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Mr. Gregg: Is the separation of the cow from her fellows intended for her own benefit or to prevent contagion ?

Dr. Townshend: In an obviously accidental case it would be for the benefit of the cow herself, to secure for her quiet and noninterference, but the peculiar sympathy of all animals in this condition would render isolation desirable in behaif of animals not affccted.

A Member: Is abortion liable to be fatal to cows?

Dr. Townshend: Not often; the p'incipıl evil of abortion is the loss of the call; the cow, after abortion, does not milk as well as after parturition at full term, and she does not so certainly come with calf again.

Another serious and often fatal disease among cows is what is sometimes called "falling after calving." Of this there are two or three distinct forms; in reality they are different diseases. First, there is what is known to veterinarians as Parturient Apoplexy. This occurs almost immediately after calving, and especially aflects good milkers, and cows that are tou fleshy. It is characterized by insensibility and helplessness, and is frequently followed by death in a day or two. Another kind of falling manifests itself two or three days after calving, or when the full flow of milk is expected, therefore it is sometimes called Milk Fever. It commences as inflammation of the uterus, but the inflammation rapidly extends to the peritoneum or inner lining of the cavity of the abdomen-veterinarians usually call this Peritonitis, or, sometimes, Parturient Fever. A third form of disease may come on a week or two after calving, and is caused by the absorption of putrescent matters which were not properly discharged; this is krown as Septic Fever. These different diseases, cr different forms of disease, are all connected with calving, but they will be readily distinguished. As might le supposed, they require very different modes of treatment. For the first named or Parturient Apoplexy, it is especially true that prevention is the best treatment. It is most likely t) occur with cows that have had two or three calves before, and as I have already said, are great milkers or in full flesh. This will suggest especial watchfulness of such, and will prompt to the moderation of their feed, and to the use of small doses of ealts for a short time before calving is expected. If, in spite of care, or for the want of it, a cow is attacked in this way, it may be expedient to bleed in the first instance, to relieve congestion of the brain; then, to excite the heart's action, a stimulant, such as whisky or ammonia, may be required, and this should be followed by an active and stimulating cathartic, such as aloes, or castor oil, with crotun oil in conbination. In cases of Peritonitis, attended with pain and bloating, the chief reliance is upon repeated duses of castor oil and spirits of turpentine. Some

times laudanum is needed where the pain appears to be severe.

For tunately this treatment is frequently successful. In septic fever the treatment is anti-septic and supporting. Hyposulphite of soda is given with the drink, and small quantities of carbolic acid, in warm water, is injected into the vagina. At the same time the food should be both nutritious and digestible. Sometimes tonics, such as gentian, and sulphate of iron may be needed before the cow will fully recover.

Retention of the membranes, or “ failure to cleanse,” as it is sometimes called, may occasion the Septic Fever just referred to, or it may simply produce an unthrifty condition. Every farmer feels the importance of having the membranes which envelop the calf properly removed in a short time after a cow has calved. The uterus of a cow does not contract fully for two or three days, so that if the membranes are retained, there is usually but little difficulty in removing them by the hand within that period. Frequently, however, this is not necessary, for the object may be more easily secured by the prompt administration of one or two doses of medicine. I have generally used half a pound of Glauber's salts dissolved in a quart or more of warm tansy tea, or an infusion of the tops of the branches of savin. A single dose is usually sufficient, but if not, a second will be likely to have the desired effect, if given during the first day or two.

Mr. Baker: Did you ever give the oil of savin ?

Dr. Townshend: I have not used the essential oils of savin or of tansy, although I know they would prove quite as effectual as the infusion, but they do not mix quite so conveniently with salts; they would, however, mix very well with castor oil.

Mr. Baker: I always use the oil of savin, and I never knew it to miss. I would also like to ask the Doctor if he thinks it safe to give cold water to a cow that has just calved ?

Dr. Townshend: When I have given a dose of salts and tansy to hasten cleansing, I have been particular to have it quite warm. I think a large proportion of the cases of peritoneal inflammation, as already stated, are occasioned by too early access to cold water.

