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bor, stir up the soft bottom of Limon Stickle, who was doing the best he could, Bay and create currents, with the result but we were pushing him anyway; so, that there is a large amount of silting in after he had been urged and urged and the channel through the bay. For two then urged again to do more, one day he years in succession this silting amounted sent a wireless. “Fifty-eight inches of to more than two million cubic yards of rain this month. nything over fifty material.

inches considered an act of God." In order to remedy this condition, and

TIT FRENCII CIVIL TOULD IIIE DEEN for other reasons, it has been decided to

Its construct an east breakwater also.

USELESS NO11 end will be opposite the end of the west A little to the north of the Gatun locks breakwater, leaving an opening of 2,000 the American and French canals interfeet. When this breakwater is completed, sect, and the picture on page 158 shows the silting in the channel will cease and the relative sizes of the two. Had the all difficulties of transfers from one boat French canal been completed it would to another in the harbor will be elimi now be out of date, for its locks would nated. The west breakwater should be not be of a size sufficient to pass the completed in the summer of 1914, and boats that would now offer. the work on the east breakwater has just In the French project the sea-level commenced.

part of the canal on the Itlantic side extended about 10 miles farther

UP

the HOW THE BREAKWATERS ARE BUILT

Chagres l'alley than the American projThe method of building the break ect. The water supply would have been waters is as follows:

materially less than in the Imerican plan A trestle, suitable for a double-track and would not have been sufficient for railroad, was driven from the shore, ex the substitution of locks of the size 101 tending for two miles out to sea. The built, and those now adopted are none too rock forming the bottom of the break- large to meet the requirements of Conwater was run out on cars and dumped gress that the Panama Canal should be or plowed off until the fill was made built of such size as reasonably to meet alongside the trestle to an elevation of the demands of the future as to the size 15 feet below sea-level (compare page of ships.* 152). Between that level and 10 feet The canal is at sea-level from the Itabove sea-level the breakwater was built lantic to Gatun: it then goes up a flight of hard trap rock, obtained from Porto of three steps to Gatun Lake and conBello, the stone ranging in weight from tinues at that level for 32 miles. Then 1,500 pounds to 15 tons.

down one step at Pedro Miguel to MiraThe stone for the armor of the break flores Lake, which is 55 feet above seawater, as well as all crushed stone for the level; thence through the Viraflores Gatun locks, came from this seacoast locks, and the canal from there to the town of Porto Bello, situated some 20 Pacific is at sea-level again. miles northeast of Colon.

The proudest day that Gatun has yet This place has given all kinds of trou had was on the 20th day of September. ble. The first year we attempted to crush 1913, when the little tugboat Gatun vas stone for the Gatun locks, we had at lifted from sea-level to the surface of Porto Bello a rainfall amounting to 237 Gatun Lake, and was the first boat to inches-3 inches less than 20 feet : 9 feet pass through any lock of the Panama of rainfall in two months; 58 inches in Canal (see page 102). one month.

*The full length of each lock compartment Everything happened at Porto Bello

is 1,000 feet. The largest ship in the world, that could happen. Slides that no engi the Vaterland, of the Hamburg-American Line, neer would dream of occurring did occur. which is not yet completed, has a length of 050 On an average 300,000 cubic yards of feet. While it is unlikely that the huge liners crushed stone every day were necessary

used in the transatlantic passenger service will for the concrete at Gatun. We had a

often be required to pass through the canal,

still the locks are big enough to accommodate young officer of engineers there, Captain the largest ship in the world.

This

is a picture looking toward

the Atlantic Ocean from

the Gatui

locks

at ille point where

the present

canal crosses

the french excavations

.

