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Crankshaw, William, Standish, Licensed Victualler, Nov 10 at 3 at Manoroa Hotel, Robertson, Hector, Mount Pleasant, North Shields, out of business, Nov 8 at 3 at offices Wigan, Parkinson

of Macdonald, Mosley st, Newcastle upon Tyne Deacon, Alfred Andrew, Lavenham, Suffolk. Innkeeper. Nov 11 at 12 at Gaildhall, Rose, Samuel, Ripley, Derby, Fishmonger. Nov 11 at 11 at offices of Heath, Amen Bary St. Edmonds. Salmon and Son, Bury St Edmunds

alley, Derby Dean, Samuel, Warwick, Upholsterer, Nov 7 at 11 at offices of Sanderson, Church st Salmon, Frederick, Gateshead, Draper. Nov 9 at 1 at offices of Robson, Town hall, Warwick

Gateshead-on-Tyne Dobson, George, York, Cowkeeper. Nov 15 at 12 at offices of Wilkinson, St Helen's sq, Searle, Francis, Redhill, Surrey, out of business. Nov 9 at 3 at offices of Brewer, City rd, York

Finsbury sq Ellis, John, Marlborough, Wilts, Tailor. Nov 8 at 12 at offices of Rodway, Forest, Sharp, Henry William, William st, Kennington pk rd, Dairyman, Nov 17 at 2 at offices Trowbridge

of Apps, South sq, Gray's inn Riddler, John, Worcester, Picture Frame Maker. Nov 8 at 4 at offices of Tree and Son, Shaw, Edwin, Staniland, Halifax, Grocer. Nov 10 at 11 at offices of Garsed, Barum-top, High st, Worcester

Halifax Filbey, William, Bethnal Green rd, Butcher. Nov 16 at 11 at offices of Ratcliff, Bishops. Shaw, William, Fonton, Stafford, out of business. Nov 11 at 3 at offices of Sword, gate st Within

Cheapside, Hanley Flashman, George Tarring, Scarborough villas, Wood Groen, Painter. Nov 9 at 11.30 Shepherd, James, Dorking, Surrey, Fellmonger. Nov 17 at 11 at offices of Sadler, High at Unwin Arms, Tottenham lane, Hornsey. Archer, Brayard rd, Peckham

st, Dorking Foster, Abraham, Lazenby Grange, nr Northallerton, Farmer. Nov 11 at 3 at Golden Simons, Ralph, and Frederick Mosos Marks, Warwick ct, Holborn, Fine Art Publishers, Lion Hotel, Northallerton, Waistell, Northallerton

Nov 8 at 3 at offices of Parkes, Queen Victoria st Frith, John, and John West, Manchester, Cotton Spinners. Nov 11 at 3 at offices of Skeet, William, Aldershot, Ironmonger. Nov 11 at 11 at Anderton's Hotel, Floot st. Sale and Co, Booth st, Manchester

Eve, Aldershot Geary, Edwin, Cannock, Stafford, Dentist. Nov 7 at 11 at offices of Duignan and Co, Smith, Frank, Leamington, Warwick, Grocer. Nov 9 at 11 at ofices of East, Temple st, the Bridge, Walsall

Birmingham George, Charles, Worcester, Fruit Dealer. Nov 15 at 11 at offices of Hulme, Angel st, Stacey, William Urbane, Isloworth, Grocer. Nov 18 at 3 at officos of Woodbridge and Worcester

Sons, Clifford's inn Green, John, Newton Moor, Chester, Grocer. Nov 10 at 3 at offices of Drinkwater, Sunter, Robert, Thwaite Bridge, nr Hawes, York, Farmer, Nov 11 at 2 at White Hart Ridling lane, Hyde

Hotel, Hawes. Jefferson, Northallerton Green, Richard, Essendon, Herts, Miller. Nov 17 at 3 at Law Institution, Chancery lane. Swatman, Thomas, jun, Lowestoft, Suffolk, Builder. Nov 14 at 12 at offices of Seago and Meynell, Castle st, Holborn

Son, High st, Lowestoft Greening, Charles Joseph, Birmingham, Shoo Dealer. Nov 9 at 2 at offices of Sargent Taylor, Jabez, Swaffham, Norfolk, Baker. Nov 10 at 11 at offices of Palmer, Swaff and Son, Bennett's hill, Birmingham

ham, Norfolk Gregory, David, Llanelly, Carmarthen, Grocer. Nov 11 at 11 at offices of Randell, Thomas, Thomas, Cross Inn, Llandobie, Carmarthen, Builder. Nov 17 at 1 at offices of Frederick st, Llanelly

Bishop and Childs, Llandilo Gronow, Daniel, Pontypridd, Glamorgan, Shoemaker. Nov 9 at 12 at offices of Lewis, Thomas, William, Bristol, out of business. Nov 9 at 2 at offices of Clifton and Carter, Church st, Pontypridd

Broad st, Bristol Grores, William, jun, Shrewsbury, Innkeeper. Nov 7 at 12 at offices of Edwards, Pride Tombleson, Philip Bowker, Upwell, Norfolk, Wheelwright. Nov 17 at 3 at offices of i ncanh Rishonsoata st/Within, Merchant. Nov 23 at 3 at offices of Watney and

Webber, Bridge bldgs, Wisbech

Tucker, Isaac, Middlesborough, Butcher. Nov 8 at 10 at offices of Catchpole, Argye Co, Clement's lane, Lombard st

bldgs, Wilson st, Middlesborough. Tucker Hadfield, John, and William Hadfield, Nottingham, Shoe Manufacturers. Nov 14 at 12 Vaughan, William, junr, Mattress Maker, Leicestor. Nov 14 at 12 at offices of Buckby, at 14, Low pavement, Nottingham, Black

Gallowtree-gate, Leicester Hallam, Arthur, Leicester, Harness Maker. Nov 11 at 12 at offices of Hunter and | Waterston, Joseph. Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Merchant. Nov 9 at 2 at offices of Joel, Curtis, Halford st, Leicester

Newgate st, Newcastle upon Tyne Hampson, William Simpson, Chorlton-upon-Medlock, Traveller. Nov 14 at 3 at offices Wheater, Willia m, Leeds, Surveyor. Nov 10 at 3 at offices of Hardcastle and Barnfather of Rycroft, Brown st, Manchester

