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1838 1899


insular government and granting American citizenship to the inhabitants of the island. It has not yet been acted on by the Senate.

The growth of commerce between the United States and Porto Rico since annexation is shown in the table appended, covering the fiscal years from 1898 to 1910:







1904-'05 1905-'06



I Imports 11
to U. S. 1 from S. Year.




$2,414.356 | $1,505,946 | 1905
3,179,827 i 2,685,484 11 1900
3,070,648 4.640,449 || 1907
5,883,892 | 6,861,917 ] 1908
8.378 766 10.882.623 1909




Porto Rico's trade with foreign countries in the fiscal years 1904-'05 to 1909-'10 reached these totals:

Exports. Imports. | Year.
$3,076.4201 $2.562.18911907-'08
4,115,069 2,602,7841908-'09
4,926,167 3,580,8871909-'10

The census of 1899 reported the population by departments as follows:
Department. Number. Department. [Number.

111,986 Arecibo
88.501 Bayamon
203, 191 Mayaguez

162,308 Aguadilla

127,566 Total.

Department. Number.

99,645 953,243

The census of 1910 reported the population of the island to be 1,118,012, a gain of 184,769, or 17.3 per cent. San Juan is shown to be the largest town in the Island, its population being 48,716. Ponce comes next with 35,027. San Juan made a gain in the eleven years of 16,668, or 52 per cent, and Ponce a gain of 7,075, or slightly over 25 per cent.

The industrial census which was taken in connection with the enumeration showed a total of $25,544,380 invested in manufactures, with an aggregate production last year of $36.747,742. Fifty-six per cent, or $20,569.348, of this production was in sugar and molasses. The value of the tobacco and cigarettes manufactured amounted to $6,058,393 and of the coffee to $5,052,599.

The area of Porto Rico is 3,606 square miles.

On November 8, 1910, G. Munoz Rivera, Unionist, was elected as Resident Commissioner at Washington to succeed Tullo Larrinaga, Unionist, on March 4.

Exports | Imports to U. S. from U. S. $15,633,145 $13,974,070 1,142,401 | 19,224,851 22,070,133 25.686.285 22.677,876 23,618,545 27,097,654



Governor General..
Vice-Governor General.

Secretary of Finance and Justice.
Secretary Interior.

Secretary Public Instruction.
Secretary Commerce and Police..


The Philippine Commission.

Commissioners W. Cameron Forbes, president; Dean C. Worcester, Newton W. Gilbert, Frank A. Branagan, José R. Luzuriaga, Gregorio Araneta, Rafael Palma and Juan Sumulong. Capital


Exports. | Imports.
$4,753,209 $3,148,289
3,996,913 2,925,781
5,864,617 3,537,201

The Executive.


Newton W. Gilbert, Indiana.
Gregorio Araneta.... The Philippines 15,500
Dean C. Worcester.. Michigan.
Newton W. Gilbert.. Indiana.


Charles B. Elliott, Minnesota 15,500 The Supreme Court,

Chief Justice... Cayetano Arellano, Philippines $10,500 Associate Justices-Florentino Torres, Philippines; Victorino Mapa, Philippines; E. Finley Johnson, Michigan; Adam C. Carson, Virginia; Sherman Morehead, New York; Charles B. Elliott, Minnesota; each... man Morehead, New York; Grant T. Trent, Tennessee; each..



Whence appointed.

Commissioners Resident to the United States,
$7.500 Benito Lagarda..

Salary. $20.000 15.500

10,500 10,500

Manuel Quezon....


The Philippine Islands came into the possession of the United States as a result of the war with Spain and under the terms of the Treaty of Paris of December 10, 1898. On February 4. 1899, two days before the ratification of the treaty by the United States Senate, the native forces under Aguinaldo attacked the American garrison at Manila, and an insurrection against American authority was started, which lasted for nearly two years. The islands were under military rule until July 1, 1901, when the provisional military government was superseded by a civil government. The chief officers of the latter are appointed by the President of the United States. Provincial and municipal officers are elected by the people On December 2. 1901, the Supreme Court of the United States decided that free trade must prevail between the Philippines and the United States until Congress should enact a special tariff law for the islands. Ac

cordingly a Fhilippine tariff bill was introduced into Congress and became a law on March 8, 1902. It was followed on July 1, 1902, by a Civil Government act for the Philippines. (For summaries of these laws see The Tribune Almanac for 1903.)

