Page images
PDF
EPUB
[blocks in formation]
[graphic]

Ensigns

1,700 00

141,67

1,870 00

155 83

2,040 00

170 00

2,210 00

184 17

2,880 00

198 33

Midshipmen, Warrant Officers, Pay Clerks and Mates.

THE FOREIGN

SERVICE.

ITS SCOPE AND CHARACTER.

The Foreign Service of the United States includes the Diplomatic Corps and the Consular Service. In both these branches great progress has been made in recent years in efficiency, permanency of tenure and the elimination of mere political influence in appointments. In the Diplomatic Corps the permanent grades are as follows: Ambassadors plenipotentiary, envoys extraordinary and ministers plenipotentiary, ministers resident, diplomatic agents, secretaries of embassy, secretaries of legation, second secretaries of embassy, second secretaries of legation and third secretaries of embassy. Officers of the army and navy serve as military and naval attachés to some embassies and legations.

The grade of ambassador was established by Congress under the second Cleveland administration. The law provided that when any foreign country should send a diplomatic representative of the grade of ambassador to the United States, the President might app int an ambassador of the United States to that country. Congress, however, recently recalled the discretionary authority given to the President and provided that embassies should be created thereafter only by legislation. There are now ten embassies-to Austria-Hungary, Brazil, France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Russia and Turkey.

The Grade of
Ambassador.

Until recently there were no regulations governing appointments to the Diplomatic Corps. On November 10, 1905, President Roosevelt issued the following executive order:

Appointments to the
Diplomatic Corps.

It is hereby ordered that vacancies in the office of secretary of embassy or legation shall hereafter be filled(a) By transfer or promotion from some branch of the

Foreign Service, or

(b) By the appointment of a person who having furnished satisfactory evidence of character, responsibility and capacity, and being thereupon selected by the Prestdent for examination, is found upon such examination to be qualified for the posi

tion.

On November 26, 1909, President Taft issued an executive order enlarging the scope of the merit system and providing for promotions in the lower grades of the service up to minister. The chief provisions of the order were as follows:

Order of November 26, 1909.

The Secretary of State is hereby directed to report from time to time to the President, along with his recommendations, the names of those secretar.es of the higher grades in the diplomatic service who by reason of efficient service have demonstrated special capacity for promotion to be chiefs of mission.

Initial appointments from outside the service to secretaryships in the diplomatic service shall be only to the classes of third secretary of embassy, or in case of higher existent vacancies, of second secretary of legation, or of secretary of legation at such post as has assigned to it but one secretary. Vacancies in secretaryships of higher classes shall be filled by promotion from the lower grades of the service, based upon efficiency and ability as shown in the service.

The Assistant Secretary of State, the solicitor for the Department of State, the chief of the diplomatic bureau and the chief of the bureau of appointments and the chief examiner of the Civil Service Commission or some person whom the commis sion shail designate, or such persons as may be des gnated to serve in their stead, are hereby constituted a board whose duty it shall be to determine the qualifications of persons designated by the President for examination to determine their fitness for possible appointment as secretaries of embassy or legation.

The examination herein provided for shall be held in Washington at such times as the needs of the service require. Candidates will be given reasonable notice to attend, and no person shall be designated to take the examination within thirty days of the time set therefor.

The examinations shall be both oral and in writing and shall include the following subjects: International law, diplomatic usage and a knowledge of at least one modern language other than English-to wit, French, Spanish or Examinations. German; also the natural, industrial and commercial resources and the commerce of the United States, especially with reference to the possibility of increasing and extending the trade of the United States with foreign countries; American history, government and institutions, and the modern history since 1850 of Europe, Latin America and the Far East. The object of the oral examination shall also be to determine the candidate's alertness, general contemporary information and natural fitness for the service, including mental, moral and physical qualifications, character, aucress and general education and good command of English. In this part of the examination the applications previously filed will be given due weight by the board of examiners. In their determination of the final rating the written and oral ratings shall be of equal weight. A physical examination shall also be included as supplemental.

Examination papers shall be rated on a scale of 100, and no person with a general rating of less than 80 shall be certified as eligible.

No person shall be certified as eligible who is under twenty-one or over fifty years of age, or who is not a citizen of the United States, or who is not of good character and habits and physically, mentally and temperamentally qualified for the proper performance of diplomatic work, or who has not been specially designated by the President for appointment to the diplomatic service subject to examination and subject to the occurrence of an appropriate vacancy.

The names of candidates will remain on the eligible list for two years, except in the case of such candidates as shall within that period be appointed or shall withdraw their names. Names which have been on the eligible list for two years will be dropped therefrom and the candidates concerned will not again be eligible for appointment unless upon fresh application, designation anew for examination and the successful passing of such second examination.

In designations for appointment subject to examination and in appointments after examination due regard will be had to the rule that as between candidates of equal merit appointments should be made so as to tend to secure proProportional portional representation of all the states and territories in the Representation. diplomatic service; and neither in the designation for examination or certification or appointment after examination will the political affiliations of the candidates be considered.

Transfers from one branch of the Foreign Service to another shall not occur except upon designation by the President for examination and the successful passing of the examination prescribed for the service to which such transfer Transfers. is made. Unless the exigencies of the service imperatively demand it. such person to be transferred shall not have preference in designation for the taking of the examination or in appointment from the eligible list, but shall follow the course of procedure prescribed for all applicants for appointment to the service which he desires to enter. To persons employed in the Department of State at salaries of $1,800 or more the preceding rule shall not apply, and they may be appointed on the basis of ability and efficiency to any grade of the diplomatic service.

