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The coins of silver standard countries are valued by their pure silver contents, at the average market price of silver for the three months preceding July 1, 1910. Under former system-Gold, 4 florins ($1.929), 8 florins ($3.858), ducat ($2.287), 4 ducats ($9.139). Silver: 1 and 2 florins. The sovereign is the standard coin of India, but the rupee ($0.3244%) is the money of account, current at 15 to the sovereign. Amoy, .641; Canton, .640; Chefoo, .613; Chin Klang, .627; Fuchau, .593; Haikwan (customs), .653; Hankow, .600; Klaocrow, 632; Nanking. 635; Niuchwang, .601; Ningpo, .617; Peking, .625; Shanghai, .586; Swatow, .592; Takau, .645: Tien-Tsin, .622 Dollar; Hongkong, .422; British, .422; Mexican, .425. ††Seventy-five centigrams fine gold. tttValue in Mexico, $0.498.

INTERNATIONAL VALUE OF COINS.

Showing equivalents of one nation's coins with the coins of other nations. Austria.-Crown=100 Hellers 40 Egyptian sequins 1.06 French francs-85 German pfennigs 10 English pence=1.06 Italian liras-187 Portuguese reis-26 1-3 Russian kopeks-1.06 Spanish pesetas-4.28 Turkish picsters=20.3 United States cents. Egypt.-Sequin-100 piasters 25 Austrian hellers-26 French centimes-21 German pfennigs-2% pence=26 Italian lira=46 Portuguese reis 6 Russian kopeks= 26 Spanish centimos-1.06 Turkish plasters 5 United States cents.

France.-Franc=100 centimes--94 Austrian hellers 38 Egyptian plasters=80 German pfennigs=91⁄2 English pence-1 Italian lira 176 Portuguese reis 25 Russian kopeks=1 Spanish peseta-4.18 Turkish piasters-19.3 United States cents.

Germany.-Mark-100 pfennigs-1.18 Austrian crowns 47 Egyptian piasters1.25 French francs-1 English shilling=1.25 Italian lira 220 Portuguese reis-31 Russian kopeks-1.25 Spanish p-setas 5.22 Turkish piasters 23.8 United States cents.

Great Britain.-Pound sterling 20 shillings-12 pence-24 Austrian crowns-9.70 French francs 3.24 German marks 3 shillings 2 pence English-4 Itallan lira= 4.493 Portuguese milreis-6.30 Russian rubles-251⁄2 Spanish pesetas-113% Turkish plasters 4.86% United States dollars.

Italy. Lire 100 centesimi, is of the same value as the French franc. Portugal-Milreis=1,000 refs=5.34 Austrian crowns 2.16 Egyptian sequins= 5.67% French francs-4.54 German marks 4 shillings 5% pence English=5.76%1⁄2 Italian lira 1.40 Russian rubles 5.67% Spanish pesetas 25.9 Turkish plasters $1 08 United States.

Russia. Ruble-100 kopeks 3.81 Austrian crowns-1.54 Egyptian sequins=4 French francs-3.24 German marks-3 shillings 2 pence English 4 Italian liras 713 Portuguese reis-4 Spanish pesetas-18 Turkish plasters-511⁄2 United States

cents.

Spain. Peseta 100 centimos-94 Austrian hellers 38 Egyptian piasters 1 French franc-80 German pfennigs 91⁄2 English pence-1 Italian lira=176 Portuguese reis-25 Russian kopeks-4.18 Turkish plasters-19.3 United States cents.

Turkey. Piaster-40 para 5 Austrian crowns 9 Egyptian plasters -22% French centimes 18 German pfennigs=2% English pence22 Italian centesimi=39 13-20 Portuguese reis-52 Russian kepeks-12 Spanish centimos-4.4 United States cents. Note: Foreign money is subject to fluctuations of the exchange.

JAPANESE CURRENCY.

The coins now chiefly used in Japan | are also paper bills of 1 yen and upward. are copper, nickel, silver and gold, but in One yen is $0.4935 and 1 sen equals the country districts it is still possible to cent. An American dollar equals 2.006 find brass coins of less than mill value. yen and an American cent equals 0.02 The copper pieces are 1⁄2 sen, 1 sen and yen. In 1897 the Japanese adopted the 2 sen. The 5-sen piece is the only nickel gold standard, so that change fluctuations coin. The silver pieces are 5 sen, 10 sen, with the Occident are slight, and the Jap20 sen, 50 sen and 1 yen, and the gold anese currency has fixed value at the coins are 5 yen, 10 yen and 20 yen. There rate of about 50 cents for the yen.

