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The true end of education, is to unfold and direct aright our whole nature. Its office is to call forth power of every kind-power of thought, affection, will, and outward action; power to observe, to reason, to judge, to contrive; power to adopt good ends firmly, and to pursue them effic. iently; power to govern ourselves, and to influence others; power to gain and to spread happiness. Reading is but an instrument; education is to teach its best use. The intellect was created, not to receive passively a few words, dates, facts, but to be active for the acquisition of truth. Accordingly, education should labor to inspire a profound love of truth, and to teach the processes of investigation. A sound logic, by which we mean the science or art which instructs us in the laws of reasoning and evidence, in the true methods of inquiry, and in the sources of false judgments, is an essential part of a good education. And yet, how little is done to teach the right use of the intellect, in the common modes of training either rich or poor. As a general rule; the young are to be made, as far as possible, their own teachers—the discoverers of truth—the interpreters of nature—the framers of science. They are to be helped to help themselves. They should be taught to observe and study the world in which they live, to trace the connections of events, to rise from particular facts to general principles, and then to apply these in explaining new phenomena. Such is a rapid outline of the intellectual education, which, as far as possib'e, should be given to all human beings; and with this, moral education shouiu go hand in hand. In proportion as the child gains knowledge, he should be taught how to use it wellhow to turn it to the good of mankind. He should study the world as God's world, and as the sphere in which he is to form interesting connections with his fellow-creatures. A spirit of humanity should be breathed into him from all his studies. In teaching geography, the physical and moral condition, the wants, advantages, and striking peculiarities of different nations, and the relations of climate, seas, rivers, mountains, to their characters and pursuits, should be pointed out, so as to awaken an interest in man wherever he dwells. History should be constantly used to exercise the moral judgment of the young, to call forth sympathy with the fortunes of the human race, and to expose to indignation and abhorrence that selfish ambition, that passion for dominion, which has so long deluged the earth with blood and woe. And not only should the excitement of just moral feeling be proposed in every study, the science of morals should form an important part of every child's instruction. One branch of ethics should be particularly insisted on by the government. Every school, established by law, should be specially bound to teach the duties of the citizen to the state, to unfold the principles of free institutions, and to train the young to an enlightened patriotism.
W. E. CHANNING. Christian Examiner, Nov., 1833.
The object of the science of education is to render the mind the fittest possible instrument for discovering, applying, or obeying the laws under which God has placed the universe.
We regard education as the formation of the character, physical, intellectual, and moral; as the process by which our faculties are developed, cultivated, and directed, and by which we are prepared for our station and employment, for usefulness and happiness, for time and eternity.
W. C. WOODBRIDGE All intelligent thinkers upon the subject now utterly discard and repu. diate the idea that reading and writing, with a knowledge of accounts, constitute education. The lowest claim which any intelligent man now prefers in its behalf is, that its domain extends over the threefold nature of man; over his body, training it by the systematic and intelligent observance of those benign laws which secure health, impart strength and prolong life; over his intellect, invigorating the mind, replenishing it with knowledge, and cultivating all these tastes, which are allied to virtue; and over his moral and religious susceptibilities also, dethroning selfishness, enthroning conscience, leading the affections outwardly in good-will towards man, and upward in gratitude, and reverence to God.
Far above and beyond all special qualifications for special pursuits, is the importance of forming to usefulness and honor the capacities which are common to all mankind. The endowments that belong to all, are of far greater consequences than the peculiarities of any. The practical farmer, the ingenious mechanic, the talented artist, the upright legislator or judge, the accomplished teacher, are only modifications or varieties of the original man. The man is the trunk; occupations and professions are only different qualities of the fruit it yields. The development of the common nature; the cultivation of the germs of intelligence, uprightness, benevolence, truth that belong to all; these are the principal, the aim, the end, while special preparations for the field or the shop, for the forum or the desk, for the land or the sea, are but incidents.
The great necessities of a race like ours, in a world like ours, are: a Body, grown from its elemental beginning, in health; compacted with strength and vital with activity in every part; impassive to heat and cold, and victorious over the vicissitudes of seasons and zones; not crippled by disease nor stricken down by early death; not shrinking from bravest effort, but panting, like fleetest runner, less for the prize than for the joy of the race; and rejuvenant amid the frosts of age. A Mind, as strong for the immortal as is the body for the mortal life; alike enlightened by the wisdom and beaconed by the errors of the past; through intelligence of the laws of nature, guiding her elemental forces, as it directs the limbs of its own body through the nerves of motion, thus making alliance with the exhaustless forces of nature for its strength and clothing itself with her endless charms for its beauty, and, wherever it goes, carrying a sun in its hand with which to explore the realms of nature, and reveal her yet hidden truths. And then a Moral Nature, presiding like a divinity over the whole, banishing sorrow and pain, gathering in earthly joys and immortal hopes, and transfigured and rapt by the sovereign and sublime aspiration TO KNOW AND DO THE WILL OF God.
REPORT AND DOCUMENTS OF COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION,
Academy, meaning of, 414.
Circular respecting, 401.
Monuments of private liberality, 429. Adams, J., education clause in Mass. Constitu.
Circular respecting, 129.
Wisconsin, 211, 283.
Constitution of 1819; of 1865, 108; of 1867, 125.
Classified index of subjects, 17.
Donation to Agricultural College, 249.
Architecture, schools of, 244, 278.
Constitution of 1836, 110; of 1863, 126.
State and education, 331.
State and education, 334.
Plan of Journal of Education, 9.
Teachers' Institute in Wisconsin, 755.
Van Repsselaer, 253.
Amherst, Mass., 249.
Brougham, Lord, 50, 333, 335.
