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the animal side of the human being is most prominent; so that the word may be used even of a calf; and when applied to persons, is usually spoken of orphaned or neglected children, who early come into the charge of strangers; and whose education is considered chiefly from the point of view of a beneficent life-sustained love. Erziehen, (educate,) on the contrary, according to the signification of the prefix er in many words, denotes the action of ziehen perfected ; carried out to its ultimate object; as including all sides of the subjects of its action; complete within its proper scope. Erziehen (to educate) is therefore ziehen (to draw forth), and aufziehen (to bring up) in their metaphorical sense, but with the additional definite shade of meaning, that its action is carried out to its completed purpose, and applies to all sides of the object to be acted on. But this does not however fully express the actual extent of the idea. The best and most condensed definition that we can give is—Education is that intentional and systematic course of operations by adult persons upon the young, which is designed to raise the latter to whatever degree of individual excellence they are capable of by nature; and in whose attainment that divine purpose will be accomplished, for which every individual man is destined by God for himself and for society; and for which society also is destined in like manner.

SCHMIDT's "Padagogische Eneyklopädie."

Education is assistance directed to the fullest development of all the faculties of the man, and to an attainment the nearest possible of the end of his existence instituted by God. Thus education introduces nothing foreign into man, whereas instruction is concerned in the appropriation of a foreign material, of human knowledge generally, not the germs of which, but the capacity to make his own, lies in man.

Encyklopädie der Pädagogik. Education is the act [i. e. the continuous and entire treatment and conduct and exertion of influence] which places a child in the condition to fulfill as nearly as possible his destiny as a mortal and immortal being. It has for its aim the development of his faculties as a man, physical, in. tellectual, moral, social, and religious, in such proportion that through their harmonious action he will escape the punishments which await the bad, and become worthy of the rewards reserved for virtue.

Thomas Braun. Cours de Pédagogie. Maintaining the health of the body; training its powers; developing and sharpening the natural understanding ; enlightening ideas relative to man and the world; instructing and elevating the imagination, the sense of the beautiful, the noble, the great, the affecting, the refined, the pleasing; harmony of the bodily desires, and subjection of them to the moral laws of the reason; moderation in the enjoyment of the good things of life, and equanimity in the want of them; reference of all earthly being and action to the other side of the grave.

THE AUTHOR OF The Impulses of Reason.

There is within every man a divine ideal, the type after which he was created, the germs of a perfect person, and it is the office of education to favor and direct these germs.


Man is the only creature that requires to be educated : one generation educates another. The young, however, ought to be educated not in accordance with the present standard of the human race, but with a view to a future and much meliorated condition of humanity. In short, the object of education ought to be, to develop in the individual all the perfection of which he is capable.


The art of education ought to aim at a standard of elevation superior to what may happen to be the spirit of the time—for the child is to be educated not for the present merely.


I use this term (education) as embracing every means which can be made to act upon the vegetative, affective, and intellectual constitution of man, for the purpose of improving this his threefold nature.

Being asked what I mean by human nature? I reply, that it is not body alone, nor mind alone, nor animal propensities, affections, or passions; nor moral feelings, nor intellect; neither is it organization in general, nor any system of the body, nor any particularity whatever ; but human nature, in the proper sense of the words, comprehends all the observable phenomena of life, from the moment of conception to that of death, both in the healthy and diseased state; or in short, all the mani. festations both of the body and mind.

G. SPURZHEIM. View of Education.

Education may, in a certain sense, be said to be threefold—the education of nature, of man, and of circumstances. The internal development of our faculties and organs is the education of nature : the use which we are taught to make of this development is the education of man: and the acquisitions of our own experience respecting the objects which operate upon us is the education of circumstances.


Education proposes to confer on man the highest improvement of which his body, his mind, and his soul, are capable, with a view to secure his well being, to fit him for society, and to prepare him for a better world. Hence, general education is divided into three branches, physical, intellectual, and moral, the latter including religious training. The first aims at health, strength and beauty; the second at mental power and the acquisition of knowledge; and the third at piety, justice, goodness, and wisdom.

C. MARCEL. Language.

I call that education which embraces the culture of the whole man, with all his faculties—subjecting his senses, his understanding, and his passions to reason, to conscience, and to the evangelical laws of the Christian revelation.


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The first thing to be done in conducting the understanding is precisely the same as conducting the body, to give it regular and copious supplies of food, to prevent that atrophy and marasmus of mind, which comes on from giving it no new ideas. It is a mistake equally fatal to the memory, the imagination, the powers of reasoning, and to every faculty of the mind, to think too early that we can live upon our stock of understand. ing-that it is time to leave off business, and make use of the acquisitions we have already made, without troubling ourselves any further to add to them. It is no more possible for an idle man to keep together a certain stock of knowledge than it is possible to keep together a stock of ice exposed to the meridian sun. Every day destroys a fact, a relation, or an inference; and the only method of preserving the bulk and value of the pile is by constantly adding to it.

The fire of our minds must act and feed-upon the pure spirit of knowledge, or upon the foul dregs of polluting passions. Therefore, when I say, love knowledge with a great love, with a vehement love, with a love coeval with life, what do I say, but love innocence_love virtue-love purity of conduct—love that which will comfort you, adorn you, never quit you ;-which will open to you the kingdom of thought, and all the boundless regions of conception, as an asylum against the cruelty, the injustice, and the pain that may be your lot in the outer world—that which will make your motives habitually great and honorable, and light up in an instant a thousand noble disdains at the very thought of meanness and of fraud.

