« PreviousContinue »
(6) What facilities and incentives other than those already indicated, are offered
children to educate their perceptive faculties by observation of natural objects ? (c) Is this department of education systematically pursued, either by daily
occasional rambles with or without walking lectures and demonstrations, in places adapted to favor the acquisition of a familiar knowledge of many nat
ural objects ? (d) If so, describe the ground gone over. (e) Have healthful holiday excursions by public conveyances to a distance
been organized, by which children benefit ? (1) If so, describe the advantages of the localities visited, the time occupied,
the expense, and the manner in which it is defrayed, the number attending such excursions, and at what intervals they occur.
Note A (a.) A special schedule of inquiries has been prepared in regard to Cemeteries, which will be supplied when desired.
Note A (i.) For concise returns, the following classifications may be observed :Where the promenade is an ordinary town street, with no special attractions
except such as are found in unusual amplitude, gayer shops and finer build
ings, it may be classed as Urban. Where in an otherwise ordinary street, sufficient tree-borders have been intro
duced, or fine shade trees planted in such a manner that they can remain permanently in a flourishing condition without seriously interfering with the
general requirements of a street, it may be classed as Sylvan-Urban. A suburban or country road of the latter character, generally well shaded,
although the arrangement of trees is not complete, or thoroughly well carried out, may be classed as Sylvan Sub- Urban. If in this case its character is changing for the worse, or if it is evident that its suburban attractions must soon give way to the demands of business or the enlargement of the town,
the fact may be stated. An urban street or a public place, not a green, decorated with objects of art,
monuments, statues, fountains, vases, flower-pots, trophies, with or without screens or walls of verdure, or formal plantations, may be designated, Urban
Architectural. An inclosure of ground within a town, in which the surface is mainly kept in
turf, with trees planted on the border ; but with walks on the border or crossing the turf, provided it is in such a manner or to so limited an extent that the general impression which an observer has of the whole space is of
an unobstructed broad green field, may be termed a Green. An inclosure similar to the above, but in which the turf is decorated with a few
choice trees, shrubs or plants, the turf being well prepared and of fine char
acter throughout the Summer, may be termed a Lawn-Green. A large space of turf without decoration, open in all its parts to public use,
(without restriction to prepared walks,) may be termed a Common. An inclosure, with much ground under cultivation, and in which the attraction
is mainly in the detail, requiring, to be fully appreciated, much close observation, as flowers, or shrubbery planted chiefly with regard to effects when in bloom, may be termed a Garden.
The term Park should be applied only to a pleasure ground of sufficient area to
possess a landscape character within itself, and which is characterized by a large proportion of fair meadow-like surface, with low branching, umbrageous
trees standing singly or loosely associated in clusters. If within such a park there are established conveniences for and incitements to
recreation of several kinds, such as a circuit drive, ride and walks; arrangements for base ball, foot ball, cricket or hockey; for skating, swimming, rowing, curling, gymnastics, dancing, archery, promenade concerts, etc.; and if it includes architectural and sculptural features of a permanent and dignified character, it may be classed as an Urban Park. If on the other hand it has but few obvious advantages for the recreation of great numbers of people of diverse conditions and tastes, except such as might be found in any district of fertile and well-wooded country if no part of it were divided into fields, or
occupied by crops, it may be classed as a Rural Park. Roads which lie mainly in the country, whether it is mostly agricultural land
or of a wild character, may be designated rural roads. In describing landscape attractions, the term grand should be reserved for
scenery the elements of which are on very large scale, as in the view from the old public garden on the bluff at Natchez; picturesque, for scenery the elements of which are of highly interesting and somewhat impressive character, as at the Seal-Rock end of the principal pleasure drive of San Francisco; the Wissahickon drive of Philadelphia, or the bolder parts of the rocky sea. shore of New England; the words “wild," " pastoral," "pleasing," prefixed to topographical terms, as mountain, valley, meadow, prairie, saranna, will give a sufficient indication of the character of most other scenery except when the views are very extensive and the elements diversified.
