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| SOURCE OF PUNGIT LITECTION Thiese holes in the bamboo house-supports in Manila were found to afford shelter and nesting places for rats, and so became dangerous to the public health of the city, for bubonic plaglie is transmitted by Acas carried 01 rats. How tliis danger was removed is shown in the picture on page 35-4.

REDEEVING THE TROPICS

353

In 1900

cas

majority must have been directly or in- had the disease. In Colombia 90 per cent directly victims of malaria.

of the people living between sea-level and Lut where steps as stern against ma the 3.000-foot leve were sulering from laria are taken as are required for the it. Fifty per cent of the people in British eradication of yellow fever, the results Guiana are said to be atllicted. Not less are magnificent. In Italy an anti-mala than 1,86°,200 of the people of India are rial campaign cut down the number of reported as having the clisease, and in the deaths from 16,000 a year to 4,000.

In southern part of China it is estimated that Greece, on the plains of Marathon, in three out of four people are sur'erers. 1900), 90 per cent of the sickness was due The economic loss involved is peyond to malaria ; in 1908 only 2 per cent of

estimate. In l'orto Rico the physically the sickness was due to it.

sound colice-picker picks from 500 to The wonderful results attained in 600 measures of coffee a day; scores of fighting malaria at Ismailia, on the Suez those sutiering from hookworm (lisease Canal, surpasses anything that has been can pick only from 100 to 250 measures done in any part of the world.

a day. In some regions it is estimated there were 2,284 cases of malaria in that that not more than 33 per cent of the town. Sir Ronald Ross was called there natual efficiency of any force of men to consider methods of banishing the lis can be exercised because of the terrible ease, and laid out a program in that di problem of hookworm disease. rection. In 1901 the number of cases fell

let hoolivorm disease is about the to 1,990; in 1902 to 1,551 ; in 1904 to 90 ; most easily mastered of all the diseases in 1905 to 37. Since that time there have in the category. Its cause is easily dembeen 10

reported except such as onstrable to the lawmen, even to the igwere infected before visiting Ismailia. norant layman, because he can see, withiThe malarial mosquito was absolutely ex out the aid of a microscope, the little terminated there--something which prol- hair-line worms that cause it

. Its spread ably has not been done in any other part is easily checked, because the wearing of of the earth.

shoes and a little care against soil polluOne might go ou indefinitely citing tion is all that is clemanded. where cities and districts have

1 SEVILLE 117) FIST CURE arisen in their might to put an end to malaria and with magic results.

It is easily cured, because in most cases

simply a dose of epsom salts, followed by LIOOKWORM DISEASE VIVOUISITED a dose of thinol, and that in tun bı anIf vast consequences have grown out other dose of salts, is effective. Thymol of the solution of the mysteries of yellow

made from the theme of the garden, fever and malaria, they are probably no

and is just about as simple and as harmgreater than are destined to come to the

less in its action as the epsom salts. If

the first treatment does not answer, the people of tropic and semi-tropic regions

second one usually will. Furthermore, through the mastery of the hookworm.

the disease is one that lends itself adTround the earth there stretches a belt

mirably to the getting of quick results. 60 degrees wide, embracing +7 countries

It converts a lazy, sickly, good-for-nothand an area of 15 million square miles, ing boy or girl into a sprightly, energetic in which there lives a population of one in the course of a few weeks. nearly a billion people. This belt is the That has been the secret of a major hookivorm belt of the world.

portion of the success of the Rockefeller cases of this distressing and strength Sanitary Commission in its work of ridWrecking disease there are in this vast ding the South from the disease. The territory cannot be estimated with any results were

so striking that the States degree of approximation.

and the counties were glad to help along In 1904 some 90 out of every 100 of the task. Tens of thousands of so-called the working population of Porto Rico "poor white traslı" have been cured of it,

cases

is

How many

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I'RITENTING PLIGUE IN MANILA In order to guard against infection spread by rats, the sanitary authorities of Manila organized a special corps whose duty was to seal with cement all openings which could serve as rat refuges. Compare photo on page 352.

