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three thousand calories. A calory, by the way, means in physics the quantity of heat necessary to raise the temperature of one kilogram of water by one degree Celsius. Three thousand calories, therefore, represent a quantity sufficient to raise three thousand grams of water by one degree C., or one gram of water by 3,000 degrees C.

Besides water and salts we have three groups of nutritious food to subsist on, . e., albuminates, fats and carbohydrates, (i. e., starch, flour, sugar). The caloricity of these substances has been established as follows: One gram of albumen equals 4.0 calories, 1 gram of fat equals 9.0 calories and 1 gram of carbohydrate equals 4.0 calories. With these figures it is easy to calculate how much of albumen, fats or carbohydrates a person must absorb daily in order to supply his body with the necessary number of calories from either of these substances. He will require about 3,000÷4-725 grams of albumen, or about the same quantity of hydrates, or but 3,000÷9-333 grams of fat. Now, it would be the greatest folly to try to live on either of these foods exclusively, as the stomach would not fail to revolt against such an attempt. Man requires mixed foods, and these should be so selected as to yield the necessary number of calories, a number which must necessarily vary according to the state of health of each individual and the amount of work he has to perform.

Nutritious Value of Some Ordinary Foods in Calories.

(As given by Dr. Irving Fischer, of Yale University, in "The American Journal of Physiology.") Weight containing 100 calories.

Name of food and
"portion," rough-
ly estimated.
Almonds, a dozen...
Apple pie, a third of
a piece..
Bacon, ordinary

serving

Banana, one large.
Bread, a large slice.
Butter an ordinary
pat
Cheese, an ordinary
piece
Chicken, an ordi-
nary serving.
Cream, an ordinary
serving

....

Beef sirloin, a small
piece

Egg, one large.
Grapes, one bunch.
Oysters, one dozen.
Potato, one...
Whole milk, two-

thirds glass. ... Sugar, five teaspoon

Ounce.

0.53

Kind of food material.

Beef, round
Beef, girloin
Beef, shoulder
Mutton, leg
Pork, loin

1.3

0.53 3.5

1.3

100 100

100

100

100

100

0.77

100

3.2

100

1.7

100

1.4 2.1

100 100

4.8

100

6.8

3.6

100

100 100

89

4.9

140

29

100

fuls ....

0.86

24

100

100

That means that, for instance, 4.9 ounces of milk, about two-thirds of an ordinary glass, contain 100 calories, and that of these 100 calories 19 will be in the form of proteid, 52 in fat and 29 in carbohydrates. In other words, of the food value of milk 19 per cent is proteid, 52 per cent fat and 19 carbohydrates. To determine the number of calories contained in any quantity of these foods eaten singly or mixed with another divide their weight by the respective units of weight as given for each. As many times as the latter is contained in the former so. many times a hundred calories that amount of food will yield.

PECUNIARY ECONOMY OF FOOD.

0.44

Gram. | Proteid.

13

5

6

5

13

15

per lb. be

If price

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60

1.40

1.90

will buy.

Ten cents

0.5

Cents. Pounds.
14

71

20

.50

12

.83

16

63 .83

12

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79

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Protein.

Pounds.

.13

.08

.12

.09

.11

99.5

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Amounts of actually nutritive ingredients obtained in different food materials for 10 cents.

(From bulletin of United States Department of Agriculture.)

Fat. Pounds. .09

.08

.08

.09

.19

Pounds of nutrients and calories of fuel value in 10 cents worth.

l

Carbo

hydrates. Energy!

Pounds. Calories 630 515

595

560 1,035

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In serious accidents the first thing to be done is to send for the physician. While awa'ting his arrival make the patient as comfortable as possible. In severe bleeding, stanch the blood by means of compresses applied to the veins or arteries. In case of insensibility, loosen or remove any of the clothing pressing upon the neck, chest or abdorien. Sprinkle the face with cold water, and if the power of swallowing be present give some cold water to drink, or if this should prove insufficient some stimulant, such as whiskey or brandy,

Burns and Scalds.

Cover with bicarbonate of soda, or wet with water in which as much of the soda has been placed as can be dissolved. When the skin is broken and blisters are raised, open the blisters at once and swathe the parts with soft linen annointed with simple cerate or saturated with sweet oil, castor oil, or equal parts of linseed oil and lime water. Burns from caustic alkalis should be well washed with vinegar and water.

Epileptic Fits.

Place patient flat on the floor, with little or no elevation of the head; control his movements so far as to prevent injury, and place a folded towel between the teeth, so as to prevent the biting of the tongue. When the convulsion is over let the patient rest in a quiet place, giving him previously a slight stimulant.

Fainting.

Loosen the clothing, allow plenty of fresh air, sprinkle cold water over face and apply hartshorn to the nose.

Frostbite.

Bring about reaction gradually by friction in a room without fire, and avoid beat. Rub the part with snow or other cold application. If severe, call physician, as gangrene may follow.

Suffocation by Gases.

Remove the patient into fresh air, undo clothing, dash cold water on the face and neck and employ artificial respiration, as in drowning.

Sunstroke.

