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"A territory onc-fifth the size of the United States contains less than a thousand miles of anything that can be called a wagon road. It has a few inconsiderable stretches of railroad which terminate, with one exception, cither in the wilderness or at a private industry. Only the richest of its mines can be worked, and one of its resources of greatest immediate value to the people, its coal lands, lies unworked" (see text, page 180).

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Photo from Iconard Davis A PAIR OF SALMON, ONE WEIGING 65 POUNDS AND THE OTTIER 82 POUNDS, CAUGIIT

AT KETCHIKAN: THE PORPOISE SHOWS THE COMPIRITIT SIZE OF THE SALVON

or nav

risk of the loss of his investment prior to practice as soon as there has been a prodiscovery.

ducing well discovered, and sometimes

earlier, to withdraw all lands in the PRESENT MINING LAWS DO NOT SUFFI neighborhood which, in the opinion of CIENTLY REWARD PETROLEUM

experts, are of similar geological formaPIONEERS

tion. The lands on which the discovery An objection of equal force to the

has been made or upon which exploration has been begun may

not be placer law as applied to petroleum arises

included in the withdrawal. If they are, from the fact that the mineral is fluid.

the law offers to protect the rights so It moves underground. A well on one

acquired. tract is likely to draw from a neighboring

I feel, however, that we are not suffitract. Thus it becomes necessary

for
ciently rewarding the pioneer.

I plan each operator to drill wells along his could readily be evolved by which any one boundary lines before his neighbors do wishing to prospect for oil on the public so. Otherwise, they will draw off a part lands could obtain a license from the of his oil. He is therefore forced to drill

government to prospect exclusively a whether it is otherwise to his advantage large tract of land for a period of timeor not, in order to protect his oil deposits perhaps two years— and in the event that from exhaustion through adjacent wells. oil is found in commercial quantities the

We should, I believe, stimulate the government should be paid a royalty search for oil and protect the prospector. fixed in advance. The government is withholding from This method is similar to that by which entry certain considerable bodies of land the Indian lands in Oklahoma have been in the belief that they contain oil, when developed and which has proved of the this has not been demonstrated. It is our highest value in bringing capital into this

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TURNII'S WEIGHING 12 POUVIS CROIN IN I'NILITE GARDEN IT RAMP ART, ALASKA

"And in agriculture the government itseli has demonstrated that it will produce in abundance all that can be raised in the Scandinavian countries, the hardy cercals and vegetables, the meats and the berries off which nine million people live in Norway, Sweden, and Finland. It has been estimated that there are 50 million acres of this land that will make homes for il people as sturdy as those of Seni Lingland. Whether this is so or not, it would appear that Alaska can be made seli-sustaining agriculturally" (see text, page 185).

work and insuring large retuns to the tions under which the government would Indians. In the Oklahoma case one great reserve to itself the adjoining lands. corporation, however, was given so large Indeed, I could not be adverse to a body of land that after the original granting such a license in unexplored discovery it found it profitable to farm country for, say, four sections of land, out its rights to subsidiary companies. and in the event of discovery permitting This might easily be prevented by regula patent to issue to the discoverer for a full

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DIAGRAM ILLUSTRATING OUR COL RESOURCES, THE LOUIT TILAT ILIS BEEN USED

AND THE AMOUNT STILL RENTINING UITSED IN THE UNITED STATES A represents the total coal supply of the United States. B represents the amount used to the end of_1912, C represents the amount consumed in a single year. This diagram was prepared by Edward W. Parker, Chief of the Division of Mineral Resources of the C. S. Geological Survey.

section, the balance of the licensed land to remain in the government to be leased in small parcels to other parties on a royalty basis under the more advantageous terms that could then be secured.

THE NEED OF OIL FOR THE NAVY The United States will need oil for its nary as well as coal, and probably in increasing quantities as the moderni oil-burning or gas-burning engines are recognized. It would be economical to substitute oil for coal for many reasons: to reduce labor cost, to avoid the building

and maintenance of colliers, and the purchase and support of coaling stations.

The Diesel engine can, with the fuel carried from the home port, take one of our greatest ships around the world without dependence upon a renewed supply of fuel. England's adventure in this direction will presumably force other nations into like enterprise, and yet England has no oil fields on which to dralli While we have already the largest producing fuel-oil fields in the world, and others are appearing.

Wlready we know of oil in Vlaska, and

Plioto from Bureau of lines of the Department of the Interior A CILTRY USED AS I PROTECTION IN MINE RESCUT WORK It has been found that canaries will show signs of distress at the presence of harmful gases in mines long before human beings are aware of any danger. It is now the practice to carry one of these birds with all rescue parties, as it will indicate the point beyond which it is not sale to proceed without wearing protective helmets.

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