I CONPARISON OF TITT PRINCIL IND IMERICAN CANNES

size sufficient 10 pass the large ships of the present day. Jlad the lirench canal been completed, it would now be out of date, is it was much smaller than the present

je in its lacks would

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As soon as a boat passes the lower place was off to the west of the locks, in lock gates they are closed behind it, and

an old swamp that had given no trouble water is let into that box or lock chamber previously. A few mosquitoes had bred from the lock above until the same level in this place all the time, but there were of water exists in the lower and middle enough wild animals in the swamp to locks, the boat being lifted 2893 feet in supply food, so the mosquitoes were not this operation. After that the gate sepa forced to migrate. When salt water was rating the lower and middle lock will be pumped into the swamp water, making opened and the boat will pass into the the mixture about 30 per cent salt, mossecond lock, the gates closed behind it, quitoes began to breed by the trillions. and the process repeated, the boat being I went down there one morning to see lifted another 2813 feet.

That opera

how the mosquitoes were caught and tion repeated once more will cause the painted. Walking along the edge of the boat to float out on the level of Gatun

water, mosquito bars Lake.

pended from limbs tied up at the bottom. The filling of the lower chamber of They had thousands of mosquitoes in Gatun lock for the first time is shown in them ready to be sprayed with a colorea the picture on page 164. The gate on liquid, and the sanitary inspector was which all the men are standing is called asked how he caught them. the east gate or guard gate. These gates He said, "Te have a more scientific were completed as soon as practicable way, but this had io be done in a hurry. and then closed, so as to keep the sea out We simply let the mosquito bar down, as of the locks while dredges were complet you would over a bed, left one side of it ing the excavations in the lock entrance, open, and put a Jamaica negro in there thus not interfering with the work on for bait." Is soon as the mosquito bar the other gates nor with the machinery was full the bait was removed and the installation.

end tied up.

I saw some Jamaican negroes sitting PAINTING MOSQUITOES.

out in front, and I said to one fellolli On both sides of the channel at Gatun "John, were you the bait in that bar?" were extensive swamps. They were great and he replied, “Yes, boss; that is the breeding places for mosquitoes, and in easiest moner lever earned ten cents an digging the channel through the soft, hour for sitting there and doing nothing swampy bottom pipe-line dredges were but just inviting the mosquitoes in." used. These dredges cut up the material

TII DREDGING FLEET near the suction of the pumps, draw it in with water, and force it long distances Just prior to the time that water vas through pipe-lines. In making the chan let into Culebra Cut, a feet of dredges nel excavation those swamp areas were was brought up preparatory to removing built up high enough to enable the sani Cucaracha slide, the last one that ol)tary department to drain them.

structed the passage across the continent. In 1912 Gatun had probably the great. The picture on page 106 shows part of est influx of malarial mosquitoes in its the fleet assembled for passing through history: they came by the thousands. the locks, and gives a good picture of a The Gatun Lake was rising at that time, pipe-line dredge, showing the cutter in and it was not known whether these mos front. When this cutter is revolved. quitoes were coming from that lake or those blades loosen the dirt, the intake of not; so the sanitary department deter the pump is just behind, and when the mined to locate all the breeding places for water is drawn in by the pump it carries mosquitoes near Gatun, catch mosquitoes in from 15 to 20 per cent of solid matter. at each place, and after painting them and the pump gives it velocity enough to turn them loose, and determine by the be carried from one-half to three-quarcolor of the mosquitoes caught in Gatun ters of a mile through a pipe. from what point they came.

The entire dredging fleet is shown in It was found that the largest breeding the picture on page 167. There were

[graphic]

TIE GATUN LOCKS, LOOKING TOWARD TIL ATLANTIC The waters of the Atlantic low into the canal for seven miles, until they reach the first gates of the lower lock at Gatun. The lower and middle Jocks are shown in the picture, while Ure incline leading to the upper locks appears in the foreground. The swamps in the distance at the lest were a constant source of trouble while the locks were being made, owing to the innumeralsle mosquitoes which breel in them (see page 59).

[graphic]

TIIE LOCKS IT GATUN, LOOKING IN TID OPPOSITE DIRECTION TOWARD GATUN LIKE

These are the upper locks at Gatun, where vessels lie during the last of the three stages of being lifted from sea-level, on the Atlantic side, to the level of the Gatun Lake, 85 feet above, after which there is 32 miles of clear sailing before Pedro Miguel, the first lock on the Pacific side, is reached. Beyond the locks we see Gatun Lake, 165 square miles in extent. Note the floating islands.

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