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Capital in dollars, marks, francs, crowns, etc.

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SIMPLE INTEREST AT VARIOUS RATES.

3 Pr. Ct. 31⁄2 Pr. Ct. 4 Pr. Ct. 41⁄2 Pr. Ct.

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MONTHLY WAGES COMPUTED ON

$11

1... $0 33 2... 67 3... 1 00 4... 1 33 5... 1 67 6... 200 7... 2 33 8... 2 67 9... 3.00 10.. 3 33 11... 3 67 12. 4.00 13... 4 33 14... 4 67 15... 5 00 20... 667 8 33

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Per year..

0.18

0.04
0.045
0.08
0.09
0.12 0.01 0.135 0.011
0.140 0.011 0.16 0.013 0.18 0.015
[0.175 0.014 0.2010.016 0.225 0.018
0.210 0.017) 0.24 0.02 0.27 0.022
0.21
0.245 0.020 0.28 0.023 0.315 0.026
0.24 0.02 0.280 0.023 0.32 0.026 0.36 0.0301
0.27 0.02 0.315 0.026 0.36 0.03 0.405 0.033
0.30 0.02 0.350 0.03 0.40 0.033 0.45 0.037
0.60 0.05 0.70 0.058 0.80 0.066 0.90 10.075
0.90 0.07 1.05 0.087 1.20 0.10 1.35 0.11
1.20 0.10 1.40 0.12 1.60 0.13 1.80 0.15
1.50 0.12 1.75 0.14
2.25 0.18
0.17
2.70 0.22
3.15 0.26
3.60 0.30
4.05 10.33
4.50 10.37

1.80

0.15 2.10

2.10 0.17 2.45 0.20
2.40 0.20 2.80 0.23
2.70 0.22 3.15 0.26
3.00 0.25 3.50 0.29

2.00 0.16
2.40 0.20
2.80 0.23
3.20 0.26
3.60 0.30
4.00 0.33

$0 37
73

1 10
1 47
1 83
2.20
2 57
2.93
3.30
3 67
4.03
4.40

0.03 0.06

0.09

1 26

1 68

Days. $10
$11 $12
131 $1
1...$0 32 $0 35 | $0 39 | 80 42
2.. 65 71 77 84
3...
97 106 1 16
4... 1 29
1 42 155
5... 1 61 177
6... 1 94 2 13
7... 2 26 2.48
S... 2 58
2 84
9... 2 90 3 19
10... 3 23
11... 3 55
12... 3 87
13... 4 19
14... 4 52
15... 4 84

3 55
3.90

4 26

4 61
4.97
532
710

20... 6 45

25... 806 887

30... 9 68

10 64

0.12
0.15

$12

$0 40
80

1 20

1 60
2.00

2.40
2.80

0.035
0.070

0.105

3 20

3 60
4.00

4 40
4.80
5 20
5.60
6. 00

For months with 31 days.

$16 $0.52

1 03

2 10

2 52
2.94

3 35
377

4 19

4 61

5 03

5 45

5 87

6 29

8 39

1 94

2 32 2 71

3 10

3 48

3 87

4 26

4 64

5 03

5 42

5 81

7741
9 68 10 48 11 29
11 61 | 12 58 13 53

$13 $0 43 87 1 30

1 73

A DAY BASIS FOR FRACTIONS OF THE MONTH.

$0 45
90

1 35

1 81

2 26

2 71

3 16

3 61

4 06
4 52
4.97
5 42

5 87

6 32

6 77

9 03

$15 $0 48 97

$14 $0 47 93

1 40

1 87

2 33

2 80 327 373

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For months with 30 days.

$16 $17 $0 53 | $0 57 1 07 1 13 170 2 27

1 60 2 13

2 83

4.00
4.50
5.00

550

2 17

2 60

3 03

3 73

4 27

3 47
3.90
4 33

4 20

4 67

4 80
533
5 87

4 77
5 20

2.67
3.20

$17 $0.55

1 10

1 65

2 19

2.74

3.29
3.84

4 39
4.94
548

6 03
658

7 13

7 68

8 23 10 97 13 71 16 45

3.40

3.97

4 53
5 10
567
6 23
6.80
7 37

...

