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purpose of murdering young children ; and although these articles occasionally fail to effect this object, when the intent to destroy is proved, no doubt can exist but that their administration is felonious. If frequent recovery or instances of non-susceptibility could alter the character of the act of administration of any substance, no doubt the case recorded in the Medical Gazette (vol. 26), would have this effect in regard to pins and needles ; for here no less than 254 were removed from a woman's body, most of which had been there some thirteen years. She was fortunate, however, in the sticking of her pins, and in the mode in which the needles threaded their ways; for these useful little implements will sometimes penetrate the liver, carotid artery, or other equally important portion of the human frame. One old woman, for example (also an inhabitant of Essex), administered some pins to her grandchild eleven weeks old, one of which took up its abode altogether in its liver. This would have been fatal to the child, but its grandmother had also taken the precaution of causing it also to swallow some sponge and a piece of wood, to meet the contingency of the pins failing. This excellent woman was tried and acquitted by a Chelmsford jury !
And here we may remark on the vigilance which is requisite for a practitioner, when consulted on mysterious cases which often arise. The most improbable causes may be detected at times by his acuteness, though sometimes he may be utterly baffled. The death of an imbecile girl (reported in the Dublin Medical Press) is an instance of a patient puzzling the profession. She became emaciated, vomited, and could take no sustenance, and a tumour was formed in the pit of her stomach. After her death, but not till then, it was discovered that she had acquired a habit of swallowing her own hair, which had collected in her stomach and killed her. In another case (Philadelphia Medical Examiner, 1847), dangerous symptoms in a child were long unaccounted for, until it was discovered that the patient had taken a fancy to eat percussion caps. We are told, though we can hardly credit it, that “the caps were discharged and the child
recovered!" 1 We should have thought that the violent explosions in the child's intestines must have killed it.
The statistics of death by poison in England are derived from the Registrar-general's report, and are very interesting, though evidently imperfect. The average mortality calculated from 1848 to 1853) amounts to 536 per annum.
The death of the males is in great excess over that of the females every year, except in 1852, when the proportions are reversed in a manner most extraordinary, and totally unexplained.?
Assuming, with Dr. Taylor, that deaths ensue in not more than one case out of three of poisoning, we have about 1600 known cases of poisoning per annum. The statistics are, as we have said, undoubtedly imperfect; but they contain the best approximation we can arrive at as to the facts which render them useful.
There is another table, derived from the returns of the inquisitions held by the coroners of England and Wales, of deaths occurring by poison during the years 1837 and 18 3; but this makes it appear that there were about half the number of deaths by poison in 1837 that there were during a like period ten years later-a very improbable condition of circumstances. The coroners' returns, however, are useful as showing the comparative frequency in the use of various poisons. Thus:
Deaths during two years were occasioned by various
185 By sulphuric acid
32 By prussic acid
27 Hence, to opium we must refer the greater number of fatal poisonings; but of these the larger proportion arise from suicide or accident. Arsenic is the next common means of death in
1 Our contributor's mind must be perversely running on his gun-nipples, or he would perceive that there would be no known means of firing off percussion caps so located. He has curiously misunderstood the medical term employed !-(Editor.)
? We assume there is no misprint in the original returns, which are accurately repeated in Dr. Taylor's book.
England, and is the agent most generally employed for felonious purposes.
In France, arsenic is by far the most popular poison : its fatal employment equals that of all the rest put together; indeed, some authorities say two-thirds of the deaths by poison in France are to be attributed to this mineral. Opium seems to be comparatively rarely used by our neighbours for either felonious or suicidal purposes.
In Denmark, the national tendency appears to be towards vitriol -a most frightfully painful mode of exterminating life : it is employed chiefly by suicides and murderers of babies. Arsenic is the next in favour in Denmark.
Another table return gives the astonishing fact, that out of seventy-five cases of poisoning by opium, forty-two occurred in children under five years of age! Indeed, out of deaths from “improper administration of medicine" no less than three-fourths befall young children. This is a strong corroboration of a fact well known to medical men-the gross ignorance and stupid cruelty daily exercised upon the infantine world. Mothers and nurses between them destroy, directly and indirectly, a large proportion of the population annually boru into the world.