Note A (j.)
size, (each piece measuring not more than three inches across the longest
stone, on the Telford plan. Second and Third Class Stone Roads; similar to the above, but more rudely
constructed. (An earth road with stone merely strewn upon it should not be
called a stone road, the stone in such cases being an injury.) First Class Gravel Road; similar to above, but with a surface stratum three
inches in depth, of well rolled, screened, hard gravel, (the best construction
for a road designed for public pleasure-driving.) Second and Third Class Gravel Roads ; similar to the last, but more rudely con
structed or imperfectly finished. First Class Graveled Earth Roads; well drained and not liable to be muddy. Second Class Graveled Earth Roads; similar to the last, but imperfectly pre
pared, sometimes rough and not suitable for pleasure-driving. “ Earth roads," "Belgian,” “Cobble stone," "Plank," and "Patent wood-block
roads," need no description.
SPECIAL SCHEDULE OF INQCIRIES IN REGARD TO RURAL CEMETERIES. Rural Cemeteries are so generally used for public drives and promenades, and their grading, planting, memorials, and monuments are so far indicative of the public taste, as well as influential in forming it, that the following details respecting them are solicited, in the belief that when properly edited the results will prove interesting and instructive. Where the information sought has been given in printed documents, a simple reference, with a copy of the same, will be sufficient.
I. Corporation. (a) Name, date, and circumstances of incorporation; officers for 1868. (6) Basis of operations: 1, self-sustaining ; 2, sustained in part by the corporation, or trustees; 3, sustained by lot-holders, income of funds, bequests, etc.
II. Grounds. (a) Area in acres_original purchase, addititions, total. (6) Distance from central portion of city or town. (c) Formation: 1, surface-plain, undulating, hilly, and proportion of each; 2,
soil and subsoil-clay, sand, gravel, hard-pan, rock; 3, soil, as to drainage
dry, wet, springy; 4, water-springs, rills, brooks, streams, lakes or ponds. (d) Natural growth of trees and shrubs. (e) Views-near and distant, hills, valley, water.
III. Plan of Development. A. General plan: 1, lawn plan; 2, lot system; 3, single interments. See ex
planatory note at end. B. Details. (a) Entrances-number, buildings connected with each, and style of same. (6) Roads—1, Proportion of all roads in length, to the acre, in the whole area;
2, width and length of principal roads; 3, width and length of section roads; 4, do. do. of service roads; 5, bridges-number, length, width and style. For classification of roads, as to construction, see Note A. (j) in Circular
respecting Public Grounds. ( Walks: 1, length and breadth of walks communicating with sections or
divisions; 2, length and breadth of walks through ornamental grounds; 3,
proportion of entire length of walks to the acre of the improved grounds. (d) Section or division grounds for burial purposes: 1, total area laid out and
improved in proportion to the whole area; 2, number of sections; 3, area of lots, largest, smallest, average; 4, area, on the average, in each section pre
served for ornamental purposes. (e) Grading of sections: 1, how far done by corporation on a general plan; 2,
how far done by each individual lot owner, under the general direction of the
superintendent. (f) Drainage : 1, regular system ; 2, local; 3, material of each ; 4, length of
deep drains (8 feet;) 5, length of tile drains (3 to feet;) 6, length of open drains; 7, total length of drains; 8, number of sink or silt basins, and mode
of construction. (9) Artificial water-works-lakes, ponds, cascades, fountains, wells. (h) Planting: 1, how far according to a general plan by the corporation; 2, how
far according to the caprice of lot owners; 3, names of trees and shrubs which have been found satisfactory; 4, proportion of trees and shrubs on an acre of CIRCULAR
section ground; 5, supplied from corporation-nursery, or general market. (1) Size of lots: 1, largest; 2, smallest ; 3, general average price per square foot. (1) Names of architect, gardener, and superintendent employed in desigo aud construction.
IV. Memorials, Monuments, and Embellishments. (a) Memorials and monuments—whole number: 1, statues; 2, obelisk and
column; 3, sarcophagus ; 4, tombs; 5, statuettes and symbolic devices; 6, elaborate works of art, (with name of artist and cost;) 7, head and footstones; 8, public monuments, and how erected; 9, number or proportion of the above in granite, American marble, Italian marble, Scotch granite, Nora Scotia stone, brown stone, iron, bronze, &c.; 10, name and residence of the
principal artists and artizans employed in the design and construction. (e) Flower-beds, groups of roses, &c. (d) Inclosed lots-number with: 1, iron fences, stone posts and rails, chains,
wooden fence, evergreen hedges, curb-stones ; 2, number without visible di. vision, except corner posts, as landmarks.