Eversion of the vagina and uterus sometimes occur with cows. The former, or eversion of the vagina, is a simple affair, usually the result of weakness. The eversion of the whole uterus is much more serious, and may prove fatal. The best milker I ever owned calved at full term and without difficulty; an hour or two after, probably in the effort to cleanse, she everted the whole uterus. Before she was seen again only a short time had passed, but the accident in the mean time had happened, and she was found quite dead. The eversion of the vagina, when the protrusion is perhaps

near the size of a hat, may easily be restored by placing the doubled fist in the center of the mass and using gentle but steady pressure until the whole returns. The chief difficulty is in securing its retention. Some seek to accomplish the result by compelling the cow to stand in a stall where the floor or bedding is considerably higher behind than before. If this is not sufficient, a rope truss is employed by some persons, which is easily enough applied, but not very easy to describe. Others resort to a couple of stitches with a sacking needle and oiled ribbon across the vulva or external opening. This is an old practice, and of course is effectual. The eversion of the uterus is more difficult to replace, as the large mass may reach down to the hocks. Before restoration is attempted it may need to be cleansed with warm water; then it must be raised by one or two assistants and gradually returned. After replacement the measures already described may be employed to prevent a re-expulsion.

Mr. Brown: I recollect that years ago my father made use of a red pepper wash with good success.

Dr. Townshend : I have had no experience of the use of red pepper in such cases. In general I have made no application except for the purpose of cleansing the parts. In a single instance, where there was considerable bleeding, I used a solution of alum with a good result.

Inflammation of the udder is a troublesome and painful affection to which cows are liable. This is usually a simple form of inflammation, and is readily overcome by frequent and careful milking, a little cooling physic, and repeated wasbings of the inflamed part with cold water. Greasy applications and hot fomentations are not nearly so good as cooling treatment, and their persistent use may result in the loss of the inflamed quarter. Last summer I saw a cow in whose case the inflammation had gone on to gangrene, and the whole bag appeared to be sloughing off.

Mr. Brown: I think I can say that I saved a cow that was the subject of a severe inflammation of the udder, by the use of the milking tubes. Without the instrument it seemed impossible to relieve the distended bag; by its use no difficulty was experienced.

Dr. Townshend: The milking tubes in such cases are extremely convenient, and they evidently occasion much less pain than the usual mode of milking. When a tube was not at hand, I have frequently seen a quill prepared and used instead. Fistulous openings in the sides of the teats are occasionally met with. In any effort to close them up the milking tube again comes into use. It must be introduced and retained in the teat with sticking plaster or other means. The edges of the side openings are scarified and brought together by a fine silk thread, and in a short time the superfluous opening will be effectually closed.

Mr. President, I am aware that I have referred to only a few of the many diseases that affect our berds. Several diseases more serious than some I have mentioned have been entirely omitted to-day. On some of them, such as tuberculosis, Texas fever, etc., I have papers in our State Agricultural Reports, to which I beg to refer those who are specially interested in those topics.

[The following article on “Losses occasioned by diseases of domestic animals" is the one referred to by Prof. Townshend as having been prepared for the report of the Secretary of State.-FLEMING.]

LOSSES OCCASIONED BY DISEASES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS.

BY PROF. X. S. TOWNSHEND.

The following paper on the losses occasioned by diseases of domestic animals is an attempt to answer tbree questions. Wby do so many domestic animals becomie siek? Why do so many sick animals die? And wbat may be done to diminish such losses ?

In accordance with statistical requirements for current year, all stuck-owners at the time of the annual assessment were required to report the pumber and value of all horses, cattle, sheep, and swine, lost by disease during the year preceding. In obedience to this requirement the following losses were reported: llorses, 11,047, valued at $147,213; cattle, 16,420, valued at $280,0:17 ; sheep, 59,12€, valued at $148,700, and bogs, 306, 349, valued at $1,331,655. An aggregate loss exclusive of mules wbich were not reported of $2,511,049, this is near two per cent. of the assessed value of all the horses, one aud a quarter per cent of the cattle, one and three-quarters per cent. of the sheep, and over twenty-four per cent. of the value of the swine. If it be true, as is sometimes stated, that live-stock in this State are assessed at not more than two-thirds of their actual value, then the live-stock of the State assessed at $:3,131,116, is actually worth $117,156,674, and in the same ratio, the losses during the year amounted to $:3,7611,573. Since the losses sustained by owners of horses, cattle, and sheep, were less than two per cent. of the value of tbese animals, it is safe to infer, that they bave suffered from no epizootic, and that hogs only have been subject to unusual mortality.

