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His efforts were rewarded with suc which he has christened the "typhoid fly," cess. He proved beyond every perad- constantly furnishes free transportation venture that the Anopheles mosquito is for germs that are seeking an entrance to the intermediate host, and that no one some human system. We know how can contract malaria except he be bitten much water has to do with its disseminaby a mosquito which has previously bit tion, from the fact that in cities in Euten a person suffering from that disease. rope where there is a perfect water sup

In telling of his achievement, Ross de- ply the number of cases is seldom above clared: “The exact route of infection of ten per hundred thousand people, and in this great disease, which annually slays America seldom above twenty per hunits millions of human beings and keeps dred thousand, while in cities where there whole continents in darkness, was is impure tap water the rate goes up to vealed. The minute spores enter the sal two hundred and even three hundred per ivary gland of the mosquitoes and pass hundred thousand population. It has with its poisonous saliva directly into the come now to be accepted by sanitarians blood of man. Never in our dreams had

that in any average city of considerable we imagined so wonderful a tale as this.” population and ordinary sanitary regula

But even Ross little dreamed when he tions all sickness from typhoid fever over made his great discovery that the won twenty cases per hundred thousand inderful tale his astute mind had unfolded habitants is attributable to the water. was to be but the beginning of a long How much the fly has to do with the series of related discoveries which would spread of the disease is illustrated by the end entirely humanity's helplessness in experience of the army encampment at the face of epidemic diseases.

Jacksonville during the Spanish-AmerThe medical world had hardly ceased ican War. The lime that was carried on to wonder at the work of Ross when the feet of the flies from the latrines to Reed, Carroll, and Lazear, of the U. S. the mess-tables showed that nearly all of Army Medical Corps, proved–Lazear at the hundreds of cases of typhoid that inthe cost of his life and Carroll at the cost fested the camp were caused by germs of a severe spell of yellow fever—that carried to the food of the men from the the Stegomyia mosquito plays the same latrines. The fly has been caught red role with yellow jack that the Anopheles landed in divers instances. Some of does with malaria.

them have been permitted to walk over

infected material and then to walk over HOW MOSQUITOS, RATS, AND FLIES SPREAD

culture plates. In

every case almost DISEASE

every point on which they set their feet Then came others with their discover- brought forth a colony of typhoid germs. ies that bubonic plague is transmitted by In other cases flies have been caught and fleas carried on rats and ground-squir- given a bath in sterile water, with the rels; that sleeping sickness is carried and result that a single bath has brought a transmitted only by the tsetse-fly; that hundred thousand germs from the body dengue is carried by other species of and legs of one fly. mosquitoes, and more recently that the body louse is the culprit which carries

THE SAD HISTORY OF "TYPHOID JARY” typhus from man to man.

There is one class of people who are a Likewise has our increasing knowledge permanent menace to humanity. About of the principles of the spread of typhoid 21% per cent of those who contract tyfever led us to the point where the only phoid fever live to become germ carriers. reason we contract it is because some one The germs like them so well that they has been careless with the excreta that agree to dwell in peace and harmony comes from persons having typhoid in with their hosts; but as they go about their systems. We know that milk they spread a trail of typhoid fever. An frequent vehicle of infection. We know, illustration of this is to be had in the through the researches of Dr. Howard case of that celebrated woman, "Typhoid and his associates, that the house-fly, Mary." She had suffered an attack of


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lyphoid fever, bui gol lell. Then she

campaigns to master dysentery and cholreturned to her duties its it cool. Six era that they are almost as serviceable in cases of the discasc brolie out in the

the tropics as they are in the temperate family, and she left and was lost sight

The fly carries the germ of cholvi for a long time. Although Dr. Super cra andi of dysentery just as it carries the vied to trace her, it was not uutil i long germ of typhoid. These germs use the lime wterward that she was found same vehicles and travel in the same genthis time in service in a family in a small cral way from the intestines of one pertown in New Jersey. Then her history son to the mouth of another. las traced, and it was found that during The sum of all of these discoveries is We ume betree! her 1110 appearances that they place in the hands of mankind She had cooked in five other homes, and the poirer to overcome the most terrible in cach and every one she give the in diseases with which the tropical world mates the disease-27 cases in all.

