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Photo by Frank M. Chapman SPOONBUL, AND YOUNG IN SEST: TUMLUUA LAGOON (SEE PAGE 544) of the western varieti ) told us that the loor leaning against their one opening, fauna as well as flora had changed. vere passed at intervals.

At our apToward mid-day the trail took the crest proach their owners promptly disapof the thin ridge between the deep Ja- peared within, and although our passmapa and Tlacotiopa barrancas. Dense ing greeting was usually answered, the clouds were below as well as above us. speaker was unseen, but we could almost IVe seemed to be climbing a knife-edge feel the questioning look of at least one through space. Reaching level ground pair of cyes. They were rather an aton what might have been another planet. iractive-looking people, with the ruddy we camped for the night. Shortly we olive complexion one finds among the were visited by a group of seemingly Indians of high altitudes. pure-blooded Indian bois from neigh At about 9,000 feet we reached the boring cabins or jacales, who appeared upper limit of corn, and in consequence as much excited by our


the upper limit of human habitation. Bethough we had come from another planet. yond this point only goatherds and iceParticularly were they interested in l'at miners were encountered.

At the same terson's masterly handling of flapjacks, time we entered the outskirts of the doubtless to them a kind of glorified tor coniferous forests of the Boreal Zone. tilla, and we ourselves were not without

PERPETUAL TROPICAL, WINTER admiration of his skill, and especially its productiveness.

I few outlying short-leaved pines

(Pinus monteune) had been seen as WIKTION TU CLOUDS

low as 5,700 feet, and the pine forests We awoke in the clouds and all day descended at least as low as 8,000 feet. they hung closely about us. lluts of

\t 9.300 feet we encountered the first hewn boards roofed with split shingles, spruce (. lbics religiosa), convincing eviwithout windows, and with an unhinged dence of the boreal character of our sur

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roundings, and at 9,500 feet we camped dently creates such favorable conditions in a superb primeval forest of pines, of humidity for these epiphytes that they spruce, and oak. The pines (Pinus mon have adapted themselves to a much lower tecuma and P. liophylla) compared fa- temperature than they could endure under vorably in size with those of the Cali dryer conditions. fornia Sierras, while some of the oaks, At night, enshrouded by the now chilly locally termed “encimos," we estimated to mist, we sat closely around our camp-fire be 130 feet in height, with a basal diam- discussing the prospects of better weather, eter of 6 feet.

when, doubtless through a change in the I singularly incongruous tropical note direction of the wind, by us unnoticed, in this Alpine forest was the presence of the clouds with surprising suddenness Spanish “moss” (Tillandsia), which in disappeared, and almost as quickly as one places heavily draped the trees, and crim- would turn on a light the once ghostly son-spiked "wild pines,” which in abun forest was brightly illumined by the rays dance grew from favorable root-holds on of a full moon! The effect was thrilling, their branches. The high degree of mois but when we looked upward through the ture prevailing in this zone of clouds evi- pines and saw, impressively near, the




51011-crown of Orizaba gleaming bril were still large, vigorous trees and there liantly; serenely in the moonlight, we was no apparent reason why they should lere overpowered by an emotion which not have continued to appear for at least for a moment leit is speechless.

another thousand feet; but, if unseen, the The weather had cleared and in a man law that controls their distribution was ner which made the experience the most not the less potent. Shortly they were memorable one


our journey: The fo! followed by the long-leaved pine (Pinus lowing morning was cloudless, and as a liophylla), and only the short-leaved pine reminder that ive were in the Tierra Fria reached the upper limit of tree-growth. the mercury stood at 31° and ice formed Camp was made at 12,600 feet, in an in pools left by the rain.

ill-selected spot, where, after sunset, the When contemplation of Orizaba per vind swept down off the great snowmitted we could 1011 take some account fields above us and we could actually see of surroundings. The ridge between the mercury in our thermometer fall. In the barrancas had narrowed again and on 30 minutes it dropped 28°—from 48° to each side we could hear the roar of the and at 6 o'clock the following mornover-filled streams tearing down their ing it registered 12°. Lack of suitable rocky bottoms, 1,500 feet below us. clothing, though we had prepared for

reasonably cold weather, and the sudden

ness of the change gave us, in spite of a Birds were common, casily observed, camp-lire, a realizing sense of what it and of absorbing interest. One may read means actually to suffer with cold. Six of the occurrence of such typically boreal hours later the sun temperature was 112°, species as evening grosbeaks and cross and, suffering now from the heat, we bills in the latitude of lexico City withi endeavored to adjust ourselves to a variaout discounting the impression created by 11on of 100 degrees in six hours. actually seeing them there. Brown creep

JLISTER OF THE MOUNTAIN ers (Certhia), nuthatches (Sitta pygmacul and S. carolincisis mericana). chicka long before daylight, on this wakeful (lees (Penthestes meridionalis). water night, we heard the tread of sandaled feet ousels, juncos. (mco phaconotus), sis and the sound of surprisingly cheerful, kins, ravens, and hairy Woodpeckers were laughing voices pass on the trail which other birds of northern origin seen about led up the mountain. Who these people or near our camp, while robins, bluebirds. were and where they were going was later and lickers served further to remind 115 explained to us by a visitor, who, armed of higher latitudes. More strictly indig - with an ancient rifle, politely introduced enous forms were olive, and red-faceri himself as “el dueno de la montaña”warblers and the large striped sparroll's the master of the mountain-and inti(Plagiospiza).

mated that in the performance of his \t an altitude of 10,000 feet we passer duty he would be grateful if we could is group of buildings locally known as El explain to him the object of our visit to Tacal, the home of a patriarchal goatherd this region in which strangers were rarely whose family appeared to be almost as seen. llere we Germans? he asked. No; numerous as his flocks. Here the traveler from the United States, we said. “Ah, from Coscomatepec to San Andres on the Englishmen," he replied, and we let it go table-land could lodge for the night. The at that. trij therefore may reaclily be made with He was the handsomest, most attracout other equipment than one could carry tive specimen of native manhood I have on his saddle, and I commend it to cleri eier set eves 011. I had an absurd desire one who would leave the tourist trail and in some way to "collect" him, and only a come into closer contact with Mexico realization of how sadly out of place he than is possible near the line of a railway. would be far from his own habitat re

11 11,500 feet the last spruces were strained me from the attempt. observed. \t their "timber-line" they Ilis conquest was completed by Patter



“One can actually stand in a tropical jungle, where parrots, trogons, toucans, and other equatorial birds are calling from the liana-draped trees, and look upward to forests of pines and spruce, where crossbills, juncos. pine siskins, and evening grosbeaks are among the common permanently resident species” (see text, pages 537 and 552).



“We camped in a superb primeval forest of pines, spruce, and oak. The pines (Pinus montezuma and l’liophylla) compared favorably in size with those of the California Sierras, while some of the oils, locally termed 'encimos,' we estimated to be 130 feet in height, with a basal diameter of 6 lect" (sce text, page 551).

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