More women commit suicide by poison than men--the proportion being 87 to 74. More men, on the other hand, are, ly murder or accident, poisoned—the proportion being 107 to 81. The hospital statistics with regard to poisonings require some explanation, which we hope Dr. Taylor will afford in the next edition of his book ; for we see that of Guy's forty per cent. of the poisoned patients died-i. e., two out of five—wbilst at the Birmingham hospital only eight per cent., or one out of twelve, perish! Not only, however, are statistics, as here and as in various other instances, very anomalous and imperfect; but a strong impression is left on the mind, that through accident, ignorance, or villany, many cases of poisoning escape investigation and record. A nervous person might well feel alarmed at the perusal of Dr. Taylor's book. Supposing that he has no malicious
person domi. ciled with him, skilled in the art of despatching foes by the herbs
which grow around, or the drugs of the chemist's shop; yet the common soft water from the leaden cistern, as well as the costly old port-wine (decanted from the bottle whence all the shot had not been taken)-the metal vessels in which his food is cooked _the food itself by adulteration or error—the paper which brightens his walls, and the atmosphere which he inhales, may all contain latent weapons for his destruction. Poison, indeed, slays multitudes by modes unknown to themselves and neighbours. Dr. Taylor narrates that he nearly fell a victim to a baker. The morning rolls were observed to have something green sticking to the crust. The green was examined—it was only a little of the soft paint that came off from the shelf in the window. This paint on the bread only contained arsenic enough to have made the whole family capital illustrations for a posthumous edition of Dr. Taylor's book on poisons, under the head of accidental poisoning by arsenic.
With the spread of knowledge many accidents and mischiefs may be prevented, as well as many improper suspicions averted. Symptoms are now more generally able to be referred to the causes in operation, and remedies are also better understood than they formerly were, When the use of certain violent drugs was known only to the initiated few, it was possible for them, if diabolically minded, to dispense mysterious deaths without suspicion, or at least free from detection. Brinvilliers ran a successful career of murder, and Anna Maria Zwanziger (whose crimes are recorded by Feuerbach), moving amongst ignorant and unsuspicious families, dealt, for many successive years, murder as she list.
Indeed, there seems to be a stage in the career of the crime of poisoning when the process becomes one of peculiar fascination. It is carried on not merely for revengeful or covetous purposes, but in exercise of a secret power which gratifies the morbid soul
"A clerical friend of ours had recently prepared in a copper, during hard times, some extraordinary good soup for the poor. This charity had nearly conducted some two or three score of his parishioners to some one of the other worlds. Simultaneous sickness drew attention to the cause, which was—a dirty copper.
of the horrid practitioner. Cases are recorded where the suffering victim is nursed and wept over by the wretch whose hand is daily administering the fatal and agonizing doses. Arsenic Thugs have been far less common than one would suppose ; nor can the student of psychology have a more curious subject for his consideration than such an instance of perverted feeling.
The reports from our assizes occasionally contain particulars which, while one is astounded to think that these things can bethis cruelty, cunning, unnatural brutality, hardihood-suggest the unpleasant ideas that a large amount of undetected crime may possibly be committed in the centre of society. An eminent physician of our own days, and of very large practice, has said in relation to domestic crime of the nature we are referring to, not committed among the lower classes, that he only knew of two cases among his patients where he believed husbands and wives had poisoned each other. “Foul play” is, however, naturally found more rife among the lower, uneducated, and brutal classes, where life too is held cheap, and where we must fain believe not a few meet their deaths from causes which would admit of painful explanation, but the facts of which are never revealed.
There is one point in Dr. Taylor's book which we cannot help alluding to. We mean the controversial and personal tone which the author falls into too frequently-unless indeed it is unavoidable. In the present state of the practice of experts, and the morale of “professional witnesses,” it may be true that an upright and honourable mind cannot avoid taking every opportunity of bitterly denouncing the abuse of scientific knowledge, and the disregard of the responsible office of assisting public justice, and securing private rights. Yet we wish the frequency of the attack and exposure of the conduct of certain wellknown professional men, were not so perpetually recurring, and so broadly put forth. We are far from saying that the author condemns unfairly ; but is it necessary in a standard work to adopt the bitter and pointed language which we are now noticing? We are fully aware of the evils he complains of; indeed, in an article in the Law Magazine for August, 1856 (“The Evidence in