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THE INFLUENCE OF THE PASAIA CASAL

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well as the United States, wants to pay for them in manufactures.

It will be seen, therefore, that the products of the various sections within the canal's "sphere of influence" are of a thoroughly interchangeable character. DOES THE CANAL REALLY SHORTEN TRIDE;).

ROUTES? Next we must consider the relative distances via the Panama Canal and other existing routes, measured between great trading centers. From Europe we may take Liverpool as a representative point. It represents, with a fair degree of ac

curacy, the initial point for the trade of Europe.

For the western coast of America we may consider the chief ports from Chile to Washington. For the Far East we may consider Yokohama, Shanghai, Hongkong, Manila, Sydney and Melbourne, Australia, and Ilellington, New Zealand, as more or less within the “sphere of influence" of the Panama Canal, while Singapore, Colombo, and the ports of India are so much nearer to both Europe and the United States via the Suez that they need not be considered in a parison of distances via the two routes.

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Distances via Panama to Western Ports of America from Liverpool, New York, and leau

Orleans Respectively (in nautical miles)

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Distances from New York, New Orleans, and Liverpool Respectively to Principal Ports of

Eastern Asia and Oceania (in nautical miles)

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THE ADVANTAGES OF THE PANAMI ROUTE of the trade of that section will fall to

the lot of eastern North America, and It will be seen from the above tables

(2) that the eastern ports of the United (1) that both New York and New Or States will be considerably nearer to Yoleans will be so much nearer to all of kohama. Melbourne, Sydney, and Wellwestern America than is Liverpool that ington than is Liverpool by her shortest we may expect that an increasing share route, but (3) that Liverpool will be still

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TIIE SITIOSII GEOGRAPHIC JIIGIZIVE

nearer Ilongkong and Manila than either Tell york or ser Orleans via Panama.

It may therefore be expected! ihat while the canal will give 11s decide: adTantages in the trade with lestern America and increase the share which we have of that trade; re are not justified in expecting marked changes in the share Wuch ive shall get of my part of the Orient except that will Japan and .\ustalia and Seni Zealand.

Ilowever, the Panama route so much shortens the distance to the restern coast of Imerica, both from castern Imerica and western Europe, that ile may preet to see most of the trade with western Imerica go via Panama, except perhaps in case of European commerce with the southern ports on the west coast of South Imerica.

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One of the most important results of the opening of the canal will doubtless be found in its effect upon the movements of merchandise between the eastern and Western sections of the United States. This trade is already very large.

Illile exact figures are not available, the data at hand seem to justify an estimate of about 3 million tons per annum of freight moved by rail and about a half million tons by water from the 11lantic Coast section to the l'acific Coast section, and about an equal amount from the Pacific Coast section and lawaii to the Itlantic Coast section.

The Suns paidas freight charges on these million tons moved betincen the \tlantic and l'acilic Coast Sections are estimated at from 250 to 300 million dollars per annum.

Only about one-fourth of the tonnage Which now mores vestiard across the Rocky Mountains originates cast of Buffalo and Pittsburgh, while most of the remaining three-fourths originates in the Mississippi Valley, which is the great producing section of the country and rapidly increasing its production of mi

ufactures, which are the most important factor in the west-bound traffic. Of the east-bound traffic across the Rockies, a large share originates near the Pacific coust, especially the fruits, vegetables, tish, wine, barley and lumber; but only a part of this reaches the Atlantic coast, a considerable share being consigned to the communities of the Mississippi Vailey.

It present the railway rates between the Mississippi l'alley and the Pacific coast are but little if any less than for the entire distance across the continent, but this will probably be somewhat modi. tied when the steamship rates via Panama become sufficiently how to attract the Viississippi l'aller trade toward the Itlantic and Gulf ports. In the actual cost of transportation between the eastern and western sections it may be expected that there will be a marked reduction in the tonnage rates charged.

The water rates between New York and San Francisco, even with the present handicap of transferring to the Pa::ama or Tehuantepee railways and retransferring to steamer, are from 20 10 00 per cent of those charged by the railways, and about one-third of this present water rate is paid for the transferring across the Isthmus.

To sum up, it seems probable that the Panama Canal will carry most of the freight passing betileen the eastern coast of the United States and the westerni coast of Latin- Imerica, and that the shorter distances and lower rates which it offers will greatly increase that trade: that the trade betireen the eastern and western sections of the United States will be greatly increased and transported at a much lower charge per ton: that it will sufficiently shorten the distances to Japan, northern China, .\ustralia, and New Zealand to increase steamship service and materially increase the traffic with those countries, and that the European countries will use the canal in most of their traffic with western Imerica and in exceptional instances with northern Isia, \ustralia, and New Zealand.

VOL. XXV, No. 3

WASHINGTON

MARCH, 1914

THE
NATIONAL
GEOGRAPHIC
MAGAZINE

VILLAGE LIFE IN THE HOLY LAND

By John D. WHITING A description of the life of the present-day inhabitants of Palestine, showing how, in many cases, their customs are the same as in Bible times. Illustrated by photographs by the American Colony Photographers, Jerusalem.