Victoria sq, Leeds Harkness, James, Oxford st, Licensed Victualler. Nov 14 at 2 at offices of Layton and Wheatly, Robert Royle, High Lever rd, Notting Hill, Teacher of Music. Nov 12 at 1 Co, Budge row

at offices of Warde, Chancery lane Harland, Henry, Redcar, York, out of business. Nov 5 at 10 at Black Swan Hotel, Whitehouse, Cornelius, Edgbaston, Warwick, Shoe Manufacturer. Nov 16 at 11 at office York. Vachell, Middlesborough

of Taylor, Colmore row, Birmingham Hawke, Thomas Gaggs, Braishfield, Hants, Farmer. Nov 11 at 3 at offices of Kilby, Wightman, Richard, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Mineral Water Manufacturer. Nov 8 at 2 Portland st, Southampton

at offices of Pybus, Post Office chbrs, Newcastle-upon-Tyne Heal, John George, Southsea, Hants, Wholesale Grocer. Nov 9 at 3 at 145, Cheapside. Wilson, William, Stockton-on-Tees, Engineer. Nov 7 at 11 at offices of Chambers, Sadler King, Portsea

st, Durham Hemmings, John Wright, Halford, Warwick, Farmer. Nov 21 at 1 at offices of Han. Winfield, Job, Mayfield, Stafford, Coal Merchant. Nov 8 at 11 at offices of Wilson, cock and Hiron, Shipston-on-Stour

Station st, Burton-on-Trent Herbert, David, Aberdovey, Merioneth, Clerk in Holy Orders. Nov 8 at 12 at offices of

Winter, James John, Fulham rd, Shoomaker. Nov 10 at 2 at offices of Webb, Austin Hnghes and Sons, Pier st, Aberystwith

Friars Hirekley, William, and Isaiah Hinckley, Willenhall, Stafford, Rim Lock Manufacturers. Woolliscroft, John, Hanley, Butcher. Nov 8 at 12 at offices of Tonnant and Co, CheapXov 10 at 11 at offices of Clark, New rd, Willenhall

side, Hanley Hind, William Blakeston, Barnard Castlé, Durham, Licensed Victualler, Nov 14 at 2 at

TUESDAY, Nov. 1, 1881. cthoes of Brewis and Co, Grey st, Newcastle-upon-Tyne

Abrahams, James Hunt, Salisbury, Wilts, Clothier. Nov 14 at 3 at offices of Josolyne Hingeley, Emma, Birmingham, Fancy Draper Nov 10 at 12 at offices of Garland, and Co, King st, Cheapside. Hodding, Salisbury Culmore row, Birmingham

Aldridge, James William Darnell, Ainsly ter, Leo, Pawnbroker. Nov 15 at 3 at offices Hosd, George Hewlett, Knighton, Radnor, Ostler, Nov 11 at 1 at Horse and Jockey Inn, of Parkes, Queen Victoria st Knighton, Bowles, Ludlow

Allen, Thomas, Leicester, Engineer. Nov 15 at 12 at offices of Buokby, Gallowtree gate, Humphreys, Daniel, Llanfyllin, Montgomery, Jeweller. Nov 15 at 1 at Queen's Hotel, Leicester New st, Birmingham, Roberts, Llanfyllin

Armishaw, George Watson, and Roland New, Liverpool, General Merchants. Nov 15 at Hantington, Richard Henry, Goole, York, Grocer. Nov 10 at 2 at offices of Hind and 2 at offices of Harmood and Co, North John'st, Liverpool. Stone and Co, Liverpool Co, Goole

Armstrong, James, Hartlepool, Durham, Saw Mill Proprietor, Nov 9 at 11 at offices of Jackson, Robert, Leicester, Confectioner. Nov 16 at 3 at offices of Hincks, Bowling Simpson, Church st, West Hartlepool Green st, Leicester

Arnold, Francis, and John Thomas Cave, Northampton, Shoe Manufacturers. Nov 15 Jensen, Hans Peter Fredrik, Wardour st, Soho, Watchmaker, Nov 16 at 3 at Inns of at 3 at offices of Walker, Market sq, Northampton Court Hotel, High Holborn. Levy, Surrey st, Stran

Askell, George, Stamfordham, Northumberland, Farmer. Nov 11 at 1 at offices of Jeel, Kidd, Thomas, Birkenhead, Chester, Grocer. Nov 10 at 2 at offices of Francis, Hamil. Newgate st, Newcastle upon Tyne ton sa, Birkenhead

Bailey, Alfred, Lower Kennington lane, Lambeth, Cheesemonger. Nov 18 at 3 at offices King, Thomas, Cuddington, Bedford, Hay and Straw Dealer. Nov 16 at 2.30 at offices of Fowler and Co, Borough High st of Ewen and Co, Park st West, Luton

Barnby, Thomas, Warsford, nr Great Driffield, York, Farmer. Nov 11 at 3 at Keys Kirk, Francis, Scarborough, York, Hotel Proprietor. Nov 9 at 3 at St Thomas's Hotel, Hotel, Driffield. Foster and Co, Great Driffield Museum st, York. Watson, Leeds

Bast, Walter Herbert, Salisbury, Wilts, Bill Poster. Nov 11 at 11 at offices of Hill and Lawley, Francis Charles, Victoria st, Westminster, Journalist. Nov 10 at 2 at offices of Slader, Crown chmbrs, Salisbury Bertas and Co, Lincoln's inn fields

Bavin, John, Metheringham, Lincoln, Farmer. Nov 10 at 11 at offices of Pago, junior, Lesver, James, jun, Blackburn, Lancaster, Draper. Oct 31 at 3 at offices of Gillibrand, Flaxengate, Lincoln George st, Manchester. Scott, Blackburn

Bland, William Mountain, Darlington, Durham, Tailor. Nov 17 at 11 at offices of Lees, Samuel, Dewsbury, York, Provision Merchant. Nov 15 at 10.30 at offices of Robinson, Chancery lane, Darlington Ridgway and Co, Union st, Dewsbury

Brall, Conrad, Church st, Deptford, Baker. Nov 14 at 3 at offices of Sandom and Co, Lewis, Edward Ford, and Thomas Griffiths Lewis, Middlesborough, York, Grocers, Nov Gracechurch st 10 at 3.30 at offices of Archer, High st, Stockton on Tees

Bongers, Henry Augustus, Queen Victoria st, Colour Manufacturer. Nov 17 at 3 at Lewis, Jannes, Wilts, Pork Butcher. Nov 7 at 3 at offices of Boodle, Albion bldgs, New offices, of Munns and Longden, Old Jewry Swindon

Boughton, Joseph Guest, Cheltenham, Surgeon. Nov 15 at 12 at Bath Hotel, Albion st, Mitchell, Seth, Ossett, near Wakefield, York, Woollen Cloth Manufacturer. Nov 10 at Cheltenham. Dighton, Newent 2 at Bravshaw's Northern Hotel, Wellington st, Leeds. Burton, Ossett