A general amnesty for all except criminals under the common law and rebels remaining in arms was proclaimed on July 4, 1902. The vexed question of the friars' lands was amicably settled in December, 1903. After protracted negotiations, in the course of which Governor Taft visited Rome, an agreement was made with the Church authorities by which the insular government acquired the friars' holdings at a cost of $7,239,784. The purchase included 391,000 acres. These lands will be eventually sold by the insular government.

By the act of March 2, 1903, Congress provided a system of coinage for the Philip pines. The unit of value is the gold peso, of twelve and nine-tenths grains of gold, nine-tenths fine. The Philippine Commission is authorized to coin $75,000,000 in silver pesos, each peso of 416 grains, 900 parts fine metal and 100 parts copper alloy. These silver coins are redeemable at the rate of two for one in gold pesos, and are legal tender in the Philippine Islands for all debts, public or private, unless otherwise specifically provided by contract. Some new subsidiary coins are also provided for. (For complete details of the Coinage act, see The Tribune Almanac for 1904, under title "87th Congress, Public Acts and Resolutions of Second Session.")


At the last session of the 58th Congress a new tariff for the Philippines was enacted, and a law was passed providing for railroad construction and other public improvements and amending the Civil Government act of March 8, 1902. (For details of these measures see under "58th Congress, Public Acts and Resolutions of the Third Session," pages 80-83 of this volume.) The new Philippine tariff-on goods imported into the Philippineswent into effect on July 2, 1905. It was further amended at the first session of the 59th Congress. Congress at the same session passed a law postponing until July 1, 1909, the application to Philippine commerce of the navigation laws of the United States. At the second session of the 59th Congress a law was passed establishing a Philippine Agricultural Bank. At the extraordinary session of the Sixty-first Congress, March to August, 1909, the Philippine tariff was revised, and in the Payne tariff law, approved August 5, 1909, most of the barriers against the entry of Philippine products into the United States were removed. For the provisions of the Payne law affecting the Philippines see pages 124 and 125 of The Tribune Almanac for 1910.



In the fiscal year 1909-10 the free imports into the United States of cigars, tobacco and sugar did not equal the maximum importations allowed under the Payne tariff law. The Payne law authorizes the free admission of 150,000,000 cigars, 300,000 gross tons of sugar and 1,300,000 pounds of tobacco. Only 86,513,691 cigars, or a little more than one-half of the total amount allowed, were exported to this country. The actual amount of sugar exported from the islands was 104,951 gross tons, or about one-third of the authorized amount. Only 15,994 pounds of tobacco were sent to this country.

Elections for the first Philippine Assembly were held on July 30, 1907. Eighty-one seats were allotted to the various provinces, the maximum membership of the body being 100. A small vote was cast, about 98,000 The Philippine or only 1.4 per cent of the population. Biennial elections and Assembly. annual sessions were provided for by the civil government act of July 1, 1902, as amended by the act of February 27, 1909, but Congress subsequently by the act of June 14, 1910, provided that the members of the Philippine Assembly elected in November, 1909, should hold office until March 4, 1912, instead of until December 31, 1911, and that their successors, chosen at the election of 1911, should hold office for four years from March 4, 1912, that arrangement bringing the Philippine political calendar more into harmony with that of the United States. The Assembly at its next session was authorized to fix the date for the commencement of the annual sessions.

The Assembly originally elected two resident commissioners to the United States for two-year terms, beginning January 1. The law of June 14, 1910, lengthened the terms of the resident commissioners to four years and made the elections quadrennial from and after the next election.

The Assembly was opened on October 16, 1907, Secretary Taft attending the ceremony and making an address. To qualify as voters applicants must be males, twenty-three years of age and have a legal residence in the municipality in which they desire to exercise the right of suffrage, and must not be citizens or subjects of any foreign power, and furthermore must be comprised within one of the three following classes: (a) Those who, prior to Aug. 13,1898, held certain offices under the Spanish government; (b) Those who own real property to the value of 500 pesos, or who annually pay 30 pesos or more of the established taxes; (c) Those who speak, read and write English or Spanish.

