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| PILE OF GOLD IN THE ISSLY OFFICI; AT NOVIE, ILISKI "Individual fortunes have been made in that country larger than the price paid to Russia

for the whole territory” (see text, page 185)

of her possibilities we must create a new This board would, of course, have nothpiece of governmental machinery for the ing whatsoever to do with the internal purpose. We should undertake the work affairs of the organized Territory of in the spirit and after the method of a Alaska, for it would exercise no powers great corporation wishing to develop a save such as Congress granted over the large territory.

property of the United States in Alaska. In my judgment, the way to deal with the problem of Alaskan resources is to

TIIE BLACK BEAR IS CIRED FOR BY ONE. establish a board of directors to have this

DEPIRTMENT AND TI PROIN

BT IR BY IVOTILER work in charge. Into the hands of this board or commission I would give all the There are several reasons which appeal national assets in that territory, to be to me as supporting this suggestion : used primarily for her improvement I. Such a board could advise Congress her lands. fisheries. Indians. Eskimos, as to what should be done, without prejuseals, forests, mines, waterways, rail

dice, out of a deep national interest and roads—all that the nation owns, cares

with first-hand knowledge of conditions. for, controls, or regulates.

Congress 2. Such a board would coördinate the should determine in broad outline the

present enterprises of the government in policies which this board in a liberal dis Alaska. As it is now, the control of cretion should elaborate and administer, lands is in one department, of forests in much as is done as to the Philippines.

another, of roads in another, of fisheries

A WINTER SCENE AT NOMI, SIIOWING GREAT PILLS OF GRAVEL, WHITCII ARE TRAPID UP DURING TID, WINTER BY TIL MINIRS During the summer, or rather as soon as water can be used without any danger of its freezing, these great piles of gravel are carefully washed by

the miners and the gold extracted (see picture on page 189)

[graphic]

GETTING THE GOLD OUT OF THE GRAVEL IN SUMMER: NOME

in a fourth, of railroads in still another. as possible out of her own revenues and The care of black bear is in one depart resources. She should have a Federal ment and brown bear in another.

budget of her own. Her revenues and 3. There can be no satisfactory ad- expenditures should be presented to Conministration of land laws nor any other gress on a single sheet. The funds raised laws at a distance of 5,000 miles from the from her lands and fisheries, her furs, point of action. Much less is this possi- her forests, and her mines should be used ble where the two sections of the country for the construction of her roads, railare separated by an ocean, and the land roads, telegraph and telephone lines, or calling for attention is closed to the world

for any other purpose which would make one-half of the year.

The
eye
that sees

her resources more quickly available to the need should be near the voice that the world. gives the order. 4. Alaska's opening and improvement

ALISKI IS ALREADY SELF-SUPPORTING should be treated as one problem. Each I believe it could be shown that Alaska step in such an administration should be is self-supporting today, or, what is more part of a plan, not an isolated act. We to the point, that by proper taxes and should have a unified and consecutive charges imposed upon those who are deprogram, based on immediate knowledge riving large return from their enterprise governing this work. Each line of activ in the Territory, such revenue could be ity within the Territory should be corre derived as would support a large policy lated with all other activities. The open- of expansion and improvement. In shori. ing of lands and the building of railroads I would construct the administrative maor ivagon roads, for instance, should be chinery that would most surely lead to a part of one scheme.

prompt and continuous development of 5. Alaska should be developed so far Alaska as a part of the United States

IIYDRAULIC MINING IN GLACIER CREEK, NOME
The gold placer ficles of interior and northwestern Alaska no longer give employerent to as many men as informer ser because of the adop-

Lon of new methods of mining. The gold ampul is still large, the amouni produced in 1912 being valued at more than $17,000,000

[graphic]

THE NATION'S UNDEVELOPED RESOURCES

191

upon a plane commensurate with her pos the construction of railroads in the Tersibilities industrially, agriculturally, and ritory and (2) the opening of her coal socially.

lands. The members of such a board ap I have already expressed to Congress pointed by the President would be se my

belief that it was wise for the

governlected presumably with reference to their ment itself to undertake the construction fitness for the work to be done. Each and operation of a system of trunk-line one could be made the administrative and railroads in Alaska. And I am led to residentiary head of a department or this view irrespective of the possibility division, so that there might be a com of private enterprise undertaking such missioner of the Alaskan land office, an work, although my belief is that no railother commissioner of highways, another, roads would be privately constructed in perhaps, commissioner of Indian affairs Alaska for many years to come exceptand fisheries, and so on. All would sit ing as adjuncts to some ivate entertogether, as in the commission form of

prise. Be that as it may, it would seem municipal government, and would work

wise for the government to undertake for a common end, the upbuilding of this task upon grounds of state. Alaska as an integral and contributing The rates and the service of such railpart of the Union.

roads should be fixed with reference to I apprehend the fear that with such a Alaskan development-110t with regard commission there would be danger of to immediate returns. The charges fixed corruption or indifference creeping into should be lover for years to come than its work. This, however, is incident to would justify private investment. the bestowal of all authority. The com I would build and operate these highmission would not go unchecked, of ways in the same spirit that the counties course, for it must report to the head of or the States build wagon roads—not for some department at Washington, and revenue, but for the general good. After through that head to Congress, and all, a railroad is little more than an operwould be always subject to investigation. ated wagon road. In many countries Moreover, no method has yet been in they still call railroad cars "vagons." vented by which dishonesty or poor judg Our Jaws as to railroads are evolved ment can be guarded against in public or from our old laws as to carriage by in private life. In the end the character wagon. Our courts speak of railroads and wisdom of the men appointed is the as property charged with a public interest only insurance that can be given against and so justify the regulation of conduct that is foolish or worse.

rates. But no court would justify the Alaska should not, in my judgment, be imposition of rates made for the purregarded as a mere storehouse of re pose for which Waskan rates should be sources upon which the people of the made—the creation of a Commonwealthi. States may draw.

She has the poten If this is our task, it should be done tialities of a State. And whatever policy whole-heartedly and with a consciousness may be adopted should look toward an that the dollar spent today on an \laskan Alaska of homes, of industries, and of railroad will yield no more immediate rean extended commerce.

turn on the investment than the dollar

spent on the Panama Canal. WHAT SHOULD BE DONE AT ONCE

WHY THE GOVERNMENT SHOULD BUILD Strongly as I would urge this method of

THE ULASKIN RAILROADS management-for it offers a rare opportunity to exhibit the efficiency of a These, then, are the persuading rearepublic - I would not have Alaska wait sons for the belief that the government for needed legislation until the merits of should undertake to drive from the coast such a plan could be passed upon by Con inland one or more lines of railroad: (1) gress. Those things which appeal to me The government already regards it as its as of immediate necessity upon which in duty to build wagon roads. Such roads dependent action may be taken are (1)

when well built are almost as costly as

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