Buchan, Charles Forbes, Bedford, Surgeon. Nov 15 at 11 at offices of Ewen and Moukton, William Palmer, St John's rd, Hoxton, Butcher. Nov 7 at 3 at offices of Roberts, Park st West, Luton Oliver, Fenchurch st

Cannon, William, High st, Vauxhall, Licensed Victualler. Nov 12 at 13 at 10, BassingMoore, Griffith, Bugbrooke, Northampton, Licensed Victualler. Nov 11 at 3 at offices of hall st, Prockter and Andrews, Princess st, Spitalfields Becke, Derngate, Northampton

Fanstone, Thomas, South Stoneham, Hants, Farmer. Nov 9 at 3 at offices of Shutte, Morris, Matthew, Westbury, Wilts, Butcher. Nov 9 at 3 at offices of Ames, Frome Portland st, Sohthampton Mort, Charles Frederick, Farnworth, near Bolton, Lancaster, Grocer. Nov 9 at 3 at Ferguson, James, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Commission Agent. Nov 8 at 11 at offices of attices of Eckersley, Mawdsley st, Bolton

Holmes and Robson, Pilgrim st, Newcastle-upon-Tyne Maxon, Edmund Oliver, Wakefield, York, Plumber. Nov 9 at 11 at offices of Lake and Finlaw, James, South Shields, Durham, Builder. Nov 11 at 3 at offices of Green, King Lake. Southgate, Wakefield

st, South Shields Monday, Charles, Old Kent rd, Perambulator Manufacturer. Nov 12 at 10 at offices of Fordham, Joseph, Leyton, Essex, Builder, Nov 10 at 11 at offices of Mills, Alfred st, Cooke, Grays inn sq

Bow Selson, William, Bakewell, Derby, Innkeeper. Nov 15 at 3 at offices of Broomhead, Frith, John, Hollingwood, near Oldham, Lancaster, Cotton Spinner. Nov 11 at 4.30 Bakewell

at offices of Sale and Co, Booth st, Manchester Sorth, Christopher, Wolverhampton, Metal Dealer. Nov 4 at 3 at offices of Thorne, Old Foulger, Reuben, Bridge rd, Barnes, Florist. Nov 16 at 10 at offices of Barratt, London Bank Chambers, Wolverhampton

Wall. Lomax, Haymarket O'Hare, Patrick, Widnes, Lancaster, Grocer. Nov 10 at 3 at Law Association, Cook st, Gallagher, Joseph, and Peter Gallaghar, Ashton-under-Lyne, Provision Merchants. Liverpool. Thomas, St Helens

Nov 15 at 3 at offices of Rawes, Bexley sq. Salford Pnce, Joseph, Hanley, Stafford, out of business. Nov 7 at 10 at ofices of Ashmall, Garrett, Thomas, Hunsdon, Hertford, Farmer. Nov 21 at 2 at offices of Armstrong,

Albion st, Hanley Priest, Edward, Dudley Hill, nr Bradford, York, Grocer. Nov 9 at 3 at offices of Lake Garstang, Elizabeth, Manchester, Finisher. Nov 16 at 3 at offices of Earle and Co, and Lake, Southgate, Wakefield

Brown st, Manchester Ranford, Samuel Henry, Lewisham, Kent, Cattle Dealer. Nov 15 at 3 at Mas ons Hall, Collier, Meynell Cromwell, Lombard st, Financial Agent. Nov 22 at 11 at offices of Tavern, Masons avenue, Basinghall st

Roberts, Coleman st Rawnsley, James, Clayton, Bradford, York, Grocer. Nov 7 at 2.30 at Chamber of Crabb, William, Littleport, Cambridge, Farmer. Nov 16 at 1.30 at Lamb Hotel, Ely. Cornerce, Market st, Bradford. Terry and Co, Bradford

| Wilkin, Kings Lynn Rhodes, John, Plumber, Heywood, Lancaster. Nov 7 at 3 at offices of Simpson and Dale. Charles Matthias, Sheffield, Cabinet Case Maker. Nov 9 at 11 at offlces of Mellor, Hockin, Mount st, Albert sq, Manchester

Queen st, Sheffield Roberts, David, Colwyn Bay, Denbigh, Coal Merchant. Nov 9 at 1 at offices of Owen, Davison, Frances, Rochester, Kent, Pork Butcher. Nov 21 at 3 at Kings Head Hotel High st, Bangor

High st, Rochester. Shakespeare, Newgate st

-- ------Edwards, Henry, Fisher-lane, Turnham Green, Dairyman. Nov 15 at 11 at Law Sibley, Robert, Newport, Isle of Wight, Glover, Nov 16 at 12 at offices of Sole and Co. Institution, Chancery-lane, Collins and Wilkinson, King William st

Aldermanbury. Hooper, Newport Edwards, Thomas, junr, Wyndham rd, Camberwell, Grocer. Nov 9 at 3 at offices of Shipton, Abraham, Princes rd, Notting Hill, Corn Dealer. Nov 11 at 3 at offices of Ody, Blackfriars rd

Godwin, North bldgs, Finsbury. Derry, Great Winchester st Evans, Walter William, Bracknell, Berks, Harness Maker. Nov 16 at 3 at Station

Smerdon, Thomas, Harrow, Coal Merchant. Nov 21 at 2 at offices of Coxwell and Corp Hotel, Bracknell. Wheeler and Serjeant, Wokingham

Argyll st. Rashleigh, Three Crown sq, Southwark Fairless, Joseph, junr, Side, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Auctioneer, Nov 14 at 3 at offices of Smith, George Smith, Morpeth, Northumberland, Watchmaker. Noy 10 at 11 at offices Stanford, Collingwood st, Newcastle-upon-Tyne

of Gillespie and Co, Westgate rd, Newcastle-on-Tyne llows, Thomas, Birmingham, Beer Retailer. Nov 9 at 3 al offices of Parry, Colmore Smith, Samuel, Sedgley, Stafford, Licensed Victualler. Nov 11 at 3 at offices of Stokes row, Birmingham

and Hooper, Priory st, Dudley Gee, Thomas, Aston, nr Birmingham, Builder. Nov 12 at 11 at offices of Jaques, Temple Stairmand, George, Darlington, Durham, Poulterer. Nov 10 at 11 at offices of Robin. row, Birmingham

son, Chancery-lane, Darlington Gill, William, Littleport, Cambridge, Farmer. Nov 12 at 1.30 at Lamb Hotel, Ely. Suthsell, William, Gosberton, Lincoln, Farmer. Nov 14 at 1 at Great Northern Inn, Wilkin, King's Lynn