The following tables summarize the foreign trade of the islands in recent years:
Imports and Exports of Merchandise, 1899 to 1910.

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4,035,243 28,106,599| 82,141,842| 7.691,748 16,235,936 23,927,679 3,944,098 29,027,784 82,971,882 13,863,059 19,258,721 83,121,780 4,633.216 28,587,545 83,220,761 11,102,775 19,147,852 30,250,627 5,761,498 25,114,852 80,876,350 15,668,026 16,684,589 32,352,615 5,458,867 21,465,373 26.924,240 12,337,927 20,337.723 32.675,650 8,661,414 17,541,775 26,203.189 11,510,438) 19,085,271 30,595,709 16,707.429 28,169,151 10,164,223 19,973.381 30,137,604 16,602,956 27,792,397 9,433,986 21,559,577 30,993,563 17,317,897


1Figures of 1899 cover the period from August 20, 1898, to June 30, 1899, and subsequent figures cover fiscal year.

Population of the Philippines by Provinces, Census of 1903.

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1Sub-province of Tayabas. Exclusive of sub-province of Marinduque.
The area of the Philippines is 115,026 square miles.

The Philippine constabulary, an insular military force maintained by the Philippine government, consists of 322 officers and 4,551 enlisted men. The Philippine scouts, maintained by the United States government, consist of 166 officers and 5,386 enlisted men.

46.515 Zamboanga

44,322 20,692 23,630





...Captain Edward J. Dorn (retired), U. S. N.

The island of Guam, or Guahan, in the Marlanas Archipelago, was ceded to the United States by Spain under the Treaty of Paris of December 10, 1898. It is used by the United States as a naval station, and may also afford a landing place for a transpacific cable. Guam has a population of 9,000 and an area of 150 square miles.




Pago Pago .Captain John F. Parker (retired), U. S. N. Tutulla, Manua and some insignificant islets of the Samoan group came into the possession of the United States in January, 1900, as a result of the treaty of November 14, 1890, between Great Britain and Germany, in the terms of which the United States acquiesced. Under that treaty Great Britain withdrew altogether from the islands, Germany took the largest two, Upolu and Savall, and the United States took possession of Tutuila and Manua, the former containing at Pago Pago the finest harbor in that part of the world and the only good one in the Samoan group. A United States naval officer was appointed Governor of Tutulla and Manua in February, 1900, and possession was taken of them on April 17, 1900. The area of Tutulla and Manua is about 85,000 acres. The total population of the two islands is less than 6,000.


Isthmian Canal Commissioners.-Colonel George W. Goethals, U. S. A., chairman; Lieut. Col. D. DuB. Gaillard, U. S. A.; Lieut. Col. William L. Sibert, U. S. A.; Lieut. Harry H. Rousseau, U. S. N.; Maurice H. Thatcher, Col. W. C. Gorgas, U. S. A.; Lieut. Col. Harry F. Hodges, U. S. A.

Secretary to the Commission.--Joseph B. Bishop. New York, $10,000.
Chief Engineer.—Colonel George W. Goethals, U. S. A.

Supreme Court of the Canal Zone.-Facundo Mutis Duran. Panama, Chief Justice; L. C. Collins. Ill., and Hezekiah H. Gudger. N. C., Associate Justices.

Note. The compensation allowed to Colonel Goethals, the president of the commission, is $15,000, including his salary as an officer of the army; to Lieut. Cols. Gaillard and Sibert, Lieut. Rousseau, Col. Gorgas and Lieut. Col. Hodges, $14,000 apiece, including their salaries as officers; to the other commissioners, $14.000.

