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One argument against the construction of a lock canal was that the great locks at Panama might be destroyed by carthquakes. This flat arch, which any serious carthquake shock would destroyi has stool for nearly three centuries in the now ruined church of Santo Domingo at Panama, proving that fear of carthquakes is groundless (see page 160).

consequently overwhelmed and the commission was forced to withdraw its literature and make no promises. In attempt was made after that to provide a certain percentage of the emplovees with family quarters.

The greater part of the laborers on the canal vere jamaican negroes. They Tere British subjects, but were ordimarily called "British objects." Thev make good servants if thoroughly trained and the routine is not laried.

To illustrate the effect of varving the routine: Visitors often came rather un

specteelly for lunch at Gatun, and in order that thing; might go right if my wife happened to be away when company came, she had prepared menus for lunches-number 1, number 2, number 3, etc. \ll I had to do was to telephone the cook that so many people were coming and to prepare lunch number so and so.

One day Mrs. Roosevelt and her daughter came with Mr. Bishop to see the work at Gatun, and after asking them to li nchi, my wife being away, I telephoned the cook that there would be three extra people and to prepare luncheon number 1. 1. unfortunateli said that Mrs. RooseTelt would be there.

The Jamaican has great respect for royalty. Before reaching home I heard that our servants had passed the word around among the other servants at Gatun that the Queen of America vould lake lunch at our house today. On entering the house it was evident that every piece of cut glass, silver, or pretty China in the place was out where it could be most casily seen.

On reaching the table it was soon seen that we had lunches 1, 2, and 3 combined. But finally, when four tiny cups of coffee were passed on a large salver resurrected

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The following article gives such a constructive and national pres nation and discussion of our country's undeveloped resources that it should be read by every American. It forms the annual report to the President of the United States by Mr. Lane, Secretary of the Interior, and is here published in full. For a map of Alaska, see the Supplement to this number of the NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE.

HERE exists a feeling in the portunities to the monopolist, but did not
West that its affairs and needs open them to the developer.

have not been given that consideration at the hands of the national gov

FORMERLY WE TRIED TO GET RID OF OUR ernment which they merit. This feeling

LAND AS QUICKLY AS POSSIBLE is not confined to speculators or exploit I have said that we had put into force ers. It is the sentiment of many who are a new land policy, which caused dismay without selfish motive and regard the

and discontent. Let me explain what I matter wholly from the standpoint of na mean by this. It was, in fact, but a new tional growth. They point to the condi- application of an old policy. Congress

ons which obtain in Alaska as unparal- has always been most generous as to the Jeled among people of our aggressive and disposition cf the national lands. One nation-building stock.

cannot read our land laws without being So, too, they are unable to understand struck with the fixed determination which why ways have not been found by which they show that it was wisest to be quit the great bodies of coal and oil lands, of of our lands as quickly as possible. It phosphate and potash lands, may be de- might almost be said that the government veloped, and the waters of the mountains regarded its lands as a burden rather than made available for the generation of

We gave generously to our power and the redemption of the desert.

railroads and to the States. There was There is one very simple explanation land for all, and it was the government's for the existence of this feeling. We glad function to distribute it and let those have adventured upon a new policy of profit who could. administering our affairs and have not There was no thought then of creating developed adequate machinery. We have timber barons or cattle kings, or of coal called a halt on methods of spoliation monopoly. The sooner the land got into which existed, to the great benefit of hands other than those of the governmany, but we have failed to substitute ment the better. methods, sane, healthful, and progressive, And this generous donor was not so by which the normal enterprise of an am as between bitious people can make full use of their lands, the uses to which they could be own resources. We abruptly closed op put, or the purposes whicli hose might

an asset.



CARGOTS OF SALVON ARRIVING IT IN AISKAN CANNERY "The purchase vi Alaska was made as it means of protection against the possibile aggression or forcimination and without the lope that world is even seli-supporting Julle intervenin 1) VOUS we have Venil lille noriliantie mast Casual (, Jol 11 mes, listieties, incl wcaluli tie Brun 500.000,000

(See I, page 185).




have who got them. Land is land, save gation; lands that are worthless save for when it contains minerals; this their timber; lands that are rich in grasses roughly the broad principle adopted. To and lands that are poor in grasses; lands classify was a task too difficult or not underlain with the non-precious minerals worth while. The lands would classify essential to industry or agriculture; lands themselves when they arrived in indi that are invaluable for reservoir or dam vidual ownership. And so the door was sites—these varieties may be multiplied, opened for monopoly and for fraud. and each new variety emphasizes the fact

If the government did not appreciate that each kind of land has its own future the invaluable nature of its assets, there and affords its own opportunity for conwere men who did. Great fortunes were tributing to the nation's wealth. laid in the vast holdings of what had but So there has slowly evolved in the puba short time since been the property of lic mind the conception of a new policy the people. There was danger that the that land should be used for that purpose many still to pour into the West would to which it is best fitted, and it should be by necessity become the servitors of a disposed of by the government with refortunate and early few. On this dis spect to that use. To this policy. I believe covery our indifference at

once took

the West is now reconciled. The West flight. And so out of the abuse of the no longer urges a return to the hazards nation's generosity there came a reaction of the “land is land” policy, but it does against a policy that was so liberal as to ask action. It is reconciled to the govbe dangerous

ernment making all proper safeguards The nation wanted home-makers, but against monopoly and against the subfound its lands drifting into the hands of version of the spirit of all our land lau's, corporations which were withdrawing which is in essence that all suitable lands them from the market, awaiting a time shall go into homes, and all other lands when lands would be more scarce; it gave shall be developed for that purpose which opportunity for many competing coai shall make them of greatest service; but operators and iron manufacturers, but it asks that the machinery be promptly found the sources of raw material cen established in the law by which the lands tering into a few large holdings: it wished may be used; and this demand is reasonits lands to be cleared of forests to make able. Way for farms, but it found hundreds of