Surfleet. Deacon and Wilkins, Peterborough Glynn, James, St. Mary's Cemetery, Harrow rd, Master Stonemason. Nov 17 at 2 at Taylor, William Forster, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, out of business, Nov 8 at 3 at offices offices of Armstrong, Chancery lane

of Sewell, Grey st, Newcastle-upon Tyne Green, Mark, Leicester, Tobacconist. Nov 18 at 3 at offices of Wright, Belvoir st, Tonge, Charles, Saltburn-by-the-Sea, York, Livery Stable Keeper. Nov 14 at 11 at Leicester

offices of Ward, Albert rd, Middlesborough Grieve, Walter, Newbold-upon-Avon, Warwick, Trainer of Race Horses. Nov 12 at 1 at Truman, John, Nottingham, Upholsterer. Nov 14 at 3 at officos of Lees, Severn Crewe Arms Hotel, Crewe. Fowler, Liverpool

chmbrs, Middle Pavement, Nottingham Haffner, Leonard, and Frederick Haffner, Lineholt, Ombersley, Worcester, Farmers. Tyletsley, Robert Henry, Farnworth, Lancaster. Nov 14 at 3 at Market pl, Manchester, Nov 14 at 11 at offices of Tree and Son, High st, Worcester

Clarke, Bolton Hannaford, William John, Ramsgate, Smack Owner. Nov 12 at 2 at Royal Harbour Inn, Vickers, Tom, Ashby-de-la-Zouch, Butcher. Nov 11 at 2 at Shoulder of Mutton Inn, Addington st, Ramsgate. Hills, Ramsgate

Market st, Ashby-de-la-Zouch, Wilson Harris, Charles, Wingham, Kent, Builder. Nov 18 at 1 at Fleece Hotel, Canierbury. Walmsley, Edmund Bloxam, Porchester sq, no occupation. Nov 21 at 11 at offices of Parry, Ramsgate

Roberts, Coleman st Hilyer, William, Cheltenham, Greengrocer. Nov 9 at 12 at 12, Regent st, Cheltenham.

Ward, James, Chester, Fruiterer. Nov 16 at 3 at offices of Tibbits and Sons, ola Post Billings

Office pl, the Eastgate, Chester Hollingbery, Charles, East st, Victoria Park, Shoe Manufacturer. Nov 19 at 11 at 40,

Wasley, Emmanuel, Brierley Hill, Stafford, Publican. Nov 12 at 10.30 at offices of Clulow, Churton st, Pimlico, Dutton

High st, Brierley Hill Hope, John Henry, Ancoats, Manchester, Brush Manufacturer. Nov 17 at 11 at offices White, Frederick, Barnard's Green, nr Great Malvern, Builder. Nov 17 at 11 at Star of Jones, Kennedy st, Manchester

Hotel, Upton-upon-Severn, Moores and Romney, Tewkesbury Hurst, William, Didsbury, Lancaster, Bricklayer, Nov 14 at 3 at offices of Farrington,

Williams, Mary Ann, Malvern Wells, Lodging house keeper. Nov 14 at 3 at offices of Princess st, Manchester

Lambert, the Promenade, Gt Malvern Jones, Richard Ranson, Walbrook, Commission Agent. Nov 16 at 3 at offices of Fitch,

Williams, Pbilip, Aberaman, Aberdare, Grocer, Nov 14 at 12 at 39, Broad st, Bristol, Bedford row

Linton and Kenshole, Aberdare Jordan, William, Commercial rd East, Window Blind Maker. Nov 11 at 3 at offices of Williams, Richard, Wrexham, Denbigh, Farmer. Nov 15 at 3 at offices of Culsbaw, Shearer, Basinghall st. Scott, Aldermanbury

Lord st, Liverpool Lansley, John, Basingstoke, Southampton, Smith. Nov 14 at 3 at offices of Chandler ! Wilson, John, Leeds, Grocer. Nov 11 at 2 at offices of Middleton and Sons, Calverley and Son, Basingstoke

chbrs, Victoria sg, Leeds Limpus, James Dainty, High st, Putney, Dairyman. Nov 14 at 3 at 3, Portugal st; Wilson, Joseph, Ryther, nr Tadcaster, York, Farmer. Nov 16 at 12 at offices of Wed. Lincoln's inn fields. Morehouse, Portugal st

dall and Parker, Abbey yd, Selby Lowe, George, Leycett, Stafford, Grocer. Noy 16 at 11 at offices of Griffith, Lad lane, Wimbles, Richard, Liverpool, Stationer. Nov 16 at 2 at offices of Lynch and Teba:, Newcastle-under-Lyme

Lord st, Liverpool Mannheimer, Wolfgang Gustav, Mark lane, Merchant. Nov 17 at 12 at offices of Crump Wiskar, Walter Christian, St James's rd, Bermondsey, Licensed Victualler. Nov 17 at and Son, Philpot lane

3 at offices of Wright, Walbrook Martin, George, Liverpool, Licensed Victualler. Nov 16 at 2 at offlces of Knowles, | Woolley, Joseph, Maxey, Northampton, Farmer. Nov 14 at 12 at Angel Hotel, Peter. Cook st, Liverpool

borough. Gaches, Peterborough Matts, George Henry, Leicester, Hay and Corn Dealer. Nov 15 at 3 at offices of Wright, | Wright, Joseph, sen, Ossory rd, Old Kent rd, Licensed Victualler. Nov 18 at 3 at Belvoir st, Leicester

offices of Clapham and Fitch, Bishopagate Without McComb, William, Wolstanton, Stafford, Ale and Porter Merchant. Nov 14 at 11 at

offices of Alcock, Newcastle Et, Burslem Mellor, Obadiah, Ladmanlow, near Buxton, Derby, Greengrocor. Nov 14 at 11 at White Bear Inn, King Edward st, Macclesfield. Cooper, Congleton

CONTENTS. Memmott, Walter George, Sheffield, Electro Plate Manufacturer, Nov 16 at 4 at offices of Binney and Co, Queen st chmbrs, Sheffield

CURRENT TOPICS ...................

1 I OBITUARY............................ Moore, Daniel, Walsall, Stafford, Builder. Nov 10 at 3 at offices of Cotterell and Carter, Bridge st, Walsall

THE NEWSPAPER LIBEL ACT ........

THE JUDGES ON ASSIZE REFORM ....
TIE PROCEDURE COMMITTEE'S REPORT

SOCIETIES......
Moss, John, Tunstall, Stafford, Builder. Nov 11 at 3 at offices of Hollinshead and
Moody, Tunstall

THE PRACTICAL EFFECT OF THE Con.

