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Photo from A. W. Cutler
TIIE ORPILANS TIAVE TILEIR NAP
Daily siesta of the little ones at La Beneficencia, one of the orphan asylums of Mexico. Mats are laid on the red-uiled floor of a cool corridor

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l'hoto and copyright by Underwood & Underwoodi A BUSY MART: 1 SCENT IN THE MARKET SOUARE IN MEXICO CITY ON IN ORDINARY

MORNING Most of the foodstuffs, such as vegetables, butter, fruit, and poultry, were brought to this market by farmers to supply the city. Note the high-crowned straw hats and the lankets used as overcoats.

VOL. XXV, No. 4

WASHINGTON

APRIL, 1914

THE
NATIONAL
GEOGRAPHIC
MAGAZINE

CASTLES IN THE AIR

Experiences and Journeys in Unknown Bhutan

BY JOHN CLAUDE WHITE, C. I. E. LATE POLITICAL OFFICER IN CHARGE OF SIKKIM, BITUTIN, UND Such PIRTS ON TIBET us FELL WITHIN TIN; SPHERE OF BRITISII INFLUENCE.

AUTHOR OF “SIKKIM AND BHUTAN".

With Photographs by the Jutlior

T HAS been my good fortune to have Mr. W. Paul, and on meeting Sir had exceptional facilities for explor- (gyen for the first time in the Chumbi

ing the hitherto very little known, Valley, at time of the Lhasa Expedition, but most interesting, native state of Bhu our acquaintance ripened into firm friendtan, which lies in the heart of the Hima- ship on both sides. laya Mountains, on their southern slopes, He extended to me a most pressing inabout 250 miles northeast of Calcutta vitation to visit his country, and when I (for map see page 457).

was able to do so, a little later on, he Though naturally an unruly and turbu gave me every possible assistance, and lent country, there had been no raids into consequently «luring the several journeys British territory for many years, owing I made there I was enabled to see everyto the good government and strength of thing of interest and to gather informacharacter of the present ruler, now la tion otherwise impossible to procure. Sir haraja Sir Ugyen Wang-chuk, K, C. S.I., Ugyen, his council

, the Deb Raja, and all K. Č. I. E. By correspondence I had the lamas (monks ) combined to make my kept up the friendly intercourse begun visits both most interesting and enjoyable by my predecessor and friend, the late and treated me royally throughout.

*The first of my journeys into Bhutan was Chungkar. Tashi-gong. Tashiyangtsi, across toward the end of 1905, when I made my way the Dong-la to Lhuntsi; Pangkha, Singhi-jong, down the Am-mo-chu Valley from Chumbi to and across the Bad-la into Tibet. the plains of India. In the following spring In 1907 a formal intimation was conveyed I was sent by the government of India to pre to the government of India that Sir Ugren sent the insignia of a Knight Commander of Wang-chuki K. C. I. E., the Tongsa Penlop, the Indian Empire to the Tongsa Penlop, and was about to be installed as gjalpo (king), or to do this I traveled from my headquarters, Maharaja of Bhutan, and this was the residency at Gangtok, in Sikkim, crossing panied by a pressing invitation that I should the Natu-la Pass to Chumbi via Hah, Paro, personally be present, and to my great gratiTashi-cho-jong to Poonakla, and on to Tongsa fication I was deputed head of a mission repand Byagha, and on my return journey from resenting the government of India at the cereTashi-cho-jong northward up the valley of the

The mission traveled through Phari. Tchin-chu into Tibet.

in the Chumbi Valley; across the Temo-la to On another occasion I marched along the Paro, and by my old route to Poonakha, and boundary between British India and Bhutan then leaving my escort and companions. I reand from Dorunga across the Dangna-chu to turned by a new and unknown route via Bite Kanga and up the Kuru River. In the same Jong and Dungna-Jong to Jaigoan, in the year I also traveled from Dewangiri through plains of India (see map, page +57).

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TIL FIRST LIRGE BRIDGE WT CROSSED AFTER ENTERING BILUTIN It is built of squared pine logs, on the cantilever principle. I wooden shingle rooi protects the timber from the elements and the ends are guarded by blockhouses. The cold was so great that this rushing torrent was frozen in a single night (see text, page 370).

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