V. Expenditure. (a) Ground: 1, original and subsequent purchase for Cemetery purposes; 2,
total expense for improvements; 3, annual expense for care and supervision. (6) Buildings: 1, cost of chapel ; 2, gate lodge ; 3, receiving tomb; 4, superin.
tendent's office or dwelling; 5, store or tool-house. (C) Average expense for improving and ornamenting private lots : 1, planting;
2, grading; 3, inclosing (per foot ;) 4, annual care and supervision. (d) Expense of inclosing entire grounds, and how done.
VI. Influences, etc. (a) Average number of daily visitors in Summer; in Winter; carriages; pedes
trians. (6) Average number of lots sold annually; 2, total amount in $—; 3, number
of burials in lots; 4, Single interments. (C) Charges: 1, opening and closing graves; 2, receiving tomb; 3, private vault. (d) General result in respect to: 1, an increase of taste for natural scenery ; 2, progress in beautifying private lots; 3, homestead embellishments, &c.
VII. Printed Reports, Plans, Circular, &c. &c. 1, List of all printed matter relating to the enterprise ; 2, a copy of any printed
document, act of incorporation, list of officers, annual report, plan of ground, illustration and description of monuments, will be thankfully received, and the courtesy reciprocated.
Lawn Plan ; where a section or division is improved according to a general
plan, without any inclosures, and where the grading, planting and grouping are
in harmony with the respective lot and monument, as well as with the whole. Lot System; where lots are laid out, inclosed and planted, without regard to
other lots, but each is complete in itself. Principal Roads ; leading ways of communication between distant parts of the
ground. Section Roads; such as connect section or division grounds with principal roads. Service Roads ; such as are used by laborers and teams employed on the ground
as far as possible, they are secluded, and often temporary.
CIRCULAR RESPECTING ELEMENTARY EDUCATION.
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION,
Washington, D. C., 1867. In reply to your inquiry "for a single document which shall set forth the characteristic features of different systems of public elementary instruction at home and abroad,” the undersigned would say, that he knows of no such vol. ume; and interesting as such a volume in some respects would be, he is not sure that it would answer your immediate purpose, “ the preparation of an eficient system of common schools for a community which has not yet accepted the cardinal idea of popular education as it is understood in the Northern and Western States.” Any system, to be thoroughly understood, must be studied in its details, and in reference to its historical development, and the peculiar conditions of society where it is in operation. Social life with you is peculiar, and the distribution of population has not been governed by the same laws which have effected it in other sections of the country. Your institutions of education have grown up under these conditions.
Under these and other circumstances, will it not be best first to secure the appointment of a School Board, or a single officer; or rather of a Board representing in its members different local, political and ecclesiastical interests, (but all united in the general desire to inaugurate an efficient public system,) with a Secretary, who shall devote his whole time, under their directions,
1, To ascertain the number, locality, and character of such schools as do exist, and the places where schools are needed.
2, To interest and inform parents, and the public generally, by the voice and press, as to existing wants, and the practicable remedy, in a system of public schools, (both elementary and secondary,) which shall be cheap enough for the poorest, and good enough for the richest.
3, To frame a law adapted to sparsely populated districts, as well as villages, which shall at once go into operation, where the way is prepared for it, and induce the reluctant and inimical sections to adopt it, on the ground of pecuniary interest, and after a certain period, embrace every section in its operations.
In this kind of work, the experience of the Commissioner may enable him to make suggestions of practical value, and at least to point out sources of information which will greatly help the officer charged with these duties, in the details of his labors. In the mean time, he is preparing a series of documents, which will answer your and similar questions more fully than can be done in any one general summary. Any information as to the systems referred to in the accompanying Index, (Chapters V and VI,) will be promptly and freely given.
As for European systems, there is not one of them which can not be studied with advantage, and some of the toughest problems which are now up for 80lution with you and in other States, have been discussed and to some extent solved under them. You will find much to interest you in that of Zurich, herewith sent, together with the views of eminent men on the relations of the State to Education.
Commissioner of Education.