0.05
0.10

0.06
0.12 0.010
0.15 0.012 0.18 0.015
0.20 0.017 0.24 0.020
0.25 0.020 0.30 0.025
0.30 0.025 0.36 0.030
0.35 0.029 0.42 0.035
0.4010.0331 0.4810.040
0.45 0.037 0.54 0.045
0.50 0.041 0.60 0.050
1.00 0.08 1.20 0.10
1.50 0.12 1.80 0.15
2.00 0.16 2.40 0.20
2.50 0.20 3.00 0.25
3.00 0.25 3.60 0.30
3.50 0.29 4.2010.35
4.00 0.33 4.80 0.40
4.50 0.37 5.40 0.45
5.00 0.41 6.00 0.50

$18 $0.58

1 16
174
2 32
2.90

3 48
4.06
4 65

5 23

5 81

6 39
6.97

7 55
8 13

8 71
11 61
14 52
17 42

5 Pr. Ct. 6 Pr. Ct.

$18 | $0 60

1 20

1 80 2.40

3.00

3.60

4.20

4.80
5 40
6 00
6 60
7 20
7.80

[blocks in formation]

25.

4.77
513
550
7 33

9 17

8 00 10 00

$11

$12

Days $10
1...$0 36 $0 39 | $0 43
2... 71 79 86
3.. 107 1 18
1 29

600
650

5 13
560

6.40

5 63

6 07

6.93
6 07
7. 00 747
650
750 8.00
8 67 9 33 10 00 10 67
10 83 11 67 12 50 13 33

6 53
700

For February, with 28
$131 $14 $15 $16
$0.46 $0 50 $0.54
93 1 00 1 07
1 39 1 50 1 61

$0 57

1 14
171

7 93
8.50

11 33
14 17

Days.

$17 |

$0 61

1 21 1 82

8.40

9.00

12.00
15.00

$18

$0 64
1.29

1.93

12 67
15 83

$19
$0 68 |
136

2.04

8 67

10 00 10 83 11 67 12.50 13 33 16 67 16 67 21 83

9 33 10 00

$20 | $25 $0 71 | $0 89 1 42 1 79 214 2.67

[blocks in formation]

2

21/

3.

Rate.

Per Ct.

years.

13 years.

14

years. 15 years.

32 4.

416

THE

$11

157

196

2 36

275

3 14

3 54

3 93

4 32

4 71

511

550

5 89

7 86

9 82

SAVINGS BANK

One dollar, from one year to fifteen years, annually, at different rates.

[blocks in formation]

3
Per Ct.

$1 01
103

1 04

1 06

1 07

1 09

1 10

1 12

1 14

1 16

117

1 19

1 21

1 23

1 24

1 26

128

1 20

1 32

1 34

1 38

142

147

151

156

371

4 18

4 64

511

557

6 04

6 50

6 96

9 29 11 61

4 Per Ct.

$1.02

104

106

108

1 10

1 12

1 14

1 17

1 19

1 21

1 24

1 26

1 29

1 31

1 34

137

1 39

1 42

145

1 48

1 54

1 60

1 67

3 00

3 50

550

6 00

6 50

7 00

7 50

10 00

12 50

1 73

1 80

4. 00

4 50

5 00

172

1.80

1.90

1 99

2. 09

TIME AT WHICH MONEY

Simple interest.

50 yrs.

40 yrs.

35 yrs, 1 day
28 yrs. 26 days
33 yrs. 4 mos. 23 yrs. 164 days
28 yrs. 208 days. 20 yrs. 54 days
25 years.
17 yrs. 246 days
22 yrs. 81 days..15 yrs. 273 days

1 18

1 21

1 24

1 28

1 31

536

5.89

Per Ct.

$1.02

1 05

1 07

1 10

1 13

1 15

1 34

1 37

1 41

1 44

148

152

1 55

6 43

6 96

1 59

1 63

Compound
interest.

750

804

3 43

4. 00

4 57

10 71

13 39

COMPOUND INTEREST TABLE.

514

571

6 29

6 86

7 43

8.00

8 57

11 43

14 29

[blocks in formation]

9 11

12 14

15 18

7 Per Ct.

$1 03

1 07 110

1 14

118

1 22

2 15

2 28

2 42

DOUBLES

Rate.
Per Ct.