Remove clothing; put patient in cool place and apply ice or ice cold water to head, back of neck, spine and armpits until the high temperature is lowered. Keep head in elevated position.

Hemorrhages from the Nose.

These may be stopped generally by snuffing up the nose salt water, alum and water, or vinegar, by applying ice between the shoulders or at the back of the neck, or by putting bits of lint into the nostrils, and raising the arms over the head.

Drowning.

Loosen or remove clothing and rid the air passages of any water, mud, or mucus which may be present. Pull the tongue well forward; an elastic band over the tongue and under the chin will answer the purpose. Turn the patient over, face downward, so that the head hangs down, and, by making firm pressure upon the loins, any water will be expelled from the lungs and stomach. Then turn him upon his back and proceed with artificial respiration. For this purpose grasp the patient's arms just above the elbows and draw them gently and steadily upward until they meet above the head, and, after keeping the arms in that position for two seconds, turn them down and press them gently and firmly for two seconds against the sides of the chest. Repeat these measures alternately fifteen times in a minute until a

spontaneous effort to respire is perceived. When breathing has been established proceed to induce circulation and warmth. Remove carefully all wet clothing and wrap the patient up in warm, dry blankets, applying heat to the extremities. Restore the circulation by brisk friction applied to the limbs, and, as soon as he is able to swallow give small quantities of hot coffee, whiskey or brandy. Do not despair if resuscitation does not immediately follow. Cases have been reported where it has taken two hours to effect this, and recovery from drowning has occurred where persons have been submerged from ten minutes to nearly an hour.

Burns from Electricity and Lightning.

Do not touch the body until the current has been turned off, unless you are provided with rubber gloves. Send for medical aid immediately. In the mean time apply external heat and friction to the extremities. If the respirations have ceased employ artificial respiration. The burns may be treated as any ordinary burn.

Bites of Animals.

Remove the possible poison and prevent its entry into the system. Place a ligature about the part and thoroughly cauterize the wound with a hot iron, hot coal, or some caustic. When a person is bitten by an animal supposed to have hydrophobia he should at once be removed to a Pasteur institute for inoculation with preventive Bites of Venomous Insects.

serum.

Tie a ligature about the injured part and suck the wound to produce bleeding. Then enlarge the bite with an incision and swab it out with pure carbolic acid or some other antiseptic. Should dangerous symptoms appear, stimulate the patient with whiskey.

POISONS AND THEIR ANTIDOTES.

When poisonous substances have been taken, the first move is to cause their ejection by vomiting or neutralization by proper antidotes; then the effects produced must be counteracted by stimulants, artificial respiration and exciting the excretory organs. The simplest means of causing vomiting are: Tickling back of throat with finger or a feather; drinking large drafts of lukewarm water, salt and water, mustard and water, one or two tablespoonsful of ipecac in water, and twenty grams of sulphate of zinc in water. When as much of the poison as possible has been gotten rid of by vomiting, certain antidotes, according to the nature of the poison, must be administered. Acids and alkalis form antidotes to each other. The acids suitable for the purpose are vinegar, lime juice, and orange juice, mixed with water. The alkalies are soda, potash, lime and magnesia diluted with water. Albumen and oils will protect the gullet and walls of the stomach in poisoning by so-called irritants. For the same purpose also white of egg, milk, flour and water, salad oil and castor oil may be used.

The following table shows the commonly used antidotes for various poisons:
Poisons.

Arsenic (rat poison, Sheele's green)......
Antimony (butter of antimony and tartar
emetic)...

Mineral acids (oil of vitriol, aqua fortis, spirit of salt)....

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Antidotes.

Emetics; milk; peroxide of iron, raw eggs, castor oil, salad oil.

Encourage vomiting. Milk; tea; tannic acid.

Encourage vomiting. Alkalies-solutions of soda; potash; lime; magnesia, whiting; wall plaster.

Emetics; lime water; chalk; magnesia,
whiting.

Lime water; sweet oil, stimulants.
Acids-vinegar and water; lime juice;

orange juice; orange juice in water;
emetics; salad oils.

Encourage vomiting by large drafts of water. Large doses of magnesia in water. Avoid oils.

Encourage vomiting; white of eggs; flour and water; milk.

Emetics and Epsom salts.

Common salt and water.

Fresh air; loosen dress; artificial respiration; dash cold water about face and neck.

Cold douche; smelling salts to nostrils; artificial respiration; brandy and ammonia.

Emetics; chloroform to relieve spasms; cold affusion, artificial respiration; brandy and ammonia; morphia; rectal injections of tobacco.

Emetics; strong coffee; cold affusion; forced walking about.

Its Origin and Preparation.

The delegates of the United Colonies of New Hampshire, Massachusetts Bay, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, New Castle, Kent and Sussex, in Delaware; Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina and South Carolina, in Congress assembled at Philadelphia, resolved on the 10th of May, 1776, to recommend to the respective assemblies and conventions of the United Colonies, where no government sufficient to the exigencies of their affairs had been established, to adopt such a government as should, in the opinion of the representatives of the people, best conduce to the happiness and safety of their constituents in particular and of America in general. A preamble to this resolution, agreed to on the 15th of May, stated the intention to be totally to suppress the exercise of every kind of authority under the British crown.