REDEEMING THE TROPICS

355

from 700

and the results are so visible that the and several times running past their dework is spreading everywhere. The fight fenses. But they have kept hammering of the commission and its forces is to es away year in and year out, and have set tablish sanitary privies in the country, a record in public sanitation there that is and to teach the children and their par a fit companion-piece to the work at Panents that either the prevention of soil pol- ama and Porto Rico. lution or the wearing of shoes will pre They have cut down the number of vent the disease, and that both together new cases of leprosy each

year insures one against it.

to 200, and have reduced the number of The remaining problem is one of get- lepers in the island from 5,000 to 2,000. ting the people who have the disease to They had a hand in proving that beriberi take the salts-thymol course of medicine. is a disease caused by a prolonged dict of In Porto Rico, Dr. Bailey K. Ashford and polished rice. The phosphorous in the his associates have cured well nighı half pericarp of the rice is needed by the sysa million cases, and the work is still going tom and its absence is responsible for the on to the extent of some twenty thou disease. Chickens fed constantly on polsand cases a year.

ished rice contract the disease, while those The entire work of Dr. Ashford in fed upon unhulled rice never do. But Porto Rico lias been a wonderful suc perhaps the most striking achievement in cess. He went there with a death rate the Philippines has been the practical as high as that at Panama. The people abolition of smallpox. When we went were hopelessly ignorant, wholly indiffer into the Philippines there were 40,000 ent to sanitation, and without a single deaths a year from the disease, where idea of the cause of ordinary diseases today there are only about 300 a year. that are contracted by infection. But Vaccination triumphed. with all that, the principles of sanitary science that were laid down in Cuba tri

THE NEW ERA umplied in Porto Rico as brilliantly as

Throughout the latitudes where insectthey have triumphed anywhere else in the

borne diseases reign a new sentiment has world. Notwithstanding the fact that

arisen which promises, under the stress they were handicapped for funds and had hookworm disease added to their list of persistent campaigns of education, to of troubles, Dr. Ashford and his aides

sink deep into the public mind. Its motto

is the banishment of these diseases. were able to bring about a death rate that is lower than that of Panama itself today.

The fundamental principles of the fight

are expressively laid down in simple WONDERFUL RESULTS IN THE PHILIPPINES

terms ke these: "No mosquitoes, 110 maWhat happened in Porto Rico finds laria, 10 yellow fever, no dengue. No something of a counterpart in the Phil- fleas, no bubonic plague ; no licc, 110 tyippines. When the Americans took pos- plus; no tsetse fly, no sleeping sickness; session of Manila the death rate averaged no ticks, no spotted fever." Wherever 46.II a thousand during a period of four governments have power to get back of years. By strenuous work and a faith these campaigns and compel the people ful adherence to the principles of sanita- willy-nilly to adopt the proper measures, tion there were laid down in Cuba, the remarkable results can be obtained. death rate has been forced down until it Not only does sanitary science open up is now about 35 per thousand.

the tropics for the benefit of man himself, A death rate reduced in the same pro

but for his domestic animals as well. portion in the United States, with our When the United States took over the present population, would mean a saving Philippines there had been introduced a of 1,100,000 lives annually in this coun terrible epidemic among cattle, carabao. try. They were able over there to make and horses. The disease promptly was a showing of a death rate of only 4.84 diagnosed as the terrible rinderpest. It per thousand among the emplovees of the killed untold thousands of head of horses, Philippine government. They had chol cattle, and carabao, in some places nine era knocking at their doors all the time out of every ten dying from the disease.

[graphic]

Photo from Catholic Foreign Missionary Society of America

MISSION IRIES TIGIITLIG TIIT PLICIE
“When we see Naples, in the seventeenth century, as helpless as a new-born babe in the grip of a plage during which 380,000 souls perisheel
in six months; whien we see Constantinople, in 1812, with 144,000 deaths; when we see London, in the clans on the great plague, with 70,000 Tits

pulation carried 11: wenu back to China no locale a sew short perills in the fourteenth century will it liluk deutli' mortality record 13 million Sus;

n, till lie Can Welgin 10 apreciate what it all means (SCCP 3.1.

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