P

ALESTINE, often called the Holy With almost every village or district
Land, is in a general way familiar there are, to a greater or lesser extent,

to all of us from our study of the variations in the dialect of the Irabic Bible. Few, however, realize that the they speak, their style of dress, and the manners and customs which prevailed homes they live in. there in Biblical days are still unchanged,

On the Plain of Sharon, where stone is even after an interval of 3,000 years. rare or non-existent, the houses are made The land today is inhabited by three dis of sun-dried brick, the roots thatched and tinct classes: the Bedouin, or nomads, a covered with clay to shed the rain, while wandering, war 'ving race; the Fella in the mountains they are built of stone, heen, who are the agriculturists, shep- since of that material there is an inexherds, and village dwellers, and the la haustible supply. daniyeli, who live in the towns and cities Many have pictured in their minds and are artisans.

Vary and Joseph, after arriving at the With the advent of civilization the “inn" at Bethlehem and finding no room, townspeople are fast losing their ancient being forced to turn into some barn built customs and quaint costumes, but the of timber, with lofty roof, hay mows, villagers adhere to both far more tena wooden mangers, and stalls for cattle and ciously. Still, no one knowing the coun sheep. Such a stable has been the subtry can fail to see that a time is not far ject of many medieval and modern ardistant when many of their interesting tists, but it does not present a really true and long-lived habits of life will be things picture. Let lis consider the old-style vilof the past.

lage home that is most common in the

districts around Jerusalem and TethleTHE VILLAGE HOJE

hem, for that will give us a better idea The present-day villages are located, of what happened on that first Christmas as a rule, either on the tops of hills, orig

dav. inally for protection, or near some spring The village streets are crooked, naror source of water. Many are built upon row, and unpaved. Is in many of the the foundations of dwellings whose origin countries of the Orient, farmers live close dates back thousands of years. There together for protection, and not on their does not exist a single example of a peas lands: therefore in the villages there are ant village that has been founded in mod

no open fields or gardens, but house ern times.

next to house, except for the small walled

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MULSING THE VORTAR FOR THE ROOF When a house is ready to loof over, all the villagers, both men and women, lend a helping hand. In this picture we sue the men mixing the mortar and placing it on boards, which are passed along by the women to the men working on the roof.

VILLAGE LIFE IN THE HOLY LAND

251

a

in inclosures or sheepfolds through which family has brought her trousseau; a straw one generally passes when going into the mat or heavy woven woolen rug which dwelling

covers part of the floor, and mattresses, The house itself consists of one large with thick quilts and hard pillows, which room, usually square. The walls, from 3 at night are spread on the floor. to 4 feet thick, are built of blocks of stone The cooking utensils are few in numroughly dressed and laid in mortar, roofed ber—one clay cooking pot, a couple of over with a dome, also of stone. The large wooden bowls in which to knead outside of this roof is covered with a the dough, and a couple of smaller ones coating of mortar made of clay, which used to eat from. Wheat is ground in a on being pressed with a small stone roller hand-mill of black basalt, the lower stone or pounded with a board, becomes hard being imbedded in a sort of sun-dried and compact enough to shed the rain (see clay trough shaped to receive the flour as page 252).

it is ground. These, with a sieve or tiro, A steep outside staircase, unprotected large wooden cooking spoon, a small by any railing, is built up to the roof, for brass cofiec-pot, a few tiny coffee-cups. the surface must be repaired at times. and perhaps a clay dish in which to roast The flat, open space of the roof also and grind the coffee beans, comprise the forms a handy place on which to dry figs entire outfit. and raisins, and cluring the hot weather Ilaving inspected the dwelling portion, the family may sleep there at night. which at once is kitchen, store-room, bed

room, and living-room, let us descend the THE UPPER ROOM OF THE HOUSE

steps into what the natives call the stable. Entering the door, we find that about Below the mastaby', or raised platform, two-thirds of the space is devoted to a just described, among arches so low that raised masonry platform, some 8 to 10 man can scarcely walk erect, are the feet above the ground and supported by winter quarters of the goats and sheep. low-comed arches. This raised space, To shut the locks in, these arched encalled cl mastaby, is the part occupied by trances are obstructed with bundles of the family, while the lower part is used brush used as firewood for the winter. for the cattle and focks (see page 310). The rest of the floor space, which is open A few narrow stone steps lead up to the to the ceiling, is devoted to the few work mastaby, and a couple of small windows cattle and perhaps a donkey or camel. pierce the wall, high up from the ground. Around the walls are primitive mangers These, as a rule, are the only means of for the cattle, built of rough slabs of admitting light and furnishing ventilation stone placed on edge and plastered up to the entire house. Until about half a

with mortar. century ago it was thought unsafe to build Often the owner makes a small raised even medium-sized windows, and any place on which he sleeps at night to enman presuming to do so would have been able him to keep better watch over the considered as challenging the rest of the newly born lambs, lest in the crowded community.

quarters some get crushed or trodden On one side is an open fireplace, with down by the older ones. Here he often a chimney running through the wall and sleeps by preference on a cold night, for terminating on the roof often in an old he says the breath of the animals keeps water jar whose bottom has been knocked him warm. out, and so becomes a sort of smokestack. Many houses have no chimney at all;

THE LAND, NOT THE PEOPLE, CONSERVES small holes through the wall, or the win

TIIT OLD CUSTOMS dows, furnish the only exit for the smoke, One cannot become even tolerably acwhich on winter days fairly fills the quainted with Palestine without perceirhouse.

ing that it is the land that has preserved The furniture is very simple and, as the ancient customs. Its present-day ina rule, consists of a crudely decorated habitants, who have nothing in common bridal chest in which the mother of the Tith the modern Jew's who crowd Jerusa

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