WHY DO SO MANY DOMESTIC ANIMALS BECOME SICK!

Domestic animals are suljected to updatural conditions, as well as to much bard treatment; to these causes may be attributed much of tbeir sickness. llorses are driven hard wben the weather is extremely cold; the necessarily increased amount of cold air taken into the lungs, nay of itself, be enough to produce diseases. After bard driving, horses are often allowed to stand only partially protected, or wholly unprotected from the cold; the result is likely to be inflammation of the lungs, or some other disease of the respira. tory organs. llorses are freqnently kept fasting too long, then they are over fed or otherwise fed improperly, and hence colic, indigestion, or inflammation of the stomach or bowels. Then, what innumerable lamenesses come from over driving, over-work, or un. skillful shoeing. A valuable cow in full flesh may bring a calf, and be allowed soon after to drink at a brook or spring; diinking freely of colil water at such a time may cause a chill, and this be followed by Parturient Ferer and death in a few days. The owner attributes the fever to teptic absorption; this may be true, but it may be equally true

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that one or two pails full of water of moderate temperature would have prevented the loss. Sheep are sometimes sborn wbile the nights are too cold, althougb the days may be warm enough, and many take pleurisy or inflammation of the lungs in consequence. In 1866, a succession of cold storms about shearing time destroyed a great many thousand sheep in Ohio, almost all of which might have been saved if shearing had been delayed, or sutlicient shelter and protection had been afforded. The contagion of bog cholera is believed by many to be generated in the intestinal canal, and to be propagated by the evacuations of diseased animals; yet how few farmers take pains to secure clean quarters for their swine, even after llog Cbolera bas made its appearance. How entirely the natural instincts and mode of life of the hog are changed wben his rootirg is stopped and he is fed exclusively on corn, and converted into a lard and pork factory.

Much sickness among animals, and loss to owners has heretofore occurred in Ohio from the spread of contagious diseases, owing to the deficiency of proper sanitary legislation. Only at the last session of tbe General Assembly was an act passed to prevent the spread of Texas fever; a year before, a Colombus butcher hired cattle pastured a few miles from the city; at the appointed time the cattle were brought to the city and slaughtered for beef, and, probably, no one suspected that they could spread disease. But when the farmer on whose land tbese caitle were pastured, afterwards turned his own cattle upon the same pasture, he soon lost sixty good steers from Texas fever. Since 1657, there has been upon the statute book a law to prevent the spread of Foot-Rot among the flocks of Ohio; before that time the value of sheep was often seriously reduced by this disease. The Epizootic Iofluenza that destroyed or affected so many horses in 1872 and 1873, was not prevented or restrained by sanitary legislation. A year or two since, there was an investigation of Hog Cholera, but it led to no action. In this State we bave no commission existing whose duty it is to inquire promptly into the facts of any epizootic outbreak, with anthority, after allowing full or partial compensation to the owner, to destroy all animals liable to spread the contagion. Such provision has been made by several European governments and is found to be good economy.

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WHY DO 80 MANY SICK ANIMALS DIE !

Because sick animals in Ohio receive little appropriate medical or surgical treatment. W batever the disease, many sick animals receive absolutely no treatment; the owner does not understand the disease, does not know wbat to do, and, perhaps wisely, does nothing. In another case, the owner of a sick animal consults all his neighbors, and finally resolves on something, after the opportunity of arresting the disease at its outset by a timely remedy has already passed, not realizing that late treatment is, practically, no treatment. Still worse is the treatment some animals receive. A mau, for example, has a sick cow; one neighbor calls the disease “loss of cud;" another thinks it is “hollow horn;" and a third believes it is “ worm in the tail,"—for those imaginary diseases overy kind of nostrum is recommended. If the cow dies, ao thorough examination is made to find out what the disease really was; each neighbor adheres to his original opinion, and nothing is learned for the management of similar cases in future. It may be that an animal is known to have some form of disease; the owner of the animal is also the owner of a work on veterinary medicine, but, unfortunately, he may not be accustomed to examine the pulse, has no means to ascertain the temperature, and no skill in judging of the stage of the disease, or of the condition of liis patient. Ile gives wbat bis book advises, and what would be the right thing in a particular stage of the disease, but which at aro:her stage may be the worst thing possible. One difference

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