRIAL BY JURY.

l. The Dark Side of Trial by Jury. By JOSEPH BROWN, Esq., of the Middle Temple. London: Maxwell, 1859.

2. Unanimity in Trial by Jury Defended. By G. ROCHFORT CLARKE, Esq., of the Inner Temple. London: Stevens and Norton, 1859.

“ ET us, then, magnify trial by jury I No man can say too much in its favour!” Such is the gushing and enthusiastic exclamation of Mr. Rochfort Clarke. “ I arraign trial by jury at the bar of public opinion. I accuse it of incapacity, of ignorance, of partiality, of cumbersomeness, of barbarism.” So writes Mr. Joseph Brown, at page seven of his pamphlet. Now each of these gentlemen practises at the common law bar—each has had long experience as a special pleader, and they both belong to the same circuit. They have had, therefore, and still enjoy, similar opportunities of forming a deliberate and careful judgment concerning the tribunal, the merits of which they have discussed in the pamphlets above mentioned. The result is, one learned lawyer pronounces an unmeasured eulogy on it in all its aspects and relations; the other condemns it absolutely as a monstrous folly, and a mischievous relic of barbarism.

When, of two intelligent, experienced, and honest men, the one can see nothing but good in an institution with which they are both familiar, and the other nothing but evil, the phenomenon is worth observing for its own sake. It serves, moreover, to illustrate the general character of that class of conflicts of opinion which concern social institutions, and on which the Weight of authority and dogma is always brought to bear, and sometimes assumed to be conclusive.

The questions relating to the tribunal of trial by jury are about to undergo, as it seems to us, the process now termed “ ventilation ;” and there will be exhibited, therefore, to the

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