If a number of distances in millimetres, metres and kilometres are to be added reduction is unnecessary. They are added as dollars, dimes and cents are now added. For example, "1,050.25 metres" is not read "1 kilometre, 5 dekametres, 2 decimetres and 5 centimetres," but "one thousand and fifty metres, twenty-five centimetres."' just as "$1,050 25" is read "one thousand and fifty dollars, twenty-five cents.' The table of areas is formed by squaring the length measures, as in our common system. For land measure 10 metres square is called an "are" (meaning "area"). The side of one are is about 33 feet. The hectare is 100 metres square and, Area. as its name indicates, is 100 ares, or about 2% acres. An acre is about 0.4 hectare. A standard United States quarter section contains almost exactly 64 hectares. A square kilometre contains 100 hectares. For smaller measures of surface the square metre is used. The square metre is about 20 per cent larger than the square yard. For still smaller surfaces the square centimetre is used. A square inch contains about 62 square centimetres. The cubic measures are the cubes of the linear units. The cubic metre (sometimes called the stère, meaning "solid") is the unit of volume. A cubic metre of water weighs a metric ton and is equal to 1 kilolitre. The cubic metre Volume. is used in place of the cubic yard and is about 30 per cent larger. This is used for "cuts and fills" in grading land, measuring timber, expressing contents of tanks and reservoirs, flow of rivers, dimensions of stone, tonnage of ships and other places where the cubic yard and foot are used. The thousandth part of the cubic metre (1 cubic decimetre) is called the litre. (See table of capacity units.) For very small volumes the cubic centimetre (cc or cm3) is used. This volume of water weighs a gram, which is the unit of weight or mass. There are about 16 cubic centimetres in a cubic inch. The cubic centimetre is the unit of volume used by chemists, as well as in pharmacy, medicine, surgery and other technical work. One thousand cubic centimetres make 1 litre. *One litre equals 1.05668 liquid quarts or 0.9081 dry quart. The hectolitre (100 litres) serves the same purposes as the United States bushel (2,150.42 cubic inches), and is equal to about 3 bushels, or a barrel. A peck is about 9 litres. The litre is used for measurements commonly given in the gallon, the liquid and dry quarts, a litre being 5 per cent larger than our liquid quart and 10 per cent smaller than the dry quart. A litre of water weighs exactly a kilogram, i. e., 1,000 grams. A thousand litres of water weigh 1 metric ton. One kilogram equals 2.204622 avoirdupois pounds. Measurements commonly expressed in gross tons or short tons are stated in metric tons (1,000 kilograms). The metric ton comes between our long and short tons and serves the purpose of both. The kilogram and "half kilo" serve for everyday trade, the latter being 10 per cent larger than the pound. The kilogram is approximately 2.2 pounds. The gram and its multiples and divisions are used for the same purposes as ounces, pennyweights, drams, scruples and grains. For foreign postage 30 grams is the legal equivalent of the avoirdupois ounce. The metric system was legalized in the United States by an act of Congress approved July 28, 1866, which read as follows: "From and after the passage of this act it shall be lawful Legalized in the throughout the United States of America to employ the weights and measures of the metric system, and no contract or dealing or United States. pleading in any court shall be deemed invalid or liable to objection because the weights or measures expressed or referred to therein are weights or measures of the metric system. "The tables in the schedule hereto annexed shall be recognized in the construction of contracts and in all legal proceedings as establishing in terms of the weights and measures now in use in the United States the equivalents of the weights and measures expressed therein in terms of the metric system; and said tables may be lawfully used for computing, determining and expressing in customary weights and measures the weights and measures of the metric system." COMPARISON OF METRIC AND CUSTOMARY UNITS FROM 1 TO 10-(Cont'd). LENGTH-(Continued). 50.8001 3.1496 76.2002 13.5433 101.6002 4 9 9 5.486411 6.561667 6 7 6.400813 127.00035 152.4003 6 177.80047 203.2004 8 228.6005 9 COMPARISON OF METRIC AND CUSTOMARY UNITS FROM 1 TO 10-(Cont'd). CAPACITY-(Continued). COMPARISON OF PRICES. French and German prices for metric units, British prices for imperial units, and United States prices for United States standard weights and measures. [Based upon the circular of the Secretary of the Treasury dated October 1, 1906, fixing the legal equivalent of the (German) mark at 23.8 cents, of the (French) franc at 19.3 cents, and the British pound sterling at $4.8665.] .731 1.461 2.192 .068 .136 3 .705 .882 1,058 1.234 == 2.922 .204 1984 = 1.411 .203 .405 .608 .810 1.013 1.216 |