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me, although that has led to different ways of spelling the same name. If I have, therefore, spelled any name wrong, the blame must be laid to those who furnished such spelling. Time has worked great changes with names, as with other things. For example, the name which is now spelled Zurviah, was formerly spelled (when the u was used instead of v) Zuruiah, which made a different name of it. By the custom of society, Sally has been changed to Sarah; Molly to Mary; Susannah to Susan, &c. And other changes are now in progress, such as William to Willie; James to Jamie ; Caroline to Carrie; Elizabeth to Lizzie, &c.
In some cases I have found one name in the early record of a birth or baptism, changed by the person, as Sally, written Sarah. This may lead to some confusion. I have always given the name that has been communicated to me, whether right or wrong, for I have had no means of makthe correction.
RESIDENCES are always given when known, as they serve to distinguish those of the same christian name. When the person has lived in several towns, he is called of that town where he lived the longest, or where he died.
In regard to the origin of the Cushman race, we are in great doubt. It is quite certain that we are not from Cush, the son of Ham (vide 10th chap. Genesis); for, by the common translations, the descendants of Ham were of the African or Negro races. And we find in our families no traces, either phrenological or ethnological, of that race. But if the theory of Mr. Gliddon, in his work on "The Types of Mankind," is correct, that the common translation of Genesis is incorrect, and that the descendants of Cush were Arabian, then we may, possibly, have come from that race. But all such speculations are, necessarily, crude and uncertain.
Some have supposed that we are of German origin, from the name "Kaughman," which is found in Germany, and are, therefore, of AngloGerman blood. But there is no doubt but that, at a later period we were of English descent.
In regard to the formation of the name, it probably originated in this way: At first it was the man of Cush, — a place, — and in time, by a very natural change, it became Cush-man.
It has been supposed by some that Cush-ing and Cush-man were from the same origin. But there is no evidence of that fact, and we are of the opinion that the names were never synonymous, but were of entirely differ
The race whose history I have here portrayed is not one that has been remarkably celebrated. "I am not preserving from oblivion the names of heroes whose chief merit is the overthrow of cities, provinces and empires, but the names of the founders of a flourishing town and colony, if not of the whole American Republic.' I have found but few who have been very remarkable for their genius or their talents, and few who, according to the common remark of the world, have been or are very wealthy. On the
*Hutchinson's History, vol. 2.
other hand, I have never found among the descendants of Robert Cushman, the Puritan, a single pauper, or person of adult age that could not read and write. Out of nearly thirty-four hundred, whose history I have here given, I have found only two who have been sentenced to a Penitentiary, and only three who have been convicted of any felonious violations of the law. And I have enquired for the bad deeds as well as the good. A very large proportion of the Cushmans have been and now are, farmers and mechanics. Hence they have been persons of good morals and reputation. Benevolence and veneration seem to be prominent in the physical organization of the family. Hence we find the religious sentiment extensively prevailing among them. The first three generations were persons of deep, ardent and practical piety, and their organization and example have extended to their descendants. These facts may well excite a laudable pride in the heart of every descendant of our Puritan ancestor.
I feel it my duty to acknowledge my obligations to many persons who have cheerfully and perseveringly aided me in my genealogical labors. I should be glad to name them all if I had space. I have in several cases mentioned them in the body of this work. But I am particularly indebted to Bezaleel Cushman of Portland, Me., for very great assistance. The genealogy of a very large number of families in Maine was collected and arranged by him in the very best manner. I am also greatly indebted to Don Alonzo Cushman of New York city; Thomas Cushman of Bridgewater, who has been a great searcher of the early records; Capt. A. C. Cushman of New Bedford; Mrs. Maria J. Cushman of Troy, N. Y.; Charles U. Cushman of Newburgh, N. Y.; Robert S. and William M. C. Cushman of Albany, N. Y.; Rev. Robert W. Cushman; Dr. N. B. Shurtleff, and Samuel A. Eaton of Boston, and Charles Ketcham of Penn Yan, N. Y., for their valuable correspondence and services. I wish, also, to express my thanks to S. G. Drake, Esq., of Boston, editor of the Genealogical Register; to Wm. S. Russell, Esq., of Plymouth; J W. Thornton, Esq., of Boston, and to H. G. Somerby, Esq., now resident in England, as well as to other gentlemen not connected with the family, for valuable assistance and advice in preparing this work.
My letters have, generally, been promptly answered. A few have made me extra labor and trouble by their procrastination in replying to my enquiries. If any such should read these lines, let them be admonished to be more punctual hereafter. I must say, however, that among my female correspondents (and I have had quite a number) they have all been prompt in their replies, and have been the most intelligent and valuable auxiliaries in my extended researches.