LAW STUDENTS' JOURNAL............ Noon, Richard, Frankfort terrace, Paddington, Newsagent. Nov 16 at 3 at offices of

VEYANCING ACT...................

NEW ORDERS ........................ Welman, Westbourne grove, Bayswater

REVIEWS ..........................

LEGAL APPOINTMENTS ........... Ovors, William, and Henry Webb, Birmingham, Bookbinders. Nov 14 at 3 at offices of

CORRESPONDENCE

COMPANIES ...................... • Haigh, Waterloo st, Birmingham

CASES OF THE WEEK

CREDITORS' CLAIMS ............... Porter, Hugh, Haddenham, Cambridge, Farmer. Nov 11 at 12 at Bull Hotel, Trump

A Solicitor, In re .....

COURT PAPERS .... ington st, Cambridge. Gaches, Peterborough

Dowd v. Hawtin ....

... 8 LONDON GAZETTES, &c., &o........... Poskitt, Mark, Kellington, near Fenybridge, York, Farmer. Nov 14 at 3 at Red Lion

Hotel, Pontefract. Kaberry, Pontefract
Priest, Enoch, Oldbury, Worcester, Coal Dealer. Nov 16 at 11 at offices of Shakespeare, NOTICES TO CORRESPONDENTS.- All communications intended for publication
Church st, Oldbury

in the SOLICITORS' JOURNAL must be authenticated by the name and address of Pybus, Henry, Central Market, West Smithfield, Provision Salesman. Nov 22 at 3 at the Guildhall Tavern, Gresham st. Solomon, Finsbury pavement

the writer. Ranford, Joseph, Worcester, Tinplate Worker.' Nov 16 at 11 at offices of Tree and Son, The Editor does not hold himself responsible for the return of rejected communi. High st, Worcester

cations. Robinson, Charles, Park Mews, Kilburn, Cab Proprietor, Nov 10 at 11 at 10, Bell yard, Fleet st. Hope

** The Publisher requests that early application should be made by persons Roe, William, Chatham, Hoopmaker. Nov 14 at 3 at the King's Head Hotel, High st, desirous of obtaining back numbers of the SOLICITORS' JourNAL, as only a small

Rochester. Shakespear, Newgate st
Rogers, William, Albert ter, King's Cross, Cab Proprietor. Nov 21 at 12 at offices of

number of copies remain on hand.
Howard, Southampton bldgs, Chancery lane
Salberg, Frederick Sigismund, Louis Salberg, and Samuel Heymann, Aldermanbury

It is announced that the share certificates of the Royal Courts of Justice Avenue, General Merchants. Nov 24 at 3 at Cannon st Hotel, Cannon st. Goldberg and Co, West st, Finsbury circus

Chambers Company (Limited) are now ready for delivery.

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EDE AND SON,
ROBE

MAKERS,

Law Copying and Engrossing. .

SCHWEITZER'S COCOATINA,

PARTRIDGE & COOPER, Anti-Dyspeptic Cocoa or Chocolate Powder. Guaranteed Pure Soluble Cocoa of the Finest Quality,

LAW AND GENERAL STATIONERS, with the excess of fat extracted.

L 1 & 2, CHANCERY LANE, LONDON, E.C. The Faculty pronounce it “the most nutritious, perfectly digestible beverage for Breakfast, Luncheon, or Supper, and invaluable for Invalids and Children."

BY SPECIAL APPOINTMENT, Highly commended by the entire Medical Press.

To Her Majesty, the Lord Chancellor, the Whole of the Being without sugar, spice, or other admixture, it snits

Judicial Bench, Corporation of London, &c. all palates, keeps better in all climates, and is four times

Deeds and Writings engrossed and copied on the Premises, SOLICITORS' AND REGISTRARS' GOWNS the strength of cocoas THICKENED yet WEAKENED with

with 'punctuality and dispatch, at the lowest scale of starch, &c., and IN REALITY CHEAPER than such Mixtures. BARRISTERS' AND QUEEN'S COUNSEL'S DITTO,

charges. A good Discount allowed on agreed accounts. Made instantaneously with boiling water, a teaspoonful to a Breakfast Cup, costing less than a half penny. CORPORATION ROBES, UNIVERSITY & CLERGY GOWNS,

LAW PRINTING. COCOATINA A LA VANILLE is the most delicate, digestible, cheapest Manilla Chocolate, and may be taken when

ESTABLISHED 1889.

STATEMENTS OF CLAIM AND DEFENCE, AFFI.

DAVITS, and other PLEADING, Printed at ls. per folio. richer chocolate is prohibited. In tin packets at Is. 6d., 38., 5s. 6d., &c., by Chemists 94, CHANCERY LANE, LONDON.

DEEDS, CONVEYANCES, MORTGAGES, &c., Printed and Grocers.

in form for Registration. Charities on Special Terms by the Sole Proprietors,

Discount allowed for cash on agreed accounts. H. SCHWEITZER & CO, 10, Adam-street, London, W.C I THE BODEGA COMPANY (Limited).LAMPTON & SONS make NO CHARGE 1 Notice is hereby Given, that an INTERIM DIVI.

BRIEFS, PETITIONS. DRATTO for inserting particulars in their FREE MONTHLY | DEND of 5 per cent. (equal to 10 per cent. per annum) will | ABSTRACTS, be PAYABLE herein on the 15th November instant.

MINUTES OF EVIDENCE, Lithographed REGISTER of ESTATES, TOWN and COUNTRY

at reduced prices. HOUSES, Furnished or Unfurnished, or for Sale, to be Notice is hereby also Given, that the Transfer Books of had GRATIS at their Offices, or post-free for two stamps, the Company will be Closed from the 8th to the 14th instant

PLANS OF ESTATES, SPECIFICATIONS, BUILD. Published on the 1st of the month, and particulars for inclusive.

ING SOCIETIES' DEEDS, LEASES, &c., Lithographed insertion should be sent not later than five days previous

with accuracy and dispatch. to end of preceding month.

By order of the Board, THOMAS OGDEN, Secretary. Valuations for Probate and Transfer. Surveys.

Registered Offices, 88, Bishopsgate-street Within, E.C.,

PARCHMENT AND LEGAL PAPERS Estate and Auction Offices, 8, Pall Mall East, s.w.

Nov. 1, 1981,

Samples and Catalogues sent post-free.

LITHOGRAPHY.

The Solicitors' Journal.

LONDON, NOVEMBER 12, 1881.