Officers in the Consular Service appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate are divided into the following grades: Consuls general

The Consular
Service.

at large, consuls general, consuls and consular assistants. There are also vice and deputy consuls general and consuls and consular agents. But these last are selected under regulations made by the State Department and act as clerks or representatives of the officers of the higher grades.

The Consular Service was thoroughly reorganized by the act of Congress approved April 5, 1906. amended by the act approved May 11, 1908. These acts divided the consulates general into seven classes and the consuls into nine classes. The old fee system was abolished, every consul general and consul receiving a fixed salary and turning the fees of his office into the Treasury. Agents receive one-half of the fees which they collect up to $1,000.

By an executive order issued by President Roosevelt on June 27, 1906, amended by further orders of December 12, 1906; June 20, 1907, and the act approved May 21, 1908, a system of appointments after examination and promotions for fitness was established. The chief provisions of these orders were as follows:

REGULATIONS

GOVERNING APPOINTMENTS

AND PROMOTIONS.

1. Vacancies in the office of consul general and in the office of consul above Class 8 shall be filled by promotion from the lower grades of the Consular Service, based upon ability and efficiency as shown in the service.

2. Vacancies in the office of consul of Class 8 and of consul of Class 9 shall be filled: (a) By promotion on the basis of ability and efficiency as shown in the service, of consular clerks and of vice-consuls, deputy consuls and consular agents who shall have been appointed to such offices upon examination.

(b) By new appointments of candidates who have passed a satisfactory examination for appointment as consul as hereafter provided.

3. Persons in the service of the Department of State with salaries of $2,000 or upward shall be eligible for promotion, on the basis of ability and efficiency as shown in the service, to any grade of the Consular Service above Class 8 of consuls.

4. The Secretary of State, or such other officer of the Department of State as the President shall designate, the chief of the consular bureau and the chief examiner of the Civil Service Commission, or some person whom said commission shall designate, shall constitute a board of examiners for admission to the Consular Service. 5. It shall be the duty of the board of examiners to formulate rules for and hold examinations of applicants for admission to the Consular Service.

6. The scope and method of the examinations shall be determined by the board of examiners, but among the subjects shall be included at least one modern language other than English; the natural, industrial and commercial resources and the commerce of the United States, especially with reference to the possibilities of increasing and extending the trade of the United States with foreign countries; political economy, elements of international, commercial and maritime law.

7. Examination papers shall be rated on a scale of 100, and no person rated at less than 80 shall be eligible for certification.

8. No one shall be examined who is under twenty-one or over fifty years of age, or who is not a citizen of the United States, or who is not of good character and

habits and physically and mentally qualified for the proper performance of consu work, or who has not been specially designated by the President for appointment the Consular Service subject to examination.

9. Whenever a vacancy shall occur in the eighth or ninth class of consuls whit the President may deem it expedient to fill, the Secretary of State shall inform the board of examiners, who shall certify to him the list of those persons eligbile for ar pointment, accompanying the certificate with a detailed report showing the qualif tions, as revealed by examination, of the persons so certified. If it be desired to fills vacancy in a consulate in a country in which the United States exercises extra-terr torial jurisdiction, the Secretary of State shall so inform the board of examiners who shall include in the list of names certified by it only such persons as have passe the examination provided for in this order, and who also have passed an examinatic in the fundamental principles of the common law, the rules of evidence and the tris of civil and criminal cases. The list of names which the board of examiners shal certify shall be sent to the President for his information.

10. No promotion shall be made except for efficiency, as shown by the work that the officer has accomplished, the ability, promptness and diligence displayed t him in the performance of all his official duties, his conduct and his fitness for the Consular Service.

11. It shall be the duty of the board of examiners to formulate rules for and hold examinations of persons designated for appointment as consular clerk, and of such persons designated for appointment as vice-consul, deputy consul and consular agest as shall desire to become eligible for promotion. The scope and method of such examination shall be determined by the board of examiners, but it shall include the same subjects herein before prescribed for the examination of consuls. Any vice-consul, deputy consul or consular agent now in the service, upon passing such an examination, shall become eligible for promotion as if appointed upon such examination. 12. In designations for appointment subject to examination and in appointments after examination, due regard will be had to the rule that as between candidates of equal merit appointments should be so made as to secure proportional representation of all the states and territories in the Consular Service, and neither in the designation for examination or certification or appointment will the political affiliations of the candidate be considered.

[merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small]
[blocks in formation]

Secretary......

Vienna.

Rio de Janeiro..

[blocks in formation]

Second secretary.... Vienna.....

Second secretary....Rio de Janeiro.. Alexander R. Magruder. Md...

France:

Second secretary... Paris..
Third secretary..... Paris..

Germany:

Secretary..

Second secretary.... Berlin..

Third secretary..

Great Britain:

Joseph C. Grew.
Perry Belden..

George B. Rives....
Nelson O'Shaughnessy..

N. J..

Md.

$3,000 1905 2,000

1907

3,000
2,000 1910

[blocks in formation]
[blocks in formation]

Secretary..

London..

Second secretary.

London.

Third secretary.....

London.

[blocks in formation]
[blocks in formation]

Charles S. Wilson.

Second secretary....

Rome.

3,000 1910 2,000

[blocks in formation]

... St. Petersburg.. George Post Wheeler. Second secretary... St. Petersburg.. J. Van A. McMurray Third secretary..... St. Petersburg..

Second secretary.... Constantinople.. John H. Gregory, jr.
Third secretary..... Constantinople.. William Walker Smith..

Wash.

N. J...

Constantinople.. Hoffman Philip..

N. Y..
La. ..
Ohio..

3,000 1909 2,000] 1908 1,200

3,000 1910 2.0001 1809

1,200 1910

[blocks in formation]
« PreviousContinue »