$18

237

3 21

3 86

4 50

5 14

127

1 31

1 36

1 41

145

1 51

156

1 61
167
173

1 79
185

1 92

1 98

2 13

2 28

2 44

2 62

2.80

5.79

6 43

7 07

771

836

9.00

9 64

12 86

15 97

with compound interest added semi

8

Per Ct.
$1.04

1 08

1 12

1 16

1 21

1 26

1 31

1 36

142

1 48

1 53

1 60

1 66

173

180

1 87

194

2 02

11 yrs. 40 days.
10 yrs.

$19

271

3 39

4 07 475

543

10 18

13 57
16 96

6 11

6 79

7 46

814

8 82

9 50

210

2 19 2.36

2 56

2 77
2.99
3 24
AT INTEREST.
Simple interest.

20 yrs.

16 yrs. 8 mos.
14 yrs. 104 days.
12 yrs.

1 14

1 19

124

1 30

1 36

9 Per Ct. $1 04

1 09

142

1 48

10 00

10 71

155

1 62

1 69

12 50

13 39

14 29

17 86

17 8622 32

177

1 85

193

2.02

211

15 yrs. 75 days 11 yrs. 327 days 10 yrs. 89 days 9 yrs. 2 days 8 yrs. 16 days 7 yrs. 100 days ANNUALLY,

AT

SUM OF MONEY THAT MUST BE INVESTED,
COMPOUND INTEREST, TO AMOUNT TO $1,000 IN A DEFINITE
NUMBER OF YEARS.

2 20
2.30

2 41

2 63

$20

286

3 57

4 29

2 87

3 14

3 42
374

500

571

6 43

714

7 86

8 57

9 29

$25

3 57

4 46

5 36

6 25

7 14

8 04 8.93

982

10 71

11 61

10

Per Ct.

$1.05

110

115

1 21

127 1 34 140

147 155

162

171

179

188

1 97

207

2 18

229 2.40 2 52 2 65

2.92

322

355 3 62 4.32

Compound interest.

30 years.. 35 years..

Length of Time

Invested.

10 years..

15 years..

20 years..

25 years.

At 4 Per Ct. $80 09 48 02

32 29

23 09

17 14

13 06

$77 88

46 04 30.50

21 47

15 69

11 74

At 4/2

Per Ct.

$75 72

44 14

28 80

19 96 14.34 10 55

At 5

Per Ct.

$71 57

40 53

25 65

17 20

11 93
8 47

At 6

Per Ct.

$67 64

37 19

22 80

14 78

9 89
976

At 7

Per Ct.

At 8
Per Ct.

$63 92

34 10

20 23

12 67

8 17 5 37

Amounts to

$1,000 00 1,000 00 1,000 00 1,000 00 1.000 00 1,000 00

Explanation. How much must be invested every year, at 4% per cent compound interest, so that the proceeds will amount to $1,000 in twenty-five years? Look under the heading "42 per cent," at the right of twenty-five years, and you find $21 47, the answer, etc., etc.

LONGEVITY CALCULATIONS. According to Buffon, the life of man "can" last six times as long as it takes him to become fully developed; according to Bacon and Hufland, eight times as long.

Now, since man is not considered in the anatomical sense completely mature before the twenty-fifth year of age his life, according to the last named two authorities, “could" last two hundred years. But, as a matter of fact, there is no record whatever of such long lives. Among the extraordinary cases of longevity on record and well attested is that of the Englishman Thomas Parr, *ho lived happily in Shropshire to the age of 152. The celebrated Harvey, who dissected him after death, found his body in excellent condition, and stated that had it not been for his intemperance he might have lived much longer. A census taken under Emperor Vespasian showed in the relatively small territory of Italy alone eighty persons over one hundred years old, and among these two who had reached the age of 140. The census of the United States for 1890 shows 3,981 centenarians and that for 1900 3,504 (males, 1,271; females, 2,333). These figures have only a dubious value, not merely because the vanity of old people in general causes them to claim their age much higher than it really is, but for the fact that the majority of these centenarians are ignorant persons (2,553 negroes, 111 Indians and 3 Mongolians), whose statements as to their age cannot be relied upon.

It has been calculated that of 1,000,000 men and women who have passed the age of 30 about one-half live to the age of 63, one-fourth to the age of 76, every tenth to the age of 83 and every hundredth to the age of 97 years. Or 1,000,000 only 100 attain the age of 100, 2 the age of 104, and to find a person only one year older 2,000,000 births have to occur; but only among 10,000,000 human beings one grows 106 years old.