The United States Senate ratified on March 17, 1903, an Isthmian Canal treaty with Colombia, drawn to vest in the United States perpetual control for canal purposes of a strip of land 30 miles in width stretching across the Acquisition. Isthmus of Panama. On August 12, 1903, the Colombian Senate rejected the treaty, and on September 12 the time fixed for exchanging ratifications expired. On November 3 the Department of Panama revolted and an Independent republic was proclaimed. A canal treaty between this new republic and the United States was signed on November 18, 1903, ratified by Panama on December 2, and by the United States Senate on February 23, 1904. The full text of this treaty is given under "Treaties Ratified," second session 58th Congress, Tribune Almanac for 1905.


Congress passed an act, approved April 28, 1904, providing for the temporary government of the Canal Zone. Under the terms of this act the Isthmian Canal Commission was created and a ten porary government was set up, with Major General George B. Davis 28 Governor. The Canal Commission has been three times reorganized, and after attempting to have the work done by contract under the direction of civilian engineers the government turned it over to the engineer corps of the army. An Advisory Board of Engineers met in Washington on September 1, 1905, and later made a visit to the isthmus. reported in favor of a sea level canal. But the sea level plan was abandoned as impracticable and the 59th Congress passed an act directing the construction of a lock canal.



The Secretary of the Treasury on July 2, 1906, invited bids for $30,000,000 of 2 per cent ten year-thirty year Fanama bonds, and the issue was subscribed for to the amount of $445,000,000. The average price bid for the $30,000,000 awarded was 103.95. A sale of $50,000,000 of bonds was advertised In November, 1907, but the issue was subsequently limited to $25,000,000. There were outstanding on December 1, 1908, canal bonds to the amount of $54,631,980. On December 7, 1908, $30,000,000 more of bonds were sold at an avereage of $102.4368. The Payne tariff law, approved August 5, 1909, Section 39, authorized the Secretary of the Treasury to issue bonds to meet canal expenses amounting to $295,569,000, in addition to the $84,631,100 already issued, the total of $380,000,000 to cover the cost of the canal. The additional bonds are to be issued at a rate nof exceeding 3 per cent. Advances from the Treasury to the canal fund in excess of $84,631,000 are to be repaid from the new issue. For text of Section 39 see page 132 of The Tribune Almanac for 1910.

According to the statement of the United States Treasury on December 14, 1910, the Panama Canal account stood:

Total amount experded on purchase and construction of canal to this date.$211,713,120 67 Amount expended to this date from proceeds of sales of bonds, Including

87,309,594 83


Balance expended out of general fund of Treasury reimbursable from proceeds of bonds not yet soid...

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Total bonds authorized by existing laws for Panama Canal..
Total bonds issued to this date.....


Rogers, of the

134,403,525 84

375,200,980 00 84,631,980 00

Balance of bonds authorized, but not yet issued...

290,569,000 00


A revised estimate of cost was prepared and submitted at a hearing before the Committee on Appropriations of the House of Representatives in February, 1909. This estmiate shows that nearly 50 per cent more work is necessary in order to complete the canal than was contemplated by the original estimate, and that the unit prices, due to labor conditions, cost of materials and gratuit es given the employes, have been increased about 20 per cent. The estimate, as prepared, shows that the total cost of engineering and construction alone sums up to $297,766,000, to which, if the purchase price and the estimated cost of sanitation and civil government is added, there results the sum of $375,201,000 as the total cost of the canal.

On November 9, 1909, the Secretary of War appointed a board of officers to prepare plans for fortifying the canal. On it were Brigadier Generals Arthur Murray, chief of artillery; William Crozier, chief of ordnance; W. L Marshall, ch.ef of engineers; Bliss and Wotherspoon, of the General Staff of the army; Major Hann, of the coast artillery; Commander General Naval Board, and Captain Staunton, of the Army and Navy

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War College.
distributed as follows:
Purchase of sites..

Guns and carriages.

Plans prepared by the board will call for an expenditure of $14,104,203,



New York.



St. Louis..

Power plants.. Searchlights

The board estimates that the canal will be completed and in use by January 1, 1915, and, as it will require several years to complete the fortifications and place the guns, it is urged that the construction of the defences be begun during 1910, or as early as possible in 1911. The board recommends that the full sum of $14,104,203 be appropriated by Congress, and that $4,000,000 be made immediately available, so that work can commence at once. It is estimated by the board that at least three and one-half years will be necessary to complete the fortifications.