SIDNEY SMITH. There have been many men of an excellent mind and of great virtue without learning, merely by their extraordinary nature approaching to divine; but yet, when to this extraordinary nature are added the advantages of regular discipline and education, then at last something remarkably eminent and singularly great, is usually produced. CICERO.

Education in that sense in which it deserves the grave consideration and the earnest efforts of the community-is something more than the mere ability to read, write, and cipher; and something more too than what is commonly meant by moral and intellectual culture. It is the fitting the individual man for fulfilling his destiny, of attaining to the end, accomplishing the purposes for which God hath made him. It divides itself into two branches: 1. That which answers the question, what is my destiny as an individual, and fits me for attaining it? and 2dly, that which answers the question, what is the destiny of society, and fits me to coöperate in its attainment ? Individual education is general and special-education as a man, and education with reference to occupation or social position.

BROWNSOR. At the first it is no great matter how much you learn, but how well you learn it.

ERASMUS It (the understanding] grows like a tree under the unseen operations of time.


The most essential objects of education are the two following—first, to cultivate all the various principles of our nature, both speculative and active, in such a manner as to bring them to the greatest perfection of which they are susceptible; and, secondly, by watching over the impressions and associations which the mind receives in early life, to secure it against the influence of prevailing errors, and, as far as possible, engage its prepossessions on the side of truth.

To watch over the associations which they form in infancy; to give them early habits of mental activity ; to rouse their curiosity, and direct it to proper objects; to exercise their ingenuity and invention; to cultivate in their minds a turn for speculation, and, at the same time, preserve their attention alive to the objects around them; to awaken their sensibilities to the beauties of nature, and to inspire them with a relish for intellectual enjoyment—these form but a part of the business of education.


Education is that noble art which has the charge of training the ignorance and imbecility of infancy into all the virtue, and power, and wisdom of mature manhood—of forming, of a creature, the frailest and feeblest which heaven has made, the intelligent and fearless sovereign of the whole animated creation, the interpreter and adorer, and almost the representative of the Divinity.


Education is a process calculated to qualify man to think, feel, and act in a manner most productive of happiness. It possesses three essentials—first, by early exercise to improve the powers and faculties, bodily and mental ; secondly, to impart a knowledge of the nature and purposes of these powers and faculties; and, thirdly, to convey as extensive a knowledge as possible of the nature of external beings and things, and the relation of these to the human constitution.


The paramount end of liberal study is the development of the student's mind, and knowledge is principally useful as a means of determining the faculties to that exercise through which this development is accomplished. Self-activity is the indispensable condition of improvement; and education is only education—that is, accomplishes its purposes, only by affording objects and supplying incitements to this spontaneous exertion. Strictly speaking, every man must educate himself.

Sir WILLIAM HAMILTON. Metaphysics.

The great result of schooling is a mind with just vision to discern, with free force to do; the grand schoolmaster is Practice.

The first principle of human culture, the foundation-stone of all but false imaginary culture, is that men must before every other thing, be trained to do somewhat. Thus, and others only, the living Force of a new man can be awakened, enkindled, and purified into victorious clearness!

Thomas CARLYLE. Essays.

“A virtuous and noble education” is whatever tends to train up to 3 healthy and graceful activity our mental and bodily powers, our affeetions, manners, and habits. It is the business, of course, of all our lives, or, more properly, of the whole duration of our being. But since impressions made early are the deepest and most lasting, that is, above all, education which tends in childhood and youth to form a manly, upright, and generous character, and thus to lay the foundation for a course of liberal and virtuous self-culture.

Alonzo POTTER. The School and Schoolmaster.

Costly apparatus and splendid cabinets have no magical power to make scholars. As a man is, in all circumstances under God, the master of his own fortune, so is he the maker of his own mind. The Creator has so constituted the human intellect, that it can only grow by its own action; and it will certainly and necessarily grow. Every man must therefore educate himself. His books and his teachers are but his helps; the work is his. A man is not educated until he has the ability to summon, on an emergency, his mental powers in vigorous exercise to affect his proposed object. It is not the man who has seen the most, or read the most who can do this; such an one is in danger of being borne down, like a beast of burden, by an overloaded mass of other men's thoughts. Nor is it the man who can boast merely of native vigor and capacity. The greatest of all the warriors who went to the siege of Troy, bad not the preëminence because nature had given him strength, and he carried the largest bow; but because self-discipline had taught him how to bend it.


Education is development, not instruction merely—not knowledge, facts, rules—communicated by the teacher, but it is discipline, it is a waking up of the mind, a growth of the mind-growth by a healthy assimilation of wholesome aliment. It is an inspiring of the mind with a thirst for knowledge, growth, enlargement—and then a disciplining of its powers so far that it can go on to educate itself. It is the arousing of the child's mind to think, without thinking for it; it is the awakening of its powers to observe, to remember, to reflect, to combine. It is not a cultivation of the memory to the neglect of every thing else; but is a calling forth of all the faculties into harmonious action.

David Page. Theory and Practice.


Oh, woe to those who trample on the mind,
That deathless thing! They know not what they do,
Nor what they deal with. Man, perchance, may bind
The flower his step hath bruised; or light anew
The torch he quenches; or to music wind
Again the lyre-string from his touch that flew ;-
But for the soul, oh, tremble, and beware
To lay rude hands upon God's mysteries there !


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