has been afflicted. TITITOII) VICCISATION

CAPITILIZING THE DISCOVERIES But while all sorts of prevention in .Ind 1011, having looked far into the the line of sanitation help to check the past to see the last need there has been spread of the discase, the final bloll was for such discoveries, and into recent hisgiven to it by the discovery of the prin tory 10 learn something of how they were ciple of inoculation for iphoid. The made, let 11s journey around the tropical germs of lyphoid are grown in beef world today and see how they are being broth, and when they number millions applied. for ciery thimbleful of the broth they Of course, llego first to Panama, for are killed by the application of heat. The there they are being applied on a scale

lead germs are then injected into the that is extensive and with a thoroug11box with a hypordermic syringe and ness that shows the possibilities of such three doses of these dead gerns are application. Indeed, no factor for putting nearly always enough to make the loc the nell science of tropical medicine to immune from the invasion of live germs: the most rigid test is wanting there. perhaps because they do not like to dwell Before the l'nited States took control amid the sepulchers of their race:

and Colonel Gorgias began to apply the The success of vaccination for typhoid lessons that had been learned in Cuba, has been remarkable. Tu tie history of yellow fever was endemic, malaria alhundreds of thousands of cases onli il most universal, bubonic plague not era third as

many vaccinated people have ceptional and smallpox not infrequent contracted the disease is uaccinated in its Occurrence. Things had been so people. Furthermore, the clisease termi bad that they defeated the French in mates fatally only a third as many times their efforts io clig the Panama Canal, with vaccinated people as with unacci and when the despair of the bubble-burst mated ones. In other words. Vaccination boom day's settled like a night over the guinst typhoid divides the chances of wrecked hopes of the French failure, dying from the disease by telie.

conditions gren eren worse. Typhoid fever, however, is not so much

Colon as

il silampy mire of filth of a tropical scourge. It does flourish in which bade warm welcome to crery gerni semi-tropical countries and among white that came along, and extended hearty people who go to the tropics. The na hospitality to every mosquito and flea tives seem to be rather immune from it, that traveled that var; bidding them all mavhap because the typhoid germ re 10 "be fruitful and multiply"—an invitafuses to dwell in the same body with tion as heartily and as appreciatively acamabic lysentery germs with which so cepted is it was extended. many tropical people are alllicted. But Panama offered a haven to every disthe Sons which our studies of the prin case borne upon the wings of commerce. ciples of the spread of typhoid fever have The water-carriers who peddled water taught us fit in so beautifully in tropical from contaminated springs became the

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TIE PLIGUE IN CIILSI American Red Cross Relief Corps, showing method of protection against inícction. The variety of plague during this epidemic was that known as pneumonic, and to guard against infection, both the skin and the air passages, such as the mouth and nostrils, had to be closely covered with antiseptic wrappings.

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allies of suffering, and the result was a After the international problems were death rate of vast proportions. Stretch settled Colonel Gorgas and his aides got ing across the country between the two busy. They built for Panama and Colon cities lay a

vast expanse of uitamed up-to-date sewer and water systems, the jungle and wdrained swamp that was a cost thereof to be returned to the United paradise to the mosquito world. And

States in small annual payments. They then the masses of the people were hope cut down 16 million square yards of lessly ignorant of all things sanitary and brush it year, drained million as careless as they were ignorant.

vards of swamps, cut 30 million square To add to the unlovely state of affairs, yards of grass, maintained nearly three the ships that came in from South and million feet of ditches, emptied 300,000 Central America carried diseases with night-soil cans and a million garbage them. Ind so it was that one might look cans, fumigated 11 million cubic feet of over the entire tropical world in vain for residential space, and did other things in a place to put the nellscience to a se proportion in the Canal Zone and in verer test.

equal proportion in the two terminal The United States las not willing to cities. undertake the sanitation cf the Canal Zone without including Panama and

TIL VIOSQUITO IX TILL COURT OF APPEN. Colon as a part of the sanitary district, For awhile the rigid methods of the and so it was insisted that Uncle Sam Sanitary Department met with success, should liave perpetual sanitary control and the morbidity and mortality rates over the tivo major cities of the Istlimian both shored a remarkable decline. But republic, and Panama agreed.

then came an epidemic of yellow fever.



years. But

The mosquito, tried and convicted in years more than 35,000 residents of the researches of Ross and Reed, and Havana alone had died of yellow jack. with that sentence confirmed by the In a year or two yellow fever was bansanitary work in Cuba and elsewhere, ished from the island, bubonic plague now came to appeal 10 its final court for was gotten rid of, and smallpox came a reversal of judgment. lle claimed an under control. alibi, and he proved to the minds of thou The experience of Cuba and Panama sands that he was not respeisible. Hun has been duplicated throughout the tropdreds tore off the screens from their ical world wherever the lessons of those houses and thousands pronounced the sanitary triumphs have been enforced criminal a maligned individual. Indeed, with proper vigor. the revulsion of sentiment vent so far Consider Brazil, which in times past that men in the highest places were lining had come to be regarded as the natural up on the side of the mosquito.