JAMES HANNEN thereupon remarked that he “had often had CURRENT TOPICS.

occasion to observe on the unsatisfactory character of proof by photographs, and never acted on it alone.” In a case

recently decided by Vice-Chancellor Bacon, that learned judge THE COURT OF APPEAL at Westminster commenced its sittings made some observations on the extreme caution necessary in receivon Thursday.

ing as evidence even photographs of buildings, which, one would sup

pose, do not vary greatly in expression. Although, he said, no WE BELIEVE that the orders made in the Chancery Division blame attached to any party, or to the witness who produced a during the last Long Vacation exceeded by about 200 those made photograph of certain buildings to which the case related, yet during any previous vacation.

that photograph, if unaccompanied by other evidence, would, in the opinion of the learned judge, have seriously misled the court.

There was no fraud in that case, but the reason for the warnTHE MEETING of the members of the Incorporated Law

ing becomes more obvious when we remember that there are modes Society, to consider the report of the Legal Procedure Committee, of manipulating the process of printing so as, by means of the is fixed for the 18th inst., at two o'clock.

combination of two or more negatives, to produce a totally different effect from that presented by the object taken. Practitioners

should be careful not to place too much reliance on this kind of WE PRINT ELSEWHERE a list of seventy-five causes which are

evidence. to be transferred from the list of Mr. Justice CHITTY to that of Vice-Chancellor Bacon. Twelve of these causes have already! IN THE COURSE of his summing-up in the LEFROY trial, Lord been transferred to Mr. Justice KAY for the purposes of trial or | COLERIDGE pointedly expressed his disapproval of the practice, hearing only, and when heard they will remain in the cause-book sanctioned by the late Lord Chief Justice, of counsel for the of Vice-Chancellor Bacon for all other purposes.

defence repeating in his speech statements made by the prisoner. The history of the practice is a little singular. More than forty

years ago, in the trial of a man called BUTCHER (the case is MR. WOLSTEN HOLME having retired from the field, we have reported: . V., Butcher,, 21

reported : R. v. Butcher, 2 Moo. & Rob. 228) the late Lord now the pleasure of welcoming into our columns Mr. F. S.

| Chief Justice, then at the bar, in his address to the jury, REILLY, his coadiutor in the drafting of the Conveyancing Act. was stating the prisoner's account of what had taken place, who this week takes up the cudgels in defence of the measure.

sure when he was interrupted by Mr. Justice COLERIDGE, who We again leave our readers to judge whether our criticisms

refused to allow the prisoner's counsel to state to the have been successfully impugned. Mr. REILLY's reputation is jury facts which he had heard from the prisoner, but sufficiently high to make us suspect that if he had remained

ect that if he had remained which he was not in a position to prove. Two years ago, in a silent the public would have thought him capable of making a

him capable of making a trial before the late Lord Chief Justice, counsel for the prisoner better defence. We may add that we notice with pleasure the

with pleasure the happened to use the time-honoured phrase that his “unfortunate more courteous tone which now marks the communications of the

client's mouth was closed," when the learned judge at once framers of the Act.

remarked that “he could not acquiesce in that, for counsel represented the accused, and whatever the prisoner would be entitled to say, that his counsel was entitled to say on his behalf.” With

great deference to the opinion of Lord COLERIDGE, we venTHERE ARE SYMPTOMS that the report of the Procedure Com- iure to think that the weight of authority is against his view. mittee will not be adopted in its entirety by the Rule Committee There is the decision of Mr. Justice CROWDER (R. v. Haines, 1 Of Juages; ,In a case of Earl, De La Warr v. Miles, of which a F. & F. 86), “ that what a prisoner said before the magistrate report will be found in another column, a question was raised he might repeat through his counsel at the trial”; the observabefore the Court of Appeal on Wednesday, as to the allowance on tion of Mr. Justice Byles in another case, that the prisoner has taxation of the costs of copies of a shorthand writer's notes of the option of either speaking himself or of having his counsel evidence. In the course of the argument reference was made by to speak for him”; and last, but not least, the decision of Mr.

tained in the recent report of Justice HAWKINS, with the concurrence of Lord Justice Lush, in the Procedure Committee of the appointment of an official short-la case at the Leeds Spring Assizes (February 3, 1880; 24 hand writer in each court, which he characterized as a “suggested SOLICITORS' JOURNAL, 266), that, “as a general principle, a improvement.” The Master of the Rolls thereupon expressed a prisoner may make his statement, and give his version of the doubt whether this alteration would be any improvement. Our | transaction in respect of which he stands charged. · · · readers may remember that, in commenting upon this suggestion The statement might be made by his counsel, but I think it may also (25 SOLICITORS' JOURNAL, 894), we said that," although it is more be made by the prisoner.” than probable that a very considerable revenue might be derived from the employment of official shorthand writers remunerated in the manner here sketched out, it appears that the result of such employment will be to impose an additional burden on litigants.”

SEVERAL YEARS AGO, in discussing the case of Miles v. Furber We are glad to find that our view seems to be, to some extent,

|(21 W. R. 262, L. R. 8 Q. B. 77), we drew attention to the two indorsed by the high authority of the Master of the Rolls.

conflicting principles which had from time to time prevailed during the long series of decisions on the question of exemption from distress for rent for the benefit of trade : the principle of

restriction, represented by Parsons v. Gingell (4 C. B. 545), SOME TIME AGO in the Divorce Court a lodging-house keeper which says that only goods placed in the hands of the tenant was called to prove the identity of a co-respondent, by means of with the intent to have “human labour or skill bestowed upon a photograph, and after carefully examining the picture, she them” are to be privileged from distress by the trader's landdeclared her opinion in the following peculiar language :- lord; and the principle of relaxation, represented by Swire v. I have no doubt it is him, and it isn't like him." Sir Leach (13 W. R. 385, 18 C. B. N. S. 479), which says that

