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lislı sparrow, house-finch, tree and violet green swallow, purple martin, houseuren, Parkman's wren, Bewick's wren, Vigor's wren, and Texas Bewick's wren, white-breasted nuthatch, tufted titmouse, black-capped chickadee, Oregon chickadee, Carolina chickadee, robin, and three Tarieties of bluebirds—eastern, western, and mountain. To this list the Carolina wrenouglit probably to be added; though while I do not know personally of any record of its actually building in a birdbox, it builds about houses and in the most unheard of and crazy places.

Robins and phebes may be encouraged by shelves conveniently placed beneath the roofs of porches, piazzas, and sheds, while tlie insect-eating barn and cave swallows may often be helped in their choice of nesting sites by a supporting shelf. lines on trellises or about the piazza posts are attractive nesting sites for chipping sparrows, as well as robins, and I once knew of a bluejay that built in a wistaria vine overhanging a friend's front porch.

One can never tell just what birds are going to do. Crows are reported to liave nested in one of the squares in the city of Philadelphia and on Beacon Hill in Boston, while a pair of sparrow-hawks have bred beneath the eaves of the Lawrence Scientific School in Cambridge, lass.

Chimney swifts should also be encouraged, and when possible the chimneys

Pluto by Louise Bit Baynes

I picture of an inquisitive and very puzzled

humming-bird probing an artificial flower

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This is a photo of a wild chickadee feeding her young in June. She does not fear in summer

the hand that feeds hier in winter

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left open at the top, and so constructed should be warned that if their cats are as to admit of their ready occupancy.* caught trespassing they will be turned

into fertilizer. THE ENEMIES OF THE BIRDS

Red squirrels are next on the list and Of bird enemies, cats are undoubtedly should be shot on sight, but I have never the worst, and maudlin sentiment should found the depredations of the gray squirnot be wasted upon them, for they are rel to warrant similar treatment. Birdincorrigible. The plain, ordinary alley chasing dogs are a nuisance and should cat should be eliminated when possible,

be restrained during the breeding season. and they make fine fertilizers when Skunks and foxes should both be displanted about the roots of one's favorite couraged, and the wily raccoon and elugrape-vine. Cat - possessing neighbors sive weasel also, if perchance they are * One of the most absorbing and interesting

found to lurk about. books of the present day, replete with infor

Of the hawks, the cooper and sharpmation on_the above subject, called "Useful shinned hawks should both be shot at Birds and Their Protection," by Edward Howe sight, while of the owls, the great horned Forbush, State Ornithologist of Massachusetts,

is incapable of reform. The little screechhas been published by the Massachusetts Board of Agriculture and may be obtained from them

owl is almost always beneficial on for the sum of $1.00.

count of the numbers of mice it often de


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Surovs, lui individual screech-ollls are the premises. If oing to surrounding often destructive 10 bin life.

conditions gunning for them seenis unCrows and jins will bear watching desirable, traps may be used with telling There seem to be good TOTS and jais, ellect. There are several kinds in use in and then again individuals among them this county: of exceeding bad habits, its many a long Last, but not least, the black snake Sluiering bird fiumili ku1011510i1s sorro11. should be killed whenever found; its

In many places the English arrows large size, great activity, tree-climbing are pests and should be shot and wrapped propensities, and taste for eggs and small relentlessly. Then


birds have fairly you for it the reputabirds and if once then leun volare afa tion of being one of the birds' deadliest ter them with a gun ihes quickly desert enemies.

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By: WILLIAM JOSEPH SHOWALTER uthor "Buttliny with the l'anana Slides," "The Countries of the Caribbean,"

"The Panama Canal," in the pational Geograplic Jagazine


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X TIEST lays when medical science scourge of 1347-1350, and see 25 million has been recurring one triumpli afer people dying: when we come on clown

another over germ-produced diseases, the years and see the wmtold millions who when the germ-hunter in his laboratory have died from the numerous pestilences has been inscertaining the causes of so which have indlicted death upon mankind; man! mysterious illictions and laying the then, and 101 till then, can lie begin to foundations for one preventive measure appreciate what it all means. after another people all but lose sight of Even then our appraisal will fall far the tremendous debt humaniti olles to short of the truth, for in those times the the e pert in elperimental medicine and Torlel lasi in i sense, larger the seas the sanitarian Indece, he vould be a here broader, and the distances on land prescient mathematician who could calcula much greater than in these days of highly lalte what the vast amount of this debt is developed transportation and commerce.

