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ROOFING 111,LIGE TIOME; “The outside of the roof is covered with a coating of mortar made of clay, which, on being pressed with in small stone roller or pounder with a board, becomes hard and compact enough to shed the rain" (see page -51).



If a

lem, are still perpetuating the life of bility is one of their characteristics; they Abraham and the customs and ways of love to gossip and chat about the local the people who lived here at the time of news, Of course, not a single newspaper Christ.

is to be had; so all their information is To know the heart of the land, to have derived from those who have been last learned the hospitality of its people, to town. which is always offered, no matter how I servant is hired to attend to this primitive or simple, makes it easy to pic- guest-chamber, and every day, by turi, ture Mary and Joseph returning from the one of the villagers furnishes the coffee inn, already filled with guests, and turn beans and sugar for the coffee to be ing aside into a home such as we have served to the men thus congregated; he, described, the regular dwelling portion too, supplies the food and bedding if some of which may have been none too large ordinary guests come along. for the family which occupied it. It may They are, of course, great respecters have been crowded with other guests, but of persons; so that if a common man they find a welcome and a resting place happens in a couple of fried eggs with for the babe in a manger.

bread and olives will do for him. Such a use of the rowych, or stable more important personage arrives, a pair portion of the house, by luman beings is of roast chickens is provided for his supnot the exception, but an every-day occur per; but if a still more honored one, a rence. You can occasionally find men Sheik of a village, or a large company of working their primitive looms there or men appcar, a lamb or kid is killed, and the mother preparing the food or doing in all cases horses are furnished with her little sewing near the door, where nose-bags full of barley. The supplying there is more light on a dark winter's day. of these more expensive meals is appor

We have all perhaps noticed that in the tioned among the various men by turn, two Gospel narratives where the birth of while they furnish barley according to Jesus is dwelt upon* neither of them the amount of land possessed. mentions a stable, barn, or anything equiv In the possession of the man attending alent, while Matthew, speaking of the the guest-chamber are three small wooden wise men, says: “And when they were bows, on the cord of which are strung come into the house, they saw the young slips of paper, cach bearing the name of child with Mary his mother.”

one of the men of the village. The slip Many of these dwellings, placed as they first in order indicates the name of the are on ancient sites, are built over old person whose turn next comes to serve, caves or caverns which are incorporated and in this simple way the proper acinto the lower or stable portion. Today, counts are kept, since one of the bows in Bethlehem's church, such a cave is

represents chickens, the next lambs and shown as the actual birthplace of jesus. kids, while the third is for the barley. Its walls are covered with costly tapes Is each one fulfills luis obligation the tries and paintings, and from its ceiling paper representing it is torn off, anál hang lamps of gold and silver (see page when all are gone, a new set is written 304).

and the turns begin again.

Let us now watch a company of disTHE GUEST-CHAMBER OF THE VILLAGE

tinguished visitors arrive at the village Each Village has an upper room

guest-chamber guest-chamber (see page 25+). During The young men run to help the guests the summer the shade of some large tree dismount, and, leading the animals away, is often substituted for this room. How tie them in the courtyaril or in the stable, ever, in either case this guest-chamber or which is below the upper room.” Othtree is the social center for all the village ers hasten to spread rugs and mats on men, where many spend the evening or the floor and mattresses around the wall, the entire day when they have nothing furnished with cushions, for on them the with which to occupy themselves. Socia guests sit cross-legged or recline. Janv Matt. 2:1-12; Luke 2: 1-20.

of the men of the village now join the




TI VULIGT GUIST-GILLIDER "Lach village has an upper room, or guest-chamber. During the summer the villagers ofteu substitute the shade of some large tree for this room. This guest-chamber or tree is the gathering place for all the village men, where many spend the evening or the entire day when they have nothing with which to occupy themselves, for sociability is one of their characteristics" (see page -5,3).


THERE ARE NO SUTTRIGETTES HERE The proper etiquette of the Holy Land bids the wife follow meekly on foot while her husband rides majestically in front. In the good old days the gentle sex never was seen riding, but the modern spirit is creeping in, and “today it is a common sight to find a woman astride of a donkey" (see text, page 261).


The Samaritan woman wears the bloomers of the North under the loose long robe, or lobe, of the South, her costume emphasizing her geographical

position. The graceful carriage of the Syrian woman is due 16 hor custom of bearing heavy loads upon lier head

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