habitat of yellow fever. In the year folBut Colonel Gorgas remained firm, and lowing the discovery of the mosquito's finally former Governor llagoon came part in the transmission of that disease, upon the scene to back him up, and to there were 35,000 deathis from it. The give him a chance, as the counsel for the Wonderful influx of young men from the prosecution, to prove again the guilt of outside world, the "conquistadors of a the accused. For three months the trial new era of commerce," was about to be went on, and as soon as the yellow-fever checked and the development of the great mosquito was banished the epidemic ter tropical republic set back for years. mirated, and Colonel Gorgas was able 10 Brazil would not have it so. offer $50 for each yellow-fever mos Rio got busy, a perennial clean-up day quito that could be brought him. Thus was ordered, and where, in its harbor, for the last time in all medical history ships once liad rotted because their crew's the mosquito liad his day in court and had died from vellow fever and none was finally and forever pronounced a could be secured to replace them, there creature beyond the pale of the law. soon was not a case to be found. Thus

Rats and mice came in for the same Rio, Santos, and other Brazilian cities stern measures of repression, and the re have become health resorts by contrast. sult has been that where yesterday the

THE FIGHT AGAINST MALARIA grim specter of death held Panama as a favorite abode, today it has to seek other Ilhat has happened withı yellow fever regions for its preferred haunts. There, has not happened with malaria simply at the beginning of our work at Panama, because the world does not dread it as all the dangerous diseases in the cata much and will not make the thorough logue held high carnival and gave little fight against it that has been made against heed to the despair of the people, today yellow jack; and yet malaria has been a one may see there a sort of combination greater curse to humanity through more between a national tropical park and an centuries than vellow fever has ever been. international tropical health resort.

There vellow fever has slain its hunEvery possible difficulty in the way of dreds, malaria has slain its thousands. the accomplishment of this end was en It has not visited mankind as a grim countered when the work began, and the messenger, smiling whole nations today, triumph has been as inspiring as the and tomorrow disappearing; rather its situation seemed hopeless.

onset has been so gentle and its reign so

persistent and so general that the public THE VICTORY 017R ELLOW JACK

mind has never been wrought to the pitch What the United States has done in necessary to its eradication. Panama is no more than might have been The fact that it results in less direct expected in the light of what it had done suffering and fewer proportionate direct in Cuba. There Colonel Gorgas, with the fatalities than vellow fever has held the support of Gen. Leonard Ilood, faced a fears of the people in check and has perterrible yellow-fever situation.

mitted malaria to remain endemic in al

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These birds are protected by law and may be seen strutting sedately about the streets in every direction. They are largely responsible for the present excellent sanitary condition of Vera Cruz, now looked upon by the Mexicans as a health resort.

most every country in the world. It plies haunts more especially the fertile, wellits nefarious trade day in and day out, watered, and luxuriant tracts-precisely year in and year out, killing its millions those of greatest value to man.

There of souls, some directly, but more through it strikes down not only the barbaric inundermined constitutions which have digenous population, but, with still greater permitted other diseases to be written certainty, the pioneer of civilization, the upon the death registers.

planter, the trader, the missionary, and We do not have to travel to the tropics ihe soldier. to see humanity living in close contact **It is therefore the principal and giwith the malarial mosquito and appar- gantic ally of barbarism. No wild desently indifferent to the ravages of the crts: no savage races, 10 geographical disease. Dr. L. O. Howard, perhaps difficulties, have proved so inimical to Imerica's foremost authority in economic civilization as this disease. We may say entomology, estimates that the financial that it has withheld an entire continent loss inflicted at home upon the people of from humanity—the immense and fertile the United States by malaria amounts to tracts of Ifrica; what we call the Dark a hundred million dollars a year.

Continent we should call the Malarious Sir Ronald Ross gives an idea of the Continent; and for centuries the succesextent, economic consequences, and geo

sive waves of civilization which have graphical influence of malaria when he Hooded and fertilized Europe and Imersays that it "is important not only be ica have broken themselves in vain upon cause of the misery it inflicts

upon man its deadly shores." kind, but because of the serious opposi Ifrica affords no statistics of the widetion which it has given to the march of spread prevalence of malaria, but in civilization in the tropics. Unlike many India, which at its worst is better than diseases, it is essentially endemic, a local Ifrica, nearly five million souls died of malady, and one which unfortunately ferers in a single year recently, and the

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