It is only when we look back over the Toll can the mind conceive of the terrirecords of the past, when civilization was ble wo11 epidemic diseases irould take 10Joung and humanit! without knowledge dari with World-vide commerce, of the causes of the great epidemic dis with ou metropolitan and cosmopolitan cases, that ile can have a faint appreci- cities, and with ihe constant commingling ation of what the patient man of the of the peoples of all lands, vere it not microscope has wrought in humanity's for preventive measures? behalf. Then 110 see vaples, in the seven

ILIP-GILLIGUNG INDICIST; teenth century, is helpless als a near


Throughout the history of the ages one babe in the grip of a plagne luring which may read of great changes in the maps 380,000 Souls peristica in six months; of the carth that have resulted on the one when wesce Constantinople, in 1812, with hand from the ravages of disease and 1.41.000 deaths; when esce Loudon, in on the other from the discovery of meththe days of the great plague, with 70,000 ods of combatting it. of its population carriedol: when we go le see the “glory that was Greece" back to China and behold i feir short depart because of the terrible toll exacted lears in the fouteenth centut with a by malaria : le see a l'anama Canal made "black leath" mortality record of 13 mil possible because of the knowledge of the 10. Sills and 1 Europe in the great Causation of vellor fever that came to



Still no

us through the patient and heroic work it Pasteur and his discovery of the relaof a group of army surgeons; we see lion betireen bacteria and disease. One cities like Havana and Rio de Janeiro by one new germs were discovered, and transformed from pest-holes into munici soon medical men came to understand palities where epidemic diseases are under the methods of the transmission of most control.

of the epidemic diseases of temperate Today thousands, nay millions, of hu- climates. man souls living between Cancer and

one knew the cause of the Capricorn are being freed from the thrall- epilemic diseases most characteristic of dom of those terrible visitations that came the tropics, and without this knowledge periodically only a few years ago. Africa no satisfactory superstructure of preventis rising up against the terrible sleeping ive tropical medicine could be reared. sickness and the insidious malaria that Tropical humanity was attacked by myrhave made it the “Dark Continent" for iads of enemies só subtle that men did not generations without number.

know even that they existed, and yet so Wherever we turn we find places where terrible that the carnage of the world's once a man gambled with death when he battlefields paled in comparison. visited them being converted into regions For centuries on end men had been where good health conditions exist. Pre- seeking after the truth of the causation ventive medicine everywhere, and in the of yellow fever, bubonic plague, sleeping tropics in particular, is writing a new sickness, and allied diseases. Sone of geography of inhabitable territory and of them had nearly guessed it. Sir Henry commercial opportunity.

Blake tells of having seen a medical work Where yesterday the barriers of dis in Ceylon, some 1,400 years old, which ease vere up against the peaceful and charged the mosquito wiih being a carrier resource-developing invasion of capital of malaria. The word canopy itself was and enterprise, there today is found brought into the language from a Greek health and happiness and prosperity. word meaning gnat. Where yesterday a

man going to the tropics, even for a short stay, was bid

11HY TIIT CIT WAS WORSHIPED den good-bye by his friends as one who There

niany strangely close stood an even chance of never returning, guesses at the cause of disease in the today men and women go there for long early history of the human race. Tar periods; and in some places are quite as back in Egyptian history the people came safe as at home, and in hundreds of

so near to guessing the cause of plague others only a little less so.

that they made the cat a sacred animal. They noticed that where there were cats

there was no bubonic plague, and if they Truly the story of how all this has had only stopped to think a little further been brought about is the world's most they might have seen that where there splendid exemplification of the proverb were cats the rats were scarce. But this that truth is stranger than fiction. For relation did not strike them, so they went hundreds of years man stood helpless and on worshipping the cat, and thinking that appalled in the face of the onset of great it was the animal's supernatural power epidemics. He saw millions of his fel that saved them from contracting plague. low-beings visited with deaths more hor The honor of having written the first rible than ever torture chamber could modern vork charging the mosquito vitli invent, but not knowing whence the af- being a responsible agent in the spread fliction came or whither it went. He sur of vellow and malarial fevers belongs to mised and guessed, and finally saw a cer an Imerican, Dr. Nott, of lIobile, \latain relation between dirt and disease, bama. In 1818 he published a treatise and gradually the elimination of dirt upon vellow fever in which he charger checked the ravages of some epidemic the mosquito with the crime of spreaddiseases.

ing these diseases. I little later Dr. Louis Then came the microscope with its dis- Beauperthuy, studying an epidemic of covery of infinitesimal worlds, and with yellow fever in Tenezuela, also laid the



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TICHTING THE PINUMI MOSQUITO WITH OIL These sanitary drip-barrels automatically spread oil, drop by drop, over pools, streams, and marsly places, thereby preventing the mosquito from breeding in the water. "He (Ross) proved beyond any peradventure that the Inopheles mosquito is the intermediate host

, and Hat no one can contract malaria except he be bitten by a mosquito which has previously bitten a person suffering from that disease" (see page 347). Dame upon the mosquito, and charged But it was not until Sir Ronald Ross that it introduced a poison similar to arrived upon the scene with his investisnake venom into the human system gations that the real truth of the printhrough the biting process.

ciple of insect-borne diseases came to be Step by step a closer approach to the understood.

understood. Prior to this Laveran had truth was made, and in 1883 Sir Patrick succeeded in isolating the germ of maManson demonstrated that the mosquito laria : and, building upon this foundation, was the intermediate host of the blood Ross labored to ascertain the exact relaparasite filaria

tion between man and the mosquito.

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