ALASKA ILIS ENORMOUS UNDEVELOPED consecutive miles reserved from use by

RESOURCES the fiat of those who appreciated their worth, and many more miles of water The largest body of unused and negshed despoiled of its needed covering in lected land in the United States is Alaska. places where homes were not possible. It is 1011 nearly half a century since ve

purchased this territory, and it contains A REACTION WAS INEVITABLE

today less than 10,000 white inhabitants, A reaction was inevitable. If lands less than 1,000 for each year it has been !'ere to be withdrawn from public serv in our possession. The purchase was ice, why might not the government do the made as a means of protection against withdrawing itself? The old philosophy the possible aggression of a foreign nathat “land is land” was evidently unfitted tion and without the hope that it would to a country where land is sometimes be even self-supporting. In the intertimber and sometimes coal; indeed, where lening to lears we have given it little

may mean water—water for tens of more than the most casual concern: ret thousands of needy neighboring acres:

its mines, fisheries, and furs alone have for the lands of the West differ as men added to our wealth the grand sum of do, in character and condition and degree $500.000.000. of usefulness. We had not recognized For almost a generation it was the rich this fact when we said "land is land.” harvest field of a single company. IndiLands fitted for dry farming and lands ridual fortunes have been made in that that must forever lie unused without irri country larger than the price paid to




Russia for the whole territory How of southeastern Ilaska has a climate rich its waters are lieknol, because they more temperate and more equable than have been proverd: but how rich its laudis that of Washington, D. C., while much are in gold and copper, coal and oil, iron of the greater portion to the north has a and zinc, no one knows. The prospector kindlier climate than Stockholm or St. has gone far enough, horrever, to tell us Petersburg: Joreover, our people are that no other section of our land today not stayed in their quest for homes or makes so richi a mineral promise.

vealth by the rigors of a long winter. Ind in agriculture the government it The spirit and purpose which brought self has demonstrated that it will produce them from Europe to Virginia and to in abundance all that can be raised in the Vassachusetts take them today to VonScandinavian countries, the hardi cereals tana and Saskatchewan. The United and vegetables, the meats and the berries States lately opened to entry a tract of off which nine million people live in Vor land in Montana for which there were Wal; Sieden, and Finland. It has been +2,000 applicants for registration, and estimated that there are 50 million acres onli 7,000 of these could be given an opof this land that will make homes for a portunity to homestead. There is more people its sturdy is those of New Eng- railroad building 500 miles north of the land. Whether this is so or not. it youll Canadian border than there is for the appear that .Taska can be made self

same distance south of it. sustaining agriculturally.

Why has not this land been developed? This last and unsurpassed asset lies The frank ansiler is that he did not realalmost undevelopeel. | territori one ize until within a few years that it was fifth the size of the United States con worth developing: Is soon as we distains less than a thousand miles of any covered its value as a national asset We thing that can be called a vagon road. became alarmed and dren backi afIt has a few incon icrable stretches of frighted at the thought that we might railroad which terminate with one lose it, or at least that it would become the ception, cither in the wilderness or at a

property of those who would exploit it private industry. Only the richest of its

without respect to the public interest. mines can be worked, and one of its re Since then we have been waiting to make sources of greatest immediate value to

up our minds as to what wisely could be the people, its coal lands, lies unworked. done. Telave hesitated and halted out

The one constructive thing done by this of the lery keenness of our appreciation government on behali of Ilaska in nearly

of what laska miglit become half a century was the importation of It has rather been in compliment to reindeer for the benclit of the Eskimo laska than in derogation of her value on the border of the Tretic Ocean. For

that lie liave done so little for her in late the white man ve have done nothing

Tears. It was a new land, to be opened little, in fact, that to mention what le uuder nel conditions. The mistakes have done is matter for chagrin and lu made there and here ne did not wish to miliation I have thought that perhaps repeat. But now, after a long pause, it the scandals that have developed in hould seem to be the sense of the people Naska have been in some part the result that we shall proceed at once and in a of a feeling that it was a No Man's Land,

large way to deal with the problem of where the primal instincts and powers laskan derelopment. were the only law.


Ile hare withdrawn \laska from the TOUBLE CILLITI TILIS

too aggressive and self-serving exploiter. 11.ISITINGTON, 1. C.

Ilhat have ve to substitute as a safer This unfortunate condition cannot l'e servant of public interest? To this

quesexplained on the ground of the inhospi- tion I have given much thought, and my tality of the Ilaskan climate. I cauciul conclusion is that if we are to bring study of isothermal lines shows that some Maska into the early and full realization

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