The population of the Canal Zone is between 50,000 and 60,000.



The Philadelphia Athletics captured the pennant in the American League, taking an early ead and increasing it handily as the season advanced. For a time the race was close between Philadelphia, Boston, New York and Detroit, but toward the end the Athletics distanced those teams. and the real fight was for second place. The record follows:

$1,125.000 Fire control.

6,027,000 Submarine mine defences.
2,324,000 Barracks and quarters.

Total ...

Players and clubs.

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47 107


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Per cent.

Jackson, Cleveland. 20 15 291.387 Cobb, Detroit 1401061961.385 Lajoie, Cleveland 139 92 2271.384 Speaker, Boston 141 9211831.340 Strunk, Philadelphia 161 91 161.333 Hohnhorst, Cleveland. 17 8 201.323 Collins, Philadelphia 153 81 1881.322 Koestner, Cleveland 27 4 15.313 Knight, New York 117 58 1291.312 Oldring, Philadelphia 134 79 1881.308 Easterly, Cleveland 110 341111.306 McInness, Philadelphia.. 38 10 22.301 Murphy, Philadelphia 151 70 168.300 Cunningham, Washingt'n 22 3 22.29. Karger, Boston 27 11 201.294 Delahanty, Detroit 106 671111.292 Chase, New York 130 67152.290 Crawford. Detroit 154 83 170.29 Cree, New York 134 58134.287 Lewis, Boston 131 64 153.282 Baker, Philadelphia 146 83 159.283 Gardner, Boston 113 55 117.293 Milan, Washington 142 89 148.27! Thomas, Philadelphia 60 14 50.277 Schaefer, Washington 74 27 63.273 Wagner, Boston 142 61 134.273 Stahl, Boston 144 68 144.271 Bender, Philadelphia 36 61 25.269 Hooper, Boston 155 81 156.287

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Stovall, Cleveland.

Wood, Boston
Lake, St. Louis..
Barry, Philadelphia
Gessler, Washington.
Schmidt, Detroit
Wallace, St. Louis.
Stone, St. Louis
Mullen, Detroit
T. Jones, Detroit.
Lang, Chicago

Lord. Cleve, and Phila.
Conroy, Washington
Daniels, New York

370,755 658,360 1,834,000

. $14,104,203




Wolter, New York


84 128.267

Lord, Boston and Chic.. 121
Works, Detroit


51 121.267 3 8.267 77 100.265 110 40 921.265 24 5 18.265 124 43 114.264 111 59 991.263 142 90 130.262

142 47 136].261



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9 18.261


7 21.260 64 126.259 581126.259 71 22 51.259 138 47 131.258 [152 60 1441.258

50 15 33.256 135 32 110.255 23 3 13.255 76 124.254



36 891.254

95 68 901.253

McConnell, Bost. & Chic. 44 19 39.252


53 123.251

53 114.250

Moriarty, Detroit
Elberfeld, Washington..
Kinsella, St. Louis
Carrigan, Boston
Davis, Philadelphia
Dougherty, Chicago
Gray, Washington
Gardiner, New York
Meloan, Chicago
Heitmuller, Philadelphia
O'Leary, Detroit
Stephens, St. Louis
Hemphill, New York
Hoffman, St. Louis
Griggs, St. Louis
Graney, Cleveland
McIntyre, Detroit
Knapp, Cleveland
Unglaub, Washington
Lapp, Philadelphia
Lathers, Detroit
Quinn, New York..
riss, St. Louis
Browne, Wash, and Chic.
McBride, Washington
Turner, Cleveland
Schweitzer, St. Louis.

10 2 31.250 114 36, 851.249 139 61 122.248 127 45 110.248 35 7 21.247 861 361 66).244 65 23 541.243 31 11 27 .243 65 23 51.242 72.241 841.239 901.237

99 24

102 45
106) 20
123 28 98.236
118 621071.236
83 40 72.236
181 3 14.236
124 29 101.234
71 18 45.234
4 19.232





37 18 31.231

154 54 118.230 71 132.230 [113] 37 871.230


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