On the 7th of June, certain resolutions respecting independence were moved and seconded. On the 10th of June it was resolved that a committee should be appointed to prepare a declaration to the following effect: "That the United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent states; that they are absolved from all allegiance to the British crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain is, and ought to be, totally dissolved."

The

On the succeeding day it was determined that the committee for preparing the declaration should consist of five, and they were chosen accordingly, in the following order: Jefferson, J. Adams, Franklin, Sherman, R. R. Livingston. On the 11th of June also a resolution was Drafting passed to appoint a committee to prepare and digest the form Committee. of a confederation to be entered into between the colonies, and another committee to prepare a plan of treaties to be proposed to foreign powers. On the 12th of June it was resolved that a committee should be appointed by the name of a Board of War and Ordnance, to consist of five members.

On the 25th of June, a declaration of the deputies of Pennsylvania, met in provincial conference, expressing their willingness to concur in a vote declaring the United Colonies free and independent states was laid before Congress and read. On the 28th of June the committee appointed to prepare a declaration of independence brought in a draft, which was read and ordered to lie on the table. On the 1st of July a resolution of the convention of Maryland, passed the 28th of June, authorizing the deputies of that colony to concur in declaring the United Colonies free and independent states, was laid before Congress and read.

On the same day Congress resolved itself into a committee of the whole to take into consideration the resolution respecting independence. On the 2d of July a resolution declaring the colonies free and independent states was adopted. A declaration to that effect was, on the same and the following days, taken into further consideration.

Finally, on the 4th of July, the Declaration of Independence was agreed to, engrossed on paper, signed by John Hancock, as President, and directed to be sent to the several assemblies, conventions and committees, or councils of safety, and to the several commanding officers of the Continental troops, and to be proclaimed in each of the United States and at the head of the army.

It was also ordered to be entered upon the Journals of Congress, and on the 2d of August a copy, engrossed on parchment, was signed by all but one of the fifty-six signers whose names are appended to it. That one The was Matthew Thornton, of New Hampshire, who on taking his Second seat in November asked and obtained the privilege of signing it. Signing. Several who signed it on the 2d of August were absent when it was adopted on the 4th of July, but, approving of it, they thus signified their approbation.

TEXT OF THE DECLARATION.

In Congress, July 4, 1776.

When, in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume, among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the laws of nature and of nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator, with certain unalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. That to secure these rights, governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, that whenever any form of government becomes destructive of these ends it is

the right of the people to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new government, laying its foundation on such principles, and organizing its powers in such form as to them shall seem most likely to effect their safety and happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shown that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same object, evinces a design to reduce them under absolute despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such government, and to provide new guards for their future security. Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies, and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former systems of government. The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute tyranny over these states. To prove this, let facts be submitted to a candid world.

He has refused his assent to laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public good. He has forbidden his governors to pass laws of immediate and pressCharges ing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his assent should Against be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend the to them. Crown,

He has refused to pass other laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of representation in the Legislature, a right inestimable to them, and formidable to tyrants only.

He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their public records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures.

He has dissolved representative houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people.

He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to be elected, whereby the legislative powers, incapable of annihilation, have returned to the people at large for their exercise; the State remaining, in the mean time, exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without, and convulsions within.

He has endeavored to prevent the population of these states, for that purpose obstructing the laws for naturalization of foreigners, refusing to pass others to encourage their migrations hither, and raising the conditions of new appropriations of lands.

He has obstructed the administration of justice by refusing his assent to laws for establishing judiciary powers.

He has made judges dependent on his will alone, for the tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries.

He has erected a multitude of new offices, and sent hither swarms of officers to harass our people and eat out their substance.

He has kept among us, in times of peace, standing armies, without the consent of our legislatures.

He has affected to render the military independent of and superior to the civil

power.

He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitution and unacknowledged by our laws, giving his assent to their acts of pretended legislation:

Oppressive and

For quartering large bodies of armed troops among us;
For protecting them, by a mock trial, from punishment for any
murders which they should commit on the inhabitants of these

Irregular
Laws

states:

Sanctioned.

For cutting off our trade with all parts of the world;
For imposing taxes on us without our consent;

For depriving us in many cases of the benefits of trial by jury:
For transporting us beyond seas to be tried for pretended offences:

For abolishing the free system of English laws in a neighboring province, establishing therein an arbitrary government, and enlarging its boundaries, so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into these colonies:

For taking away our charters, abolishing our most valuable laws, and altering fundamentally the forms of our governments:

For suspending our cwn legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.

He has abdicated government here, by declaring us out of his protection and waging war against us.

He has plundered our seas, ravaged our coasts, burn our towns and destroyed the lives of our people.

He is, at this time, transporting large armies of foreign mercenaries to complete the works of death, desolation, and tyranny, already begun, with circumstances of cruelty and perfidy, scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the head of a civilized nation.

He has constrained our fellow citizens, taken captive on the high seas, to bear arms against their country, to become the executioners of their friends and brethren or to fall themselves by their hands.

He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavored to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian savages, whose known rule of warfare is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes, and conditions.

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