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whereas the Gatun Dam was built with a through this pipe under a 30-foot head, slope of about one in ten. The founda three Jamaicans were removing drift and tion was simply spread, making the dam one of them fell in the 20-inch pipe. The about a third of a mile through at the other two tried to pull him out but could base, so that the underlying material not. They let him go and ran as quickly would carry the load. This underlying as they could to the other end of the pipe. material was compressed under the load The man traveling in the pipe reached the in some places as much as 15 feet. As end first, not withstanding the fact that he the load was gradually placed on it, the turned a corner at an angle of 90 degrees. material in the base became more and His ears were scratched a little! more compact, until finally settlement has There was a great deal of emulation practically ceased.

between the employees in the different Every two or three months borings divisions. The part of the story so far have been made through the material in told is true, but Colonel Gorgas made the the dam itself, and that under it, for the addition that the man jumped up and purpose of ascertaining any changes in said that there wasn't anybody on the the character of such materials. This l'acific Division who could do that. data shows that the material, both in the The spillway over which the surplus dam and under it, is continually becom waters of the Gatun Lake find their way ing more compact. It stands today, safely to the Atlantic Ocean is foud on page carrying its full load, and tomorrow it 170. This is a picture of the spillway will be able to carry more.

when practically complete.

The gates on top are 15 feet wide and THE JAMAICAN IS HARD TO KILL

the lake will stand 16 feet deep against The dam was built by constructing them when no water is being wasted: trestles in both edges of it and from these consequently if one or more of the gates trestles making rock fills or “toes.” When is lifted water will now between the piers these toes had reached a height of 60 16 feet deep. These gates are raised and feet on the south face and about 30 feet lowered like a window-sash. These more on the north, dredges commenced to able gates constitute the regulating works, pump, an impermeable mixture of sand by means of which the level of Gatun and clay in between them. This central Lake is controlled. core constitutes the real barrier to the passage of

"TITE OUTEX OF WERIC.1" IND THE water through the Gatun Dam.

LUNCHEON PIRTI As the hydraulic fill was built up the In the beginning but very little prorock fills were carried up, so as always to vision was made for quarters for families constitute levees, holding the additional of the canal employees. It soon became hydraulic fill.

A pipe-line dredge pumps evident that order could not be mainabout 20 per cent solid material and So tained, contentment prevail, and a perper cent water, so in building a dam in manent force kept unless the wives of the this way it is necessary to provide some men were there ; so the commission wmeans for draining off the surplus water. dertook to build family quarters.

This was done wliere the dam joins the It was announced in circulars, etc., that hill, a 20-inch pipe being laid in a trench employees would be provided with family on the rock and carried in to the lower quarters within ten months after arrival edge of the hydraulic fill. An elbow was on the Isthmus. Not only all the marthen placed on the end of the pipe, and as ried men immediately applied for quarthe water and hydraulic fill rose other ters, but nearly every unmarried man on sections were added to the elbow. A the job applieci. Family quarters carried cage was placed around the intake end of

with it free light and fuel. this pipe to keep the drift away, and men Nearly every one of the young umarwere sent occasionally to remove such ried men the first time they came back drift from the pipe intake.

from leave brought a wife if they could At one time when water was running get one.

get one. The building department was

TIE FIRST BOAT TITROUCJI MIRAFLORES LOCK The lock-chambers here and at Pedro Miguel are the same size as those at Gatun. At this lock, the last on the Pacilic side, boats can be let down to the level of the Pacific from that of the Miraflores Lake, through which the canal runs after leaving the Pedro Miguel locks at the terminittion of the Culebra Cut. The boat shown in the picture is entering the lock srom the Pacilic Occan,

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DREDGE GROUNDED 55 FEET BELOW ST, I-LEVEL, (SET PAGI, 173)
This dredge was used 10 excavate the foundations of the Gatun lock and dug down 70 feet below sea-level. "After completing the excavation.
the dredge pumped all the water out of the space, leaving itself grounded 35 feet below the level of the sea, in which position it remained until thie
Walls were completed. Water was then let in from the sea; the dredge Hoated and cut its way out.'

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FILLING A TOCK

The water enters through a series of apertures arranged in rows of live along the floor of the lock. The barrel-shapeal objects on the right of the

picture are jets of water which have not burst into spray like Dose on the left (sce page 181)

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A CROSS-SECTION OF A LOCK CILVBER. LID 111LS, GITUN LOCKS, SHOWING HOW

THE LOCKS TRE FILLED IND EMPTIED A. Culvert in center wall.

E. Culvert in side wall. B. Connections between center and lateral F. Drainage gallery. culvert.

G. Gallery for electric wires. C. Lateral culvert.

H. Passageway for operators. D. Wells opening from lateral culveris into lock chamber.

THE SIDE WALL OF ONE OF THE GATUS LOCKS COMPARED TO I SIX-STORY BUILDING

The size of the culverts may be appreciated from the engine and dray: The "steps" hare

been filled in with earth and stone and graded to the top

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