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all goods sent to a trader “to be taken care of and dealt with and the separation deed, an application was made by motion, with by him in the way of his trade” are to be privileged from such the consent of the husband, that the capital of a part of the trust distress. It will be remembered that in Miles v. Furber the funds should be applied in payment of certain debts incurred by court, having to decide between these two principles, and admitting the wife. There had been no issue of the marriage, and it was that the previous cases were irreconcileable, deliberately chose to considered to be clear that the wife was past child-bearing. The follow the latter principle. In a case of Gould v. Usher, decided | Vice-Chancellor acceded to this application, upon the ground that by the Queen's Bench Division this week, the question has once the next of kin were mere volunteers, and that, the interests of more been discussed. A county court judge had decided that children of the marriage being out of the question, the wife was certain cows standing in the stables of an innkeeper, waiting to be entitled to have (with the husband's consent) the capital applied sold, were privileged from distress levied for rent due from the for her benefit during the husband's lifetime. The action is now innkeeper's landlord to his superior landlord. The court held that in the court of Mr. Justice FRY, and a petition was recently the cows were not privileged from distress. We have not before presented by the husband and wife for the payment to them of the us the full facts of the case, or the grounds on which the deci whole remaining capital in certain agreed shares. Nobody thought sion of the court rested, but it seems probable that the court may it possible to deny that the principle which had been held by the have relied on the distinction suggested by MELLOR, J., in Vice-Chancellor to be applicable to the previous motion was equally Miles v. Furber between the facts of that case and those of well applicable to the present petition. But Mr. Justice FRY, Parsons v. Gingell. In the latter case the owner of the horse after taking time to consider, declined on Monday last to follow merely used the innkeeper's stable instead of his own, retaining that precedent, and refused to make any order on the petition, to himself the entire control of the animal. If our supposition is except that the trustees (who had appeared and opposed) should correct, there has now been introduced yet another distinction into have their costs. The learned judge expressed a hope that the this complicated branch of law.

Court of Appeal would have an opportunity of composing this strife of judicial opinion; but the counsel for the petitioners

emphatically disclaimed any intention of appealing. Mr. Justice CONJECTURES ARE CURRENT as to the possibility of the Great Fry's decision may be said to have destroyed whatever authority Seal being placed in commission, and it may be worth while to that of Vice-Chancellor MALINS ever had. consider what the effect of such a proceeding would be. The 98th section of the Judicature Act, 1873, provides that “when the Great Seal is in commission, the Lords Commissioners shall

WE RECENTLY CRITICIZED the provisions of the curious Bill which represent the Lord Chancellor for the purposes of this Act, save the Farmers' Alliance intend next session to present for the conthat as to the presidency of the Court of Appeal, and the appoint- sideration of Parliament; we may now add a few words as to the ment or approval of officers, or the sanction to any order for the

principle on which it is based. Between the principle of comremoval of officers, or any other act to which the concurrence or

pensation by the landlord according to a yaluation, with the impresence of the Lord Chancellor is hereby made necessary, the

portant addition that he shall not be able to get rid of his liability powers given to the Lord Chancellor by this Act may be exercised

to make it, and the proposal of the Farmers' Alliance that the by the senior Lord Commissioner for the time being." It would

outgoing tenant shall have the right to take his improvements into seem that the exceptions of this section do not apply to the 31st the market, and sell them at the best price they will fetch, section, whereby the Lord Chancellor is a member of, and president

subject to a right of pre-emption at that price in the landlord, of, the Chancery Division of the High Court; and in this capacity we will not pretend to decide; but we will compare them he would apparently be represented by all the Lords Commissioners. both with the ‘maxim, which we suppose every one will admit, The Great Seal has been twice placed in commission during the pre- that the basis of all reforms in the land laws in this country sent century, first in 1835, when the commissioners were Sir C. is to be found in the principle of free contract, limited PEPYS, M.R., SHADWELL, V.C., and BOSANQUET, J., and secondly in

only in those directions in which its exercise results in 1850, when they were Lord LANGDALE, M.R., SHADWELL, V.C.,

LANGDALE, M.R., SHADWELL, V.C., public injury. Now, in the proposal for allowing the tenant to and ROLFE, B. The commissioners do not preside in the House sell his improvements for what they will fetch, there is an interof Lords; when the Great Seal is in commission it is the practice ference with the right of contract in three distinct directions. to appoint a Deputy-Speaker by a separate commission, or three | The purchaser must be allowed to enter and occupy in order to Deputy-Speakers, each to act in order of a prescribed seniority, benefit by his purchase ; thus the landlord is deprived of the right the Lords having power to elect their own Speaker in the absence of free choice as to the tenant to whom he will let. The new

so named. The administrative powers tenant must be secured against having the rent raised upon him of the Lord Chancellor-such as the appointment of justices of | in consequence of the improvements; so comes the necessity for the peace, the presentation to Chancellor's livings, &c.—would the assistance of a court in fixing the rent at which the purseem to be exerciseable by all the commissioners together. In chaser is to hold. The fixing of a rent is impossible independently the event of a person professing the Jewish religion being placed of the conditions of the holding, and the period for which it is to on the commission, his rights as to presentation to an ecclesiastical

continue; consequently, it is proposed to be enacted that the benefice would probably, by 21 & 22 Vict. c. 49, s. 4, devolve

conditions on which the new tenant is to be admitted shall not be upon the Archbishop of Canterbury; but that statute does not

more “onerous” than those on which the farm was held by his in terms provide for the case.

predecessor, and that the holding shall be for a term of not less than seven years. Free sale, fair rent, and fixity of tenure are

thus all to be introduced, within certain limits, into English OUR READERS may remember the great surprise of the profes- landholding for the purpose of securing to the tenant a payment sion at the decision of Vice-Chancellor MALINS in Paul v. Paul which the landlord is already competent, or may easily be (29 W. R. 281, L. R. 15 Ch. D. 580). The facts of that rendered competent, to make without any such machinery at all. case were these :—By the marriage settlement of Mr. and Mrs. On the other hand, the principle of compulsory compensation by PAUL, executed in 1845, certain property belonging to the lady valuation at the determination of the tenancy is the smallest only was settled upon the husband for life, then upon the wife possible interference with the right of contract. It is for the for life, then to go among the children of the marriage, but good of the public that the soil shall be developed by the applicaif no children the capital to go absolutely to the wife on her tion to it of all the energies and resources of the person cultivating surviving her husband, but if she predeceased him she had a it; therefore it is the simplest sense and reason that no contract general testamentary power of appointment, and in default of shall be permitted which, by depriving the tenant of a right to appointment the capital to go to the wife's next of kin. The compensation for increasing the letting value of the holding, husband and wife were afterwards separated by mutual consent, | prevents him from expending his capital upon it. To say that and the separation deed provided that during the husband's life compensation by valuation necessitates the introduction of prohalf of the income should be paid to the wife for her separate use. fessional valuers whose opinions are mistrusted by both parties is An action having been brought by Mrs. PAUL against her hus- no argument in favour of the alternative scheme. For the latter band and the trustees to administer the trusts of the settlement leaves to the decision of a court questions which would but too good ?

frequently involve the evidence of a dozen valuers instead of a and see if the facts relied on by the plaintiffs bring this case within single reference to two. The application of the tenant's capital to what has been so said.” He then proceeds very forcibly to comthe soil would no doubt by either method be encouraged, and the bat the proposition that, when goods which have to be made are interference with ordinary commercial principles to that extent ordered of a man who makes them, the goods are necessarily to be justified. But the development of the land by expenditure on of his own make. It is admitted by the Lord Justice, and indeed the part of the landlord would, by the free-sale scheme, be finally it would be impossible to deny, that if upon the facts it is shown prevented, for the sense of personal dominion and of the interest that the make of a particular person or firm has a special value or attached to such dominion could scarcely survive the extinction of reputation, the implication would be that the articles ordered were his power to choose his own tenant and to fix with him the terms to be of that make, As, for instance, if an order were given to a of the holding. Is such an interference with the right of con- painter for a portrait, or to Erard or Collard for a pianoforte; but the tract justified by political necessity, or is it not rather, by shutting question now under discussion is whether there is any proposition up the principal source from which has flowed the means neces- of law to the same effect when it is not shown that there is any sary for agricultural improvements, directly opposed to the public special repute or distinction about the make, but the articles are

articles of which one maker's make is as good as another's.

