Elements of Chemistry: Theoretical and Practical, Part 1

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Contents

AirPump with a Single Barrel
42
The Mercurial Trough
48
Cements
56
Solution
62
Adhesion of Gases to Liquids Solubility of Gases
64
Adhesion of Gases to Solids
65
Desiccation of Gases
66
Diffusion of Gases
67
Effusion of Gases
68
Transpiration of Gases
69
Passage of Gases throngh Diaphragms
70
Separation of Bodies by Oold or Heat PAGS 81 82 84 85 89 89 92
71
Modes of obtaining Crystals
72
Separation of Salts by the process of Crystallization
73
Sudden CrystallizationNuclei
74
Circumstances which modify Orystalline Form
75
Diffusion of LiquidsMode of Measuring
76
Development of Crystalline Form in Solids
77
Structure of CrystalsCleavage
78
Goniometers
79
The Reflecting Goniometer
80
Symmetry of Orystalline Form
81
Classification of Crystals
82
Isomorphism
83
Chemical Bearings of Isomorphism
84
Isomorphous Groups
85
Dimorphism
86
Allotropy
87
103
103
Fixed Lines in the SpectrumFrannhofers Lines
106
Spectrum AnalysisSpectroscope
107
Projection of Spectral Lines on Screen
108
Kirchhoffs Theory of Fraunhofers Lines
109
Change in the Refrangibility of LightFluorescence
110
Complex Nature of Radiant Force
111
Phosphorogenic RaysPhosphoroscope
112
Velocity of LightIts Measurement
113
Frequency of Undulation in Different colours
114
Interference
115
Colours of Thin Plates
116
Double Refraction
117
Influence of Crystalline Form on Double Refraction
118
Polarization of Light by Double Refraction
119
CHAPTER IV
120
Influence of Light in producing Chemical Changes 89 Sources of Lighty
121
Polarization by a Bundle of Plates
122
Theories of LightUndulations 91 Ilustrations of Undulations from Sound
123
Colours of Polarized Light
124
Colours in Plates cut perpendicular to the Axis
125
Varieties of SoundQualityPitch 93 Mechanism of Undulation
126
Transparency and Opacity
127
Law of the Diminution of Light by Distance 96 Rumfords Photometer 97 Reflection from Plane Surfaces 98 Reflection from Curved Surfaces
130
Refraction
131
Law of the Sines
132
Refraction at Inclined Surfaces
133
Total Reflection
134
Wollastons Method of ascertaining Refractive Power 104 Prismatic Analysis of Light 105 Theory of ColoursAbsorption
138
105a Dispersive Power
140
Equilibrium of Temperature
148
Conduction in Solids Liquids and Gases
149
Inequality in the Rate of Conduction in different Directions
150
Convection of Heat
151
Ourrents in GasesVentilation
152
Trade WindsLand and Seabreezes
153
Gulf Stream
154
Radiation of Heat
155
Reflection of Heat
156
Absorption of Heat
157
Connexion between Absorption and Radiation
158
159
159
Law of Cooling by Radiation
160
120
161
Transmission of Heat through ScreensDiathermacy
162
163
163
Influence of Structure on Diathermacy
164
Refraction of Heat
165
Separation of Radiant Heat from Light
166
Double Refraction and Polarization of Heat
167
121
173
123
174
124
175
126
178
128
180
129
181
130
182
131
186
132
187
Expansion of Liquids
188
Expansion of Gases
191
PARAGRAPI
192
Air ThermometersDifferential Thermoscope 186 Principle on which the Thermometer is Graduated 137 Tests of a good Thermometer 138 Different ...
194
Increase in the Ratio of Dilatation with Rise of Temperature 140 PyrometersDaniells Pyrometer 141 Comparative Range of Temperature 142 Force e...
198
Anomalous Expansion of Water
199
Correction of Gases for Temperature
200
Adjustment of Bulk to Changes of Temperature 146 Process of taking Specific Gravity of Gases 147 Determination of the Specific Gravity of Vapours
204
207
207
PARAGRAPH
214
222
222
Specific Heat Latent Heat 232294
232
Causes of Variation of Specific Heat 170 Variation in Amount of Specific Heat according to Physical State 171 Specific Heat of Gases and Vapours
237
186
239
Relation of Specific Heat to Atomic Weight 173 Atomic Heats of Compounds
240
Disappearance of Heat during LiquefactionLatent Heat 175 Freezing Mixtures
247
183
250
Regelation of Ice
251
Production of Cold during Evaporation 186 Measurement of the Latent Heat of Vapours
263
137
265
188
268
Evaporation
270
Daltons Law of the Tension of Vapours 191 Limit of Evaporation
272
140
273
Wheatstones Rheostat and Resistance Coils
274
232
275
ConductionConducting Power of Solids
276
Heating Effects in Wires
277
Conduction by Liquids
278
Conducting Power of Gases
279
Electric Light
280
Chemical Actions
281
Laws of Electrolysis
282
Relative Decomposability of Electrolytes
283
Electrochemical Actions
284
Electrolysis of Salts
285
Bearing of Electrolysis on the Theory of Salts
286
Unequal Transfer of Ions during Electrolysis
287
Electrovection or Electrical Endosmose
288
Secondary Results of Electrolysis
289
Nascent State of Bodies
290
Theory of the Electrical Origin of Chemical Attraction
291
Electrotype or Voltatype Processes
292
Preparation of Moulds for Electrotyping
293
SIV Atomic Relations of Heat Evolved in Chemical
294
Electrozincing c
295
Electrogilding
296
Resemblances between Static and Voltaic Electricity
297
Delucs Dry PileZambonis Pile
298
Water Battery
299
204
301
PAGI 899
307
Calorific Equivalents of Elements
308
Leading Characters of Magnetic Action
315
Summary of Facts in ThermoElectricity
316
PARAGRAPA PAGD 227 Electrical Hypotheses
329
Electrical Induction 880
330
Faradays Theory of Induction
332
Distribution of the Electric Oharge 833
335
233
337
Spread of Induction 839
339
The Leyden Jar 236 Measures of Electricity
340
236
344
237
346
Various Modes of Discharge 847
347
240
349
Disruptive Discharge
350
242
352
Striking Distance
353
Convection
356
245
357
Electricity from Chemical Action
358
247
359
Atmospheric ElectricityLightning Rods
360
Aurora Borealis 863
363
Galvanic or Voltaic Electricity 364450
364
251
365
253
366
254
367
Summary of the Effects produced by the Conducting Wire
370
256
371
257
372
259
373
260
376
261
377
Protection of Ships Sheathing
380
Circuits with One Metal and Two Liquids
382
263
383
Groves Gas Battery
384
265
387
Groves Nitric Acid BatteryBunsens Coke Battery
389
Smees Battery
390
268
391
Differences between a Simple and a Compound Circuit
393
Ohms Formulæ
395
Chemical Decomposition
397
272
398
274
401
276
402
4014
404
411 413
413
418
418
422
422
Law of ElectroMagnetic Action 301 Tangent Galvanometer
450
Influence of a Conducting Wire in exciting Magnetism
451
Formation of ElectroMagnets
452
Molecular Movements during the Magnetization of Bars
453
Laws of ElectroMagnetism
454
Ampères Theory of ElectroMagnetism
455
Mutual Influence of Wires which are conveying Currents 308 ElectroMagnetio Rotations
459
Electric Telegraph
460
MagnetoElectricity 465481 810 VoltaElectric Induction
465
MagnetoElectric Induction
466
Ruhmkorffs MagnetoElectric Induction CoilStratified Electric Discharge
468
Henrys Coils
473
Aragos Rotations
476
MagnetoElectric Machines
478
The Muscular Current in Living Animals
486
Diamagnetism of Gases
492
Mutual Relations of diferent kinds of Force
499
INDEX
506
Declination or Variation
507

