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The old lady on the left has dropped off into a doze while watching her turkey and chicks. Note the woman looking through the hole in the door. This hole serves both for window and chimney, the fire being kindled in a corner of the room on the stone-flagged floor. Photo by A. W. Cutler.

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SOME JOLLY SICILIAN BOYS These youngsters come from a little mountain village just above Taormina in Sicily. Though they are all of them poorer than Job tha's are as happy as the birds in May, and if a few pennies are forthcoming there is no repressing their high spirits. Photo by A. W. Cutler




HAT will be the effect of the "road-bed" for a direct line of travel,
Panama Canal upon the com while a route over a land surface mlist

mercial and travel geography make frequent detours to obtain even apof the world ? Will it change travel proximate levels for moving great quanroutes, stimulate commerce, and bring tities of merchandise. the people of great land-masses into But there are other important condicloser relationship?

tions which affect the ocean route. PlenThe Suez Canal, opened in 1869, short- tiful freight supplies, present and proened the travel distance between westerni spective, interchangeability of the prodEurope and eastern Asia by 3,400 miles, ucts of the countries forming the termini and in doing so opened new highways of of the routes, “way stations" on such travel and traffic, multiplied interchanges routes, plentiful coaling stations, and of merchandise, and developed closer re

cheap coal of a quality suitable for steamlations between the Occident and the ship engines, and even favorable winds Orient. The Panama Canal will shorten and ocean currents are among the factravel routes between New York and tors contributing to the success of routes Yokohama by 3,750 miles; between New

of travel upon the ocean. York and Shanghai, about 2,000 miles;

Argentina, for example, has ample between New York and Australia, about supplies of freight, but steamship lines 3,000 miles, and between New York and do not develop rapidly between that western South America by from 3,500

country and the United States because to 7,000 miles. It will also reduce the

most of the Irgentine products are simdistance from Europe to western South

ilar to our own, and there is 110 reason America by 3,000 miles and to western

why she should send her wheat and corn North America by more than 5,000 miles.

and pork to this country, which has a Will it also divert travel and traffic surplus of those articles. Cuba, the from the present established routes, stim

world's greatest producer of cane sugar, ulate commerce, and develop closer rela

sends little if any of it to Europe, betions between the people of the countries

cause that part of the world produces thus brought closer together?

from beets all the sugar it requires. EngInternational commerce doubled in the

land, the world's greatest coal exporter, 30 years following the opening of the sends no coal to the United States, which Suez Canal, and business and personal

has unlimited supplies of her own. So, inter-relationship between the Occident shortening,

shortening of distances between great and the Orient was increased in like

sections will not develop steamship busi

proportion. Will similar results follow the

ness unless the products of the two seclike shortening of trade and travel routes

tions are of such character as to justify by the Panama Canal ?


In some instances, however, steamship WHAT DETERMINES STEAMSHIP ROUTES

routes adjust themselves to locally adHighways of travel on the ocean are verse conditions. The steamer which influenced by surrounding conditions just carries wheat and corn and meat from as are those on land. The shortest dis Argentina to Europe may bring the silks tance between two given poiats is not al and woolens and laces of Europe to the ways the best on the ocean any more United States and then return to Irgenthan is the case on a continent or island. tina loaded withi agricultural implements, True, the ocean surface gives a level iron and steel manufactures, and mineral



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oil from the factories and refineries of York to Yokohama or Shanghai and rethis country

turn, and if a saving of $1.50 per ton

could be made by going via Panama and TIT DIPORT.INCE OF COILING STATIONS

using the cheaper coal offered by that Coaling stations and coal supplies are route, the economy in coal alone might

important factor in determining turn the scale in favor of that route. routes of travel for steamers,

The stil So it is apparent that coaling stations, tions are numbered by hundreds and

cual supplies, and coal prices are factors scattered over the entire travel lorld, of considerable importance in determinyet the quality and prices of the material

ing the choice of routes where distances which the offer and the distances be are nearly equal. tween ample and cheap supplies have much to do in Tetermining steamship


l'ISLILI CIVIL British coal is the standard for steam The sections of the world which may ships in Europe, the Mediterranean, and be considered as probably within the ll'estern Isia; India, Iustralia, and Ja

"sphere of intluence" of the Panama pan are the chief sources of supply for

Canal are the eastern and western coasts Castern Isia and the western Pacific, and the United States chief purevor to all

of Imerica, the eastern coast of Asia, of Imerica and adjacent waters.


and the islands of the Pacific. All of tralian, Japanese, and Imerican coals are

Western America will be nearer to Eusomewhat cheaper than the English, anal rope than at present, and all of western if the stations tributart to the l'anama Imerica and most of eastern Isia and routes were so near to each other that Oceania will be nearer to the eastern the steamship could get supplie's it fre coast of Imerica than at present. quent intervals, and thus devote most of I stuuly of the production and conits carrying space to merchandise rather

sumption of the various countries lying than to large coal supplies, the routes via within the canal's sphere of influence the l'anama Canal woull offer special 11 shows that their various products are tractions.

thoroughly interchangeable. The westCoal is nearly one-half the cost of ern coast of South America offers chietly running a freight vessel. 1 large share natural products. Chile has nitrates, of the freight now moved on the ocean is copper, and comparatively small quanticarried in "tramp" steamers of from ties of wheat and other grains. The ni3,000 to 5,000 “net register" tons ca trates are needed by both the United pacity; but an actual carrying power of States and Europe: the copper comes to about twice as many tons of dead weight. the United States to be smelted and re

To charter a vessel of, say, 3,000 reg fined and the grains are wanted by Euister tons, including the officers and rope. In exchange for these Chile takes crew, costs about $200 a day, while the manufactures, and both the United States coal required to run such a vessel at the and Europe have manufactures for sale very moderate speed of 1o miles an hour in ever-increasing quantities. would cost about $150 per day. For pas The Philippines and the Dutch East senger steamers, making higher specil. Indies offer sugar, tobacco, hemp, and the cost of coal is much greater, and other tropical products, and both Europe would probably be quite as much as the and the Cuited States ant these and hire of the vessel and all of her officers, pay for them chieti in manufactures, crem, subsistence, and incidental which form the bulk of the imports of penses.

these countries. Sustralia and New ZeaI freight vessel of the type above de land offer meats, wool, and hides and scribed, carrying about 5.000 tons dead take manufactures in exchange; and weight and making about 10 miles per both the United States and Europe want hour, would probably burn about 3.000 the wool and hides, and Europe wants 10 4,000 tons of coal on it trip from New also the wheat and meats, and she, as


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