Circular, school-honses, 519. Brown. Thoinas, the process of education, 845. Circular, Formal Schools, 651. Brown University and Agricultural College, 199. Circular, 1110ins of natural tistory, 821. Brown's hot water furnace, 341.
Circular, academies of art. 2. Brownson, 0. A., education d'fined, 844.
Circular, public grounds. 89. Bullock, Gov., address on Normal Schools, 671. Circular, educational tracts, 32. Burlington (Vt.) State University and Agricul. Common schools abouill be co0d, 317. tural College, 279,
Basis of all public education, 319.
Sources of ail publie prosperity, 322.
'True idea of. 316.
Competitive examination. xxi.
Zurich law, 338.
Connecticut, early educational history, 48, Agricultural land grant, 125.
Statistical data. 77. Agricultural, Mining, and Mechanical Arts Code of 1050, 328. College, 297.
Constitution of 1818, 89.
School fund. 9.
College of agriculture, 217.
Cornell University, le 23). Scientific Depart, of Dartmouth College, 278. Legislation respecting, 182. Chapman school-honxe, model size, 518.
Cornell, Ezra, 2.34. Charitable institutions, XX.
Conant. M.. and Normal Schools. fo. Charleston, (S. C.)State Normal School, 787. Correspondenc: of department, xxii. Cheever, Ezekiel, 518.
Cottage Grove school-house', Chicago, I. Chemistry, school of, 923.
Cousin's tribute to Pru-sian scbonis. 414. Chicugo, plans of school-houses, 577.
Courses of study, elementary sehool, 33. Wells school, 578.
Agricultural colleges, 2:13, 2511, 355, , 92, Cottage Grove, 521.
227, 291, 303, City University, 582.
Gyinnasiums 357. 495. Chinese maxims, influence of education, 331. Normal schools, 361 Cicero, genius and diseipline, 844.
Technological schools, 223, 29. Pursuit of knowledge, 330.
R-al-school, 502. Cincinnati school-bouwen. 593.
Mining schools, 24, 263. City candidates for college, 421,
Cox, W., circle of buman knowledge, ED. City grammar school-house, wiz- of, 542. City training schools, FUB, 809.812.
Dane county, (Wis.,) donation of, 213. Citizenship and education, 216, 3:24.
Dane, Nathan, report on acuderies, 416. Circulars of Commisioner, 63, 81, 129, 311, 369, Davenport (Iowa) City Training School 813 401, 519, 657, 821, 832 8:23.
Davenport, Johu, 400.
Agricultural land grant, 185.
Daughters, education of, 371. Civil engineering, 225.
Deat-mute pineation, 34. Classes in Prussian gynnasiums, 493.
Degrees and diplomas, academic, 216.
Bachlor of agriculture, 2.
Bachelor of science, 266, 272.
Dostor of philosophy, 236. Advantages of, 288.
Military and mining engineering, 268.
Master of science, 272, 216.
Constitution of 1831, 94.
Agricultural land grant, 141.
Denominational schools, 34.
Department of Education, ix, 5. General circular, xiii.
Dickinson, J. W., philosophy of teaching, hes Plan of publication, xxiii, 5.
Directors of Prussian gymnasiums, 164 Reports annual and special. xxv,
Dinter, official duty to education, 61. Work done in 1867-68, xxvi.
District of Columnbia, xxvii. Expenses of, xxxii.
District school mystem, original object of, 415 Circular respecting land grants, 63.
Doane, George, address by, 313. Circular, constitutiopal provision, 80.
Domestic traiaing of girls, 374. Circular, schools of science, 1:29.
Drawing, teachers of in Prussia, 483. Circular, national education, 311.
Dummer School at Bytield, Mass., 410. Circular, female education, 369.
Duty of State to education, 313. Circular, academies, 401.
Dwight, Edmund, 693. Circular, secondary education, 433.
Free school, constitutional provision.
Georgia, 128; Louisiana, 128; North Caro-
Gallaudet, T. H., and Normal Schools, 664.
Constitution of 1798, 99; of 1868, 128.
Punishment and prevention, 315.
Taxation for schools, 323.
Prussia, 433. Gymnastics, branch of instruction in Prussia,
500. Teachers of, in Prussia, 283. Guizot on Normal Schools, 800.
State and education, 336.
Eaton, Nathaniel, 404.
General principles, 18.
Legislation respecting, xxix.
Zurich system, 342.
Normal School advocate, 665,
Mechanical mining, 241, 242, 263.
Duty of education, 59.
Normal School, 561.
Examen pro loco, 476.
Trial year, 489.
Governor Washburn's address, 673.
Teachers, 672, 679.
Circular respecting, 371.
Hall, S. R., and Normal Schools, 662. Hamilton, Sir W., end of liberal study, 845. Hammond, C., 403.
Academies of New England, 403. Harris, James, nature of instruction, 838. Hart, John S., and Normal Schools, 732. Heating apparatus, 551. Hecker, J. Julius, and real schools, 501. Henry, Patrick, 94. Hickson, E. II., kind of education needed, 336. High schools, relative position, 420.
Impossible in country towns. 4:31.
Compared with academies, 421. History, teachers of, trained in Prussia, 486. Hoar, president of Harvard College, 233.
Suggestions as to garden and workshop in
Not possible for all children, 435,
Not favorable for some purposes, 436.
Services to classical learning, 407.
Hadley foundation, 408.
State of education, 315, Hughes high school, Cincinnati, 593. Hulburd, C. T., and Normal Schools, 705. Hunboldt, William Von, 440. Hyattsville (M.) State Agricultural College,
Idiots, schuols for, 34.
Normal University, 745.
Constitution of 1816, 105, of 1851, 105.