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Page 287 - On partially liquefying carbonic acid by pressure alone, and gradually raising at the same time the temperature to 88° F., the surface of demarcation between the liquid and gas became fainter, lost its curvature, and at last disappeared. The space was then occupied by a homogeneous fluid, which exhibited, when the pressure was suddenly diminished or the temperature slightly lowered, a peculiar appearance of moving or flickering striae throughout its entire mass.
Page 185 - It seems possible to account for all the phenomena of heat, if it be supposed that in solids the particles are in a constant state of vibratory motion, the particles of the hottest bodies moving with the greatest velocity...
Page 147 - For instance, the orange ray may be the effect of the strontia, since Mr. Herschel found in the flame of muriate of strontia a ray of that colour. If this opinion should be correct, and applicable to the other definite rays, a glance at the prismatic spectrum of a flame may show it to contain substances which it would otherwise require a laborious chemical analysis to detect.
Page 196 - ... with it, which moves upon the face of the arc, and subdivides the former graduation into minutes of a degree ; the other end crosses the centre, and terminates in an obtuse steel point, turned inwards at a right angle.
Page 367 - F, a communication be established between the two vessels, part of the current will pass through this wire and return to the pile. The quantity of electricity circulating in the galvanometer will be thus diminished, and with it the deflection of the needle. Suppose, then, that by this artifice we have reduced the galvanometric deviation to its fourth or fifth part ; in other words, supposing that the needle being at 10 or 12 degrees, under the action of a constant source of heat, placed at a fixed...
Page 146 - The colours thus communicated by the different bases to flame afford, in many cases, a ready and neat way of detecting extremely minute quantities of them...
Page 353 - ... inch above the other ; discharge a large jar through the card. It will be perforated opposite the wire attached to the negative coating, and an irregular dark line of reduced mercury will be found extending on the positive side to the point of the positive wire. If the experiment be made in vacuo, the perforation will be formed midway between the two wires. The distinction between positive and negative electricity is also beautifully shown by what are termed Lichtenberg's figures, which may be...
Page 287 - ... liquefaction of carbon dioxide or separation into two distinct forms of matter can be effected, even under a pressure of 300 or 400 atmospheres. Similar results are obtained with nitrous oxide. It appears indeed that there exists for every liquid a temperature, called by Andrews the
Page 179 - Substances are said to be optically active when they produce rotation of the plane of polarisation of a ray of polarised light which passes through them. The rotation may be either to the right or to the left, according to the nature of the substance ; in the former case the substance is said to be dextro-rotatory ; in the latter, Izvo-rotatory.
Page 368 - The other forces are easily obtained by the proportions : — 1-5 : 5=a : x=— a=3-333 a 1*5 (that is to say, one reduced current is to the total current to which it corresponds, as any other reduced current is to its corresponding total current), where a represents the deflection when the exterior circuit is closed.

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