We sympathize strongly with the spirit of Lord Justice Bram

well's remarks, but we cannot say the particular question seems so IMPLICATION OF CONTRACT THAT easy to us as it does to his broad and robust vision. Questions of this GOODS SOLD SHALL BE OF THE VEN

sort may, by the rigid application of clear, strict general principles

which, no doubt, in the main are sound and wholesome principlesDOR'S OWN MANUFACTURE.

be rendered easy of solution ; but there is constantly in law a conTHE recent case of Johnson v. Raylton (L. R. 7 Q. B. D. flict between what one may call general expediency and the ex438) raised a point of great practical and also theoretical pediency of the particular class of cases ; and the clear, broad rule, interest with regard to the construction of contracts for the notwithstanding the general advantages of breadth and clearness. sale or supply of manufactured articles. Strangely enough, may in its application to particular classes of cases or relations of there was no distinct English authority on the point. There are life be so manifestly contrary to justice or the more limited two Scotch decisions of the Court of Session, but unfortunately expediency of the particular class of cases, that some special there was in those cases a difference of opinion among the limitation or modification of its operation is absolutely necessary. judges, and so again unfortunately there was a difference of In relation to contracts it is obvious that life is not really long opinion in the Court of Appeal in the case we are consider- enough, and the tide of business is too rapid, to admit of the ing. The point arose as follows. The plaintiffs, who were terms of a contract being always set forth with the accuracy of a manufacturers of, but not otherwise dealers in, iron, by a proposition of Euclid, and courts must constantly be obliged, to written contract, on the margin of which was their trade-mark, some extent, to read between the lines in order to do justice. It contracted to sell to the defendants 2,000 tons of ship-plates of the is, no doubt, a good general rule to be chary of implications, but in quality known as “ Crown,'' to pass Lloyd's survey, to be delivered particular cases it is sometimes necessary to make them. It is a monthly at the defendant's ship-yard. There was no express question of the balance of conflicting expediencies, and in many stipulation that the plates should be of the plaintiffs' manufacture. cases it will be difficult to say where the line is to be drawn. The question simply was whether, under such a contract, the Notwithstanding our general sympathy with Lord Justice Bramplaintiffs could compel the defendants to take plates in accordance well's view, we incline to think that the majority of the court were, with the contract in other respects, but not of their own manufac- in this particular case, right. We think if you asked a number of ture-in other words, whether it was an implied term of the con-business men what they would expect if they ordered articles of a tract that the plates should be of the plaintiffs' own manufacture. I person who carried on business, and held himself out only, as a

Lord Justice Bramwell, who held that there was no such implied manufacturer of those particular articles, and not as a dealer in such term, in opposition to the opinion of Brett and Cotton, L.JJ., articles manufactured by others as well as a manufacturer, they delivered a very characteristic judgment. The tendency of his would answer that they should expect that the articles would be mind appears to be against implications by which the law makes of his own manufacture, though it was not so stipulated. We for persons contracts which they have not in terms made for them- think, therefore, that the true proposition is as laid down by selves, or imports into contracts terms which they have not Brett, L.J. The difficulty that really would arise in many cases expressed for themselves, and perhaps never dreamed of until a is that of ascertaining in what capacity the vendor holds himself change of prices or some other matter subsequent suggested such out. There are many cases, especially of businesses of a mixed terms to one or other of them. There is no doubt much danger in wholesale and retail character, in which it would be difficult to say such implications. They introduce an element of uncertainty whether vendors professed to supply goods of their own manufacture which tends to render law doubtful and unscientific, and to make or not. But if goods are ordered of a firm of manufacturers who the law in each particular case matter of fluctuating opinion. The are known in the trade not to be dealers except in goods manuordinary case of mercantile usage, introduced by implication into factured by themselves and surely there must be numberless a contract, is a strong illustration of this tendency. You have instances of such firms—it seems to us that the natural meaning witnesses supposed to be experts deposing contradictorily as to the of a contract for the supply of goods by such firms is clearly that existence or otherwise of a usage of which the certainty and the goods are to be manufactured by them. The fact that it notoriety is in theory the ground for its implication into the con- cannot be shown affirmatively that there is anything peculiar or tract. If you look to what people actually say you are on sound of special value about the make, is not, to our mind, conclusive. ground; but if you go into the question what they must have meant, A man may have an irrational, but at the same time real, conalthough they did not say it, you are on treacherous soil at once. fidence in or preference for the make of a particular manufacturer. It is, no doubt, true in general that people should say expressly It would be a very difficult thing to draw the line in estimating what they mean in contracting, and that the court ought not to how far the repute of a manufacturing firm could be considered act as a sort of mercantile court of equity to reform business con- to give a special value or repute to the goods. There seems to us tracts, and to make them say what the parties entering into them little doubt that the fact that goods were manufactured by a good ought, as business men, to have said, and would, perhaps, have firm would afford some ground of preference for them, and a man said if they had anticipated the contingency that has arisen, but who goes to a manufacturer seems entitled to say that he enterwhich they have not, in fact, said.

tained that preference. It seems to us that the admissions, which Lord Justice Bramwell expresses an opinion that there ought to cannot be avoided by the advocates of the other view, with regard be very little difficulty about the point in question in the case we to certain cases, as of orders of paintings from painters or other are discussing. He says, “ If there is an uncertainty in this case, cases where an element of personal skill or repute comes in, if it is an uncertainty of the law. This ought not to be. There followed out, press them much harder than they suppose. Why, ought to be, and I think is, a rule by which to decide this case. if I order a portrait of A., can he not make me take one by B. ? That rule, I think, is, that we must look at what the parties have Assume that B. was the more eminent painter of the two, and his said : add nothing to and take nothing from it without necessity, portraits generally fetched more in the market, and that to oblige

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