The following tables show the expectation of life from various ages and the percentage living to the end of certain periods:

American Experience Expectation of Life.
According to the American Experience Table of Mortality.
No. of years No. dying

No. of years

No. dying expectation of each 1,000

expectation of each 1,000 Age. of life. annually.

Age.
of life.

annually. 20 42.20 7.81

58
15.39

22.94 21 41.53 7.85

59
14.74

24.72 22 40.85 7.90

60
14.09

26.69 23 40.17 7.95

81
13.47

28.88 24 39.49 8.01

62
12.86

31.29

[blocks in formation]

35 38 37 38 39

31.78
31.07
30.35
29.62
28.90

8.95 9.09 9.24 9.41 9.59

75

7.11 6.68 6.27 5.88 5.49

80.18 87.03 94.37 102.31 111.06

76
77

40 41 42 43

28.18
27.45
26.72
25.99
25.27

9.79
10.01
10.25
10.52
10.82

78 79 80 81 82

5.11 4.74 4.39 4.05 3.71

120.83 131.73 144.47 158.60 174.30

45 46 47 48 49

24.54
.23.80

23.08
22.36
21.63

11.17
11.56
12.00
12.52
13.10

83 84 85 86 87

3.39 3.08 2.77 2.47 2.18

191.56 211.36 235.55 265.68 303.02 346.69 395.86 454.84 532.46 634.25

50 51 52 53 54

20.91
20.20
19.49
18.79
18.09

13.78
14.54
15.39
16.34
17.40

88
89
90
91
92

1.91
1.66
1.42
1.19
.98

55 68 57

17.40 16.72 16.05

18.58 19.88 21.33

93 94 95

.80 .64 .50

734.17

857.14 1,000.00

Per Cent Living at End of Period, Per cent that live to the end of a term of years, according to the American Experience Table of Mortality. Age. End of End of End of End of End of End of 10 years. 15 years. 20 years. 25 years. 30 years.

35 years. 25 91.90 87.73 83.33 78.40 72.52

65.05 26 91.82 87.57 83.05 77.95 71.75

63.80 27 91.73 87.41 82.76 77.45 70.90

62.49 28 91.63 87.23 82.45 76.89 69.96

61.04 29 91.53 87.03 82.09 76.26 68.92

59.46

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RELATION BETWEEN DEATH AND BIRTH. An examination of the proportion between the death rate and birth rate in the various countries goes to show that there exists a relation between death and birth. Indeed, a comparison of the respective statistical tables reveals the fact that all fluctuations in the rates of births and deaths proceed in parallel lines, that is, that every increase in the death rate is infailibly accompanied by an increase of births, and, vice versa, every decrease in tho death rate is followed by a decrease of births, so that, despite a few exceptional fluctuations, the excess of births remains approximately the same, at least with regard to European countries, where this parallel course of death and birth lines has been established in the various nations by statistical figures. They prove, for instance, that in the countries with a small death rate, e. 8., where it does not exceed 18 in 1,000 inhabitants, the birth rate, too, is smaller ihan with other nations. In England the proportion of death to birth is 16 to 28; in Scotland, 17 to 29; in Denmark and Norway, 15 to 29; in Sweden, 15 to 28; in Holland, 16 to 32; in Belgium, 17 to 28. and in Switzerland, 18 to 28. This shows a mean excess of births of 12 in 1.000.

It is Interesting to observe how this average is also maintained by those countries whose death rate is higher, and which consequently also exhibit higher birth rates in order to keep up the normal excess. Thus Germany shows 20 deaths to 35 births; Austria, 24 to 36; Hungary, 26 to 37; Russia (1901), 32 to 42; Rumania, 25 to 39; Italy, 22 to 33; Spain, 26 to 35, and Portugal, 20 to 32. The historical comparison, too, shows the same parallelism in the rise and fall of the death and birth rates. In the years 1841-'50, for instance, England records 32.6 births against 22.4 deaths in 1,000 inhabitants; proportionately the number falls to 28.1 and 15.9 in the years 1901-'05. Germany in 1841-'50 counted in the average 25.8 deaths in 1,000 inhabitants against 36.1 births; in 1901-'05 the figures are 19.9 against 34.7. And similar are the proportions in Italy, Austria and Spain. With the exception of France Ireland is the only country that remains below the average excess of births of 12 in 1,000; against a death rate of 18 in 1,000

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