In hundreds of cases I have received the most encouraging sympathy and approval of my work. Scarcely a letter has come to hand that did not contain a "God speed " to my labors. One single exception has occurred. One Cushman desired not to have his name mentioned in this book! For
*See No. 1099 E.
the honor of our name I rejoice that there is but one. His request has been complied with.
The genealogical system adopted in this work is somewhat different from any heretofore used, and is believed to be nearly perfect in the simplicity of the arrangement and the mathematical certainty of the references from one part of the volume to another. It is sufficient to say that it has received the sanction of the experienced editor of the New England Genealogical and Antiquarian Register and is substantially the same that has been recommended in that work.
EXPLANATION OF THE ARRANGEMENT.
The first or left hand column of figures is the consecutive number from the first ancestor through the whole race; and the number standing against any name is ever used to distinguish that name from all others.
The Roman numerals indicate the number of children in each family. The small figures placed in the form of an exponent, at the right hand of a name, is the generation of that person, — Robert Cushman, the Puritan, being the first.
The figures in brackets, thus, Isaac , refer back to that number in the consecutive column, where the history of that person may be found in connection with his father's family.
The figures in parenthesis, thus, John Paine (2077), refer forward to that number in the consecutive column, where the children of that person may be found. But if there are no figures in parenthesis after a name, then that person has no descendants given in this genealogy.
By this plan the ancestors or descendants of any person may be found at a glance, and may be traced backward or forward, from any point in the book, through the entire race. For example, suppose you wish to find the history of Don Alonzo Cushman, of New York city. First find his name in the index, which is 1928: find that number in the consecutive column at the left hand, you there find his biography. To trace him back: he is the V child. Run back to his father, Minerva,' against which in brackets you find . Turn to that number in the consecutive column, and there you find his father and his history. He is the I child of Allerton, . At that number in the consecutive column you find his history. He is the IV child of Allerton," . At that number you will find his history, and so on. To trace Don Alonzo forward: take the number in parenthesis against his name, (2800); find that in the consecutive column, and you there have his family. His II child is Alonzo Ritter, against which, in parenthesis, you have (3149) and against that number you will find his family, and so on.
REMEMBER that figures in brackets, thus, , refer back to his ancestors; and the figures in parenthesis, thus, (1676), refer forward to his children.
OLD AND NEW STYLE.
Previous to the year 1752 the dates of births, &c., are usually given in O. S. To change Old Style to New Style, add ten days to all dates previous to the year 1700; eleven days to all dates from 1700 to 1800, and twelve days from 1800 to 1900.
The practice of double dating, as it was called, of all dates between Jan. 1 and Mch. 24, inclusive, arose from the fact that previous to the year 1752 the legal or ecclesiastical years commenced on the 25th Mch., while the historical year commenced Jan. 1. In 1751 it was changed by an act of Parliament, and the year was to commence the 1st of Jan., beginning with 1752. As the dates from Jan. 1 to Mch. 24, inclusive, previous to 1752, were usually written thus, 1673-4 or 167, or 16734, I have followed that practice. It means 1674 of the year as we now understand it.
m. married. d. died. chil. children. dau. daughter. wf. widow. unm. unmarried. chh. church. bap. baptized. Apl. April. Mch. March. ae. aged. Co. County. O. S. Old Style. A note of interrogation in parenthesis, thus, (?), indicates that there is doubt of the correctness of the name or date that precedes it.
The usual abbreviations of the States are used. Where a town is named, but no State, Massachusetts must always be understood, unless the same town has been before named with another State in the same paragraph,in which case a repetition of the State is omitted.
Dr. Sheridan Muspratt,
Cushmans who have died since their biography was printed,
Statistics of the Cushman race.
1. ROBERT CUSHMAN, the ancestor of all the Cushmans in the United States, was born in England, probably, between the years 1580 and 1585. In his religious opinions he was a Nonconformist or Puritan, and was one of that band of Pilgrims who left their native country for the sake of worshipping God according to the dictates of their own consciences.
In order to understand correctly the principles, character and acts of the men who made the first settlement in New England, at Plymouth, which subsequently have had such a predominating and controlling influence in the civilization of the whole world, it is necessary to glance at the political and theological position of England for one or two centuries previous to that event.
About the year 1534, the reformation of the Roman Catholic religion, by Calvin and Luther and their colleagues, having extensively prevailed in England, the Protestants gradually divided into two classes. One of these united with the English government, contended for hereditary prerogative and monarchical rights; claimed that the civil government, per se, was the head of the Church; that the Church, of right, owed obedience and subserviency to the crown; and thus Church and State were united, constituting the established Church of England, which has continued to this day.
We come to that conclusion from the fact that in 1621, he had a son, Thomas, 14 years of age. At that period, therefore, he must have been from 35 to 40 years of age. Says Hutchinson's History of Massachusetts, published in 1767, "I think I may, with singular propriety, call their lives a pilgrimage. Most of them left England about